Angèle Kelder

VU University Medical Center, Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (19)108.47 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This Phase 2 study tested the tolerability and efficacy of bortezomib combined with reinduction chemotherapy for pediatric patients with relapsed, refractory or secondary acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Correlative studies measured putative AML leukemia initiating cells (AML-LIC) before and after treatment.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 06/2014; · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The presence of class II-associated invariant chain (CLIP) on leukemic cells is negatively associated with clinical outcome in untreated acute myeloid leukemia (AML). CLIP plays a role in the immune escape of leukemic cells, suggesting that it impairs the immunogenicity of minimal residual disease (MRD) cells causing a relapse. Here, we demonstrate that CLIP expression on leukemia-associated phenotype (LAP)-positive cells during follow-up is significantly correlated with a shortened relapse-free survival, even in those patients who are generally considered as MRDlow (0,01-0,1% LAP+ cells). Consequently, CLIP evaluation could be of additional value in the evaluation of MRD to predict a relapse of AML
    Leukemia research 01/2014; · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Half the patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who achieve complete remission (CR), ultimately relapse. Residual treatment-surviving leukemia is considered responsible for the outgrowth of AML. In many retrospective studies, detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) has been shown to enable identification of these poor-outcome patients by showing its independent prognostic impact. Most studies focus on molecular markers or analyze data in retrospect. This study establishes the value of immunophenotypically assessed MRD in the context of a multicenter clinical trial in adult AML with sample collection and analysis performed in a few specialized centers. In adults (younger than age 60 years) with AML enrolled onto the Dutch-Belgian Hemato-Oncology Cooperative Group/Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research Acute Myeloid Leukemia 42A study, MRD was evaluated in bone marrow samples in CR (164 after induction cycle 1, 183 after cycle 2, 124 after consolidation therapy). After all courses of therapy, low MRD values distinguished patients with relatively favorable outcome from those with high relapse rate and adverse relapse-free and overall survival. In the whole patient group and in the subgroup with intermediate-risk cytogenetics, MRD was an independent prognostic factor. Multivariate analysis after cycle 2, when decisions about consolidation treatment have to be made, confirmed that high MRD values (> 0.1% of WBC) were associated with a higher risk of relapse after adjustment for consolidation treatment time-dependent covariate risk score and early or later CR. In future treatment studies, risk stratification should be based not only on risk estimation assessed at diagnosis but also on MRD as a therapy-dependent prognostic factor.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 09/2013; · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Flow-cytometric detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) has proven in several single-institute studies to have an independent prognostic impact. We studied whether this relatively complex approach could be performed in a multicenter clinical setting. Five centers developed common protocols to accurately define leukemia-associated (immuno)phenotypes (LAPs) at diagnosis required to establish MRD during/after treatment. List mode data files were exchanged, and LAPs were designed by each center. One center, with extensive MRD experience, served as the reference center and coordinator. In quarterly meetings, consensus LAPs were defined, with the performance of centers compared with these. In a learning (29 patients) and a test phase (35 patients), a mean of 2.2 aberrancies/patient was detected, and only 1/63 patients (1.6%) had no consensus LAP(s). For the four centers without (extensive) MRD experience, clear improvement could be shown: in the learning phase, 39-63% of all consensus LAPs were missed, resulting in a median 30% of patients (range 21-33%) for whom no consensus LAP was reported; in the test phase, 27-40% missed consensus LAPs, resulting in a median 16% (range 7-18%) of 'missed' patients. The quality of LAPs was extensively described. Immunophenotypic MRD assessment in its current setting needs extensive experience and should be limited to experienced centers.
