[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this work was to describe a novel process and present results of formative research to develop a pediatric office intervention that uses available systems of care for addressing parental smoking.
The scientific development of the intervention occurred in 3 stages. In stage 1, we designed an office system for parental tobacco control in the pediatric outpatient setting on the basis of complementary conceptual frameworks of preventive services delivery, conceptualized for the child health care setting through a process of key interviews with leaders in the field of implementing practice change; existing Public Health Service guidelines that had been shown effective in adult practices; and adaptation of an evidence-based adult office system for tobacco control. This was an iterative process that yielded a theoretically framed intervention prototype. In stage 2, we performed focus-group testing in pediatric practices with pediatricians, nurses, clinical assistants, and key office staff. Using qualitative methods, we adapted the intervention prototype on the basis of this feedback to include 5 key implementation steps for the child health care setting. In stage 3, we presented the intervention to breakout groups at 2 national meetings of pediatric practitioners for additional refinements.
The main result was a theoretically grounded intervention that was responsive to the barriers and suggestions raised in the focus groups and at the national meetings. The Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure intervention was designed to be flexible and adaptable to the particular practices' staffing, resources, and physical configuration. Practice staff can choose materials relevant to their own particular systems of care (www.ceasetobacco.org).
Conceptually grounded and focus-group-tested strategies for parental tobacco control are now available for implementation in the pediatric outpatient setting. The tobacco-control intervention-development process might have particular relevance for other chronic pediatric conditions that have a strong evidence base and have available treatments or resources that are underused.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parental tobacco use is a serious health issue for all family members. Child health care clinicians are in a unique and important position to address parental smoking because of the regular, multiple contacts with parents and the harmful health consequences to their patients. This article synthesizes the current evidence-based interventions for treatment of adults and applies them to the problem of addressing parental smoking in the context of the child health care setting. Brief interventions are effective, and complementary strategies such as quitlines will improve the chances of parental smoking cessation. Adopting the 5 A's framework strategy (ask, advise, assess, assist, and arrange) gives each parent the maximum chance of quitting. Within this framework, specific recommendations are made for child health care settings and clinicians. Ongoing research will help determine how best to implement parental smoking-cessation strategies more widely in a variety of child health care settings.