ABSTRACT: N-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may be associated with increased risk of colon cancer, whereas n-3 PUFAs may have a protective effect. We examined the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid on the colon carcinoma cell lines SW480 derived from a primary tumour, and SW620 derived from a metastasis of the same tumour. DHA had the strongest growth-inhibitory effect on both cell lines. SW620 was relatively more growth-inhibited than SW480, but SW620 also had the highest growth rate in the absence of PUFAs. Flow cytometry revealed an increase in the fraction of cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, particularly for SW620 cells. Growth inhibition was apparently not caused by increased lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione or low activity of glutathione peroxidase. Transmission electron microscopy revealed formation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets after DHA treatment. In SW620 cells an eightfold increase in total cholesteryl esters and a 190-fold increase in DHA-containing cholesteryl esters were observed after DHA treatment. In contrast, SW480 cells accumulated DHA-enriched triglycerides. Arachidonic acid accumulated in a similar manner, whereas the nontoxic oleic acid was mainly incorporated in triglycerides in both cell lines. Interestingly, nuclear sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (nSREBP1), recently associated with cell growth regulation, was downregulated after DHA treatment in both cell lines. Our results demonstrate cell-specific mechanisms for the processing and storage of cytotoxic PUFAs in closely related cell lines, and suggest downregulation of nSREBP1 as a possible contributor to the growth inhibitory effect of DHA.
FEBS Journal 07/2006; 273(12):2749-65. · 3.79 Impact Factor