    Blood Cancer Journal 01/2013; 3:e129. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Persistence of leukemic stem cells (LSC) after chemotherapy is thought to be responsible for relapse and prevents the curative treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. LSC and normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) share many characteristics and co-exist in the bone marrow of AML patients. For the development of successful LSC-targeted therapy, enabling eradication of LSC while sparing HSC, the identification of differences between LSC and HSC residing within the AML bone marrow is crucial. For identification of these LSC targets, as well as for AML LSC characterization, discrimination between LSC and HSC within the AML bone marrow is imperative. Here we show that normal CD34+CD38- HSC present in AML bone marrow, identified by their lack of aberrant immunophenotypic and molecular marker expression and low scatter properties, are a distinct sub-population of cells with high ALDH activity (ALDH(bright)). The ALDH(bright) compartment contains, besides normal HSC, more differentiated, normal CD34+CD38+ progenitors. Furthermore, we show that in CD34-negative AML, containing solely normal CD34+ cells, LSC are CD34- and ALDH(low). In CD34-positive AML, LSC are also ALDH(low) but can be either CD34+ or CD34-. In conclusion, although malignant AML blasts have varying ALDH activity, a common feature of all AML cases is that LSC have lower ALDH activity than the CD34+CD38- HSC that co-exist with these LSC in the AML bone marrow. Our findings form the basis for combined functionally and immunophenotypically based identification and purification of LSC and HSC within the AML bone marrow, aiming at development of highly specific anti-LSC therapy.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(11):e78897. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immunophenotypic detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) in bone marrow (BM) of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients is of high prognostic relevance. Standard MRD percentage is assessed as a percentage of total white blood cells (WBCs) and is therefore highly dependent on WBC count. Peripheral blood (PB) contains more than five times lower MRD percentages. Therefore, PB in BM aspirates cause dilution of the MRD cells, possibly leading to false-negative results for BM MRD. The latter is avoided when relating the fraction of malignant primitive cells, identified by aberrant marker expression [aberrant primitive cells (aPC)], to the total population of primitive cells. Such a fraction may in addition reflect an important biological parameter. As this approach is thus independent of WBC count and the total size of the primitive compartment, we investigated the role of aPC fractions on overall and relapse-free survival (RFS) in 98 patients with AML under the age of 60. We show that this approach identifies MRD-negative (as defined by % of WBC) but aPC-positive (as defined by % of primitive cells) patients with poor outcome after both first and second induction cycle of chemotherapy. As a result, in cases with a primitive marker present, RFS is best predicted when combining standard MRD percentage with aPC fractions.
    International journal of laboratory hematology 04/2012; 34(4):432-41. · 1.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The majority of pediatric and younger adult (<60 years) AML patients achieve complete remission. However, 30-40% of patients relapse and display a dismal outcome. Recently we described a frequent instability of type I/II mutations between diagnosis and relapse. Here, we explored the hypothesis that these mutational shifts originate from clonal selection during treatment/disease progression. Subfractions of blasts from initial diagnosis samples were cell sorted and their mutational profiles were compared with those of the corresponding relapse samples of 7 CD34(+) AML patients. At diagnosis, subfractions of the CD45(dim)CD34(+)CD38(dim/-) compartment were heterogeneous in the distribution of mutations, when compared to the whole CD45(dim)CD34(+) blast compartment in 6 out of 7 patients. Moreover, within CD45(dim)CD34(+)CD38(dim/-) fraction of initial samples of 5 of these 6 AML patients, we found evidence for the presence of a minor, initially undetected subpopulation with a specific mutational profile that dominated the bulk of leukemic blasts at relapse. In conclusion, our findings lend support to the AML oligoclonality concept and provide molecular evidence for selection and expansion of a chemo-resistant subpopulation towards development of relapse. These results imply that early detection of pre-existing drug-resistant leukemic subpopulations is crucial for relapse prevention by proper timing of targeted treatment.
    Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 01/2012; 26(6):1313-20. · 10.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Insensitivity of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) hematopoietic stem cells to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) prevents eradication of the disease and may be involved in clinical resistance. For improved treatment results more knowledge about CML stem cells is needed. We here present a new flow cytometric approach enabling prospective discrimination of CML stem cells from their normal counterparts within single-patient samples. In 24 of 40 newly diagnosed CML patients residual normal CD34(+)CD38(-) stem cells could be identified by lower CD34 and CD45 expression, lower forward/sideward light scatter and by differences of lineage marker expression (CD7, CD11b and CD56) and of CD90. fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on Fluorescence-activated cell sorting sorted cells proved that populations were BCR-ABL positive or negative and long-term liquid culture assays with subsequent colony forming unit assays and FISH analysis proved their stem cell character. Patients with residual non-leukemic stem cells had lower clinical risk scores (Sokal, Euro), lower hematological toxicity of imatinib (IM) and better molecular responses to IM than patients without. This new approach will expand our possibilities to separate CML and normal stem cells, present in a single bone marrow or peripheral blood sample, thereby offering opportunities to better identify new CML stem-cell-specific targets. Moreover, it may guide optimal clinical CML management.
    Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 12/2011; 26(5):977-84. · 10.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the role of CD25 as a prognostic marker in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Seventy-two newly diagnosed patients < or =60 years were retrospectively analysed by flow cytometry for CD25 positivity of AML blasts. Patients with CD25 expression of >10%, when compared to < or =10%, had a significantly shorter overall survival (OS, p=0.0005) and relapse-free survival (RFS, p=0.005). In multivariate analysis CD25 expression is an independent adverse factor for OS and RFS. High CD25 combined with FLT3-ITD positivity resulted in the poorest OS and RFS (p=0.001 and p=0.003, respectively). CD25 expression remained prognostic within the intermediate cytogenetic risk group. In addition, after the first cycle of chemotherapy, a significantly higher MRD frequency was found in patients expressing CD25 above cut-off (p=0.003). Our results show that CD25 expression is an independent adverse prognostic marker in AML patients < or =60 and correlates with MRD.
    European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 04/2009; 45(9):1692-9. · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), apart from the CD34(+)CD38(-) compartment, the side population (SP) compartment contains leukemic stem cells (LSCs). We have previously shown that CD34(+)CD38(-) LSCs can be identified using stem cell-associated cell surface markers, including C-type lectin-like molecule-1 (CLL-1), and lineage markers, such as CD7, CD19, and CD56. A similar study was performed for AML SP to further characterize the SP cells with the aim of narrowing down the putatively very low stem cell fraction. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of 48 bone marrow and peripheral blood samples at diagnosis showed SP cells in 41 of 48 cases that were partly or completely positive for the markers, including CD123. SP cells in normal bone marrow (NBM) were completely negative for markers, except CD123. Further analysis revealed that the SP fraction contains different subpopulations: (a) three small lymphoid subpopulations (with T-, B-, or natural killer-cell markers); (b) a differentiated myeloid population with high forward scatter (FSC(high)) and high sideward scatter (SSC(high)), high CD38 expression, and usually with aberrant marker expression; (c) a more primitive FSC(low)/SSC(low), CD38(low), marker-negative myeloid fraction; and (d) a more primitive FSC(low)/SSC(low), CD38(low), marker-positive myeloid fraction. NBM contained the first three populations, although the aberrant markers were absent in the second population. Suspension culture assay showed that FSC(low)/SSC(low) SP cells were highly enriched for primitive cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses showed that cytogenetically abnormal colonies originated from sorted marker positive cells, whereas the cytogenetically normal colonies originated from sorted marker-negative cells. In conclusion, AML SP cells could be discriminated from normal SP cells at diagnosis on the basis of expression of CLL-1 and lineage markers. This reveals the presence of a low-frequency (median, 0.0016%) SP subfraction as a likely candidate to be enriched for leukemia stem cells.
    Stem Cells 01/2009; 26(12):3059-67. · 7.70 Impact Factor
  • Leukemia Research - LEUK RES. 01/2009; 33.
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    ABSTRACT: About 70-80 percent of patients with acute myeloid leukemia enter complete remission, but at least half of these patients who achieve remission go on to relapse. Improved treatment is likely to come from increasing the time to relapse, especially for younger patients. With the vastly increasing number of targeted therapies there is a strong need for short-term end-points to efficiently test such therapies for further pursuance. Minimal residual disease assessment may offer such an end-point since it is a strong independent prognostic factor. As proof of principle we examined this concept for FLT3-ITD status at diagnosis. We determined FLT3-ITD status in bone marrow samples from 196 patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia. The frequencies of residual leukemic cells of these 196 patients were assessed in 267 follow-up bone marrow samples using immunophenotypic assessment of minimal residual disease. The median frequency of residual leukemic cells after the first cycle of chemotherapy was 8.5-fold higher in patients with FLT3-ITD than in those with wild type FLT3. Such a difference translates into differences in survival, even if other potentially outcome-modulating mutations, such as NPM1, KIT, NRAS, KRAS, FLT3-exon 20 and PTPN11 are included in the analysis. This study shows that it could be possible to study the efficacy of FLT3 inhibitors using the level of minimal residual disease as a short-term end-point.
    Haematologica 12/2008; 94(1):46-53. · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), apart from the CD34(+)CD38(-) compartment, the side population (SP) compartment contains leukemic stem cells (LSC). We have previously shown that CD34(+)CD38(-) LSC can be identified using stem cell associated cell surface markers including CLL-1 and lineage markers such as CD7, CD19 and CD56. A similar study was performed for AML SP in order to further characterize the SP cells with the aim of narrowing down the putatively very low stem cell fraction. FACS analysis of 48 bone marrow and peripheral blood samples at diagnosis showed SP cells in 41 of 48 cases which were all partly or completely positive for the markers, including CD123. SP cells in normal bone marrow (NBM) were completely negative for markers, except CD123. Further analysis revealed that the SP fraction contains different subpopulations: 1. Three small lymphoid subpopulations (with T-, B- or NK- cell markers); 2. A differentiated myeloid population with high forward and sideward scatter (FSC(high)/SSC(high)), high CD38 expression and usually with aberrant marker expression; 3. A more primitive FSC(low)/SSC(low), CD38(low), marker negative myeloid fraction; 4. A more primitive FSC(low)/SSC(low), CD38(low), marker positive myeloid fraction. NBM contained the first three populations, although the aberrant markers were absent in the population 2. Suspension culture assay showed that FSC(low)/SSC(low) SP cells were highly enriched for primitive cells. FISH analyses showed that cytogenetically abnormal colonies originated from sorted marker positive cells, while the cytogenetically normal colonies originated from sorted marker negative cells. In conclusion, AML SP cells could be discriminated from normal SP cells at diagnosis based on expression of CLL-1 and lineage markers. This reveals the presence of a low frequency (median 0.0016 %) SP subfraction as a likely candidate to be enriched for leukemia stem cells. ______________________________________________________________________________ Author contributions: B.M.: conception and design, collection and/or assembly of data, data analysis and interpretation, manuscript writing; A.van Rhenen: collection and/or assembly of data; A.K.: collection and/or assembly of data; M.A.van der Pol: collection and/or assembly of data; M.T.: collection and/or assembly of data; C.B.: collection and/or assembly of data; A.H.W.: collection and/or assembly of data; G.J.O.: provision of study material or patients, final approval of manuscript; S.Z.: provision of study material or patients, manuscript writing, final approval of manuscript, G.J.S.: conception and design, data analysis and interpretation, manuscript writing, final approval of manuscript.
    Stem Cells 11/2008; · 7.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from chronic periodontitis patients differ from PBMCs from matched control patients in their capacity to form osteoclast-like cells. PBMCs from 10 subjects with severe chronic periodontitis and their matched controls were cultured on plastic or on bone slices without or with macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL). The number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRACP(+)) multinucleated cells (MNCs) and bone resorption were assessed. TRACP(+) MNCs were formed under all culture conditions, in patient and control cultures. In periodontitis patients, the formation of TRACP(+) MNC was similar for all three culture conditions; thus supplementation of the cytokines was not needed to induce MNC formation. In control cultures, however, M-CSF or M-CSF/RANKL resulted in higher numbers compared with cultures without cytokines. Upregulations of osteoclast marker mRNA cathepsin K and carbonic anhydrase II confirmed the osteoclastic character. Bone resorption was only observed when PBMCs were cultured in the presence of M-CSF and RANKL. Our data indicate that PBMCs from periodontitis patients do not need priming by M-CSF to become osteoclast-like cells, suggesting that PBMCs from periodontitis patients are present in the circulation in a different state of activity.
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 08/2008; 35(7):568-75. · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several studies showed the benefit of purging of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) stem cell transplants. We reported previously that purging by positive selection of CD34+ and CD133+ cells resulted in a 3-4 log tumor cell reduction (TCR) in CD34- and/or CD133- AML, but has been shown to be potentially applicable in only about 50% of cases. Similar to CD34 and CD133, CD90 marks the hematopoietic CD34 positive stem cells capable of full hematopoietic recovery after myeloablative chemotherapy, and therefore, in the present study, we explored whether a similar purging approach is possible using CD90. CD90 expression was established by flowcytometry in diagnosis AML on the clonogenic AML CD34+ blast population by flow cytometry. Positivity was defined as >3% CD90 (CD34+) expression on blasts. For the calculation of the efficacy of TCR by positive selection, AML blasts were recognized by either prelabeling diagnosis blasts with CD45-FITC in spiking model experiments or using expression of leukemia associated marker combinations both in spiking experiments and in real transplants. In 119 patients with AML and myelodysplastic syndrome, we found coexpression of CD34 and CD90 (>3%) in 42 cases (35%). In AML patients 60 years or younger, representing the patients who are eligible for transplantation, only 23% (16/69) of the patients showed CD90 expression. Positive selection for CD90 in transplants containing CD90 negative AML resulted in a 2.8-4 log TCR in the models used. Purging by positive selection using CD90 can potentially be applied effectively in the majority of AML patients 60 years or younger.
    Cytometry Part B Clinical Cytometry 01/2008; 74(1):9-16. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In CD34(+) acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the malignant stem cells reside in the CD38(-) compartment. We have shown before that the frequency of such CD34(+)CD38(-) cells at diagnosis correlates with minimal residual disease (MRD) frequency after chemotherapy and with survival. Specific targeting of CD34(+)CD38(-) cells might thus offer therapeutic options. Previously, we found that C-type lectin-like molecule-1 (CLL-1) has high expression on the whole blast compartment in the majority of AML cases. We now show that CLL-1 expression is also present on the CD34(+)CD38(-) stem- cell compartment in AML (77/89 patients). The CD34(+)CLL-1(+) population, containing the CD34(+)CD38(-)CLL-1(+) cells, does engraft in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice with outgrowth to CLL-1(+) blasts. CLL-1 expression was not different between diagnosis and relapse (n = 9). In remission, both CLL-1(-) normal and CLL-1(+) malignant CD34(+)CD38(-) cells were present. A high CLL-1(+) fraction was associated with quick relapse. CLL-1 expression is completely absent both on CD34(+)CD38(-) cells in normal (n = 11) and in regenerating bone marrow controls (n = 6). This AML stem-cell specificity of the anti-CLL-1 antibody under all conditions of disease and the leukemia-initiating properties of CD34(+)CLL-1(+) cells indicate that anti-CLL-1 antibody enables both AML-specific stem-cell detection and possibly antigen-targeting in future.
    Blood 11/2007; 110(7):2659-66. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is generally regarded as a stem cell disease. In CD34-positive AML, the leukemic stem cell has been recognized as CD38 negative. This CD34+CD38- population survives chemotherapy and is most probable the cause of minimal residual disease (MRD). The outgrowth of MRD causes relapse and MRD can therefore serve as a prognostic marker. The key role of leukemogenic CD34+CD38- cells led us to investigate whether they can be detected under MRD conditions. Various markers were identified to be aberrantly expressed on the CD34+CD38- population in AML and high-risk MDS samples at diagnosis, including C-type lectin-like molecule-1 and several lineage markers/marker-combinations. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis revealed that marker-positive cells were indeed of malignant origin. The markers were neither expressed on normal CD34+CD38- cells in steady-state bone marrow (BM) nor in BM after chemotherapy. We found that these markers were indeed expressed in part of the patients on malignant CD34+CD38- cells in complete remission, indicating the presence of malignant CD34+CD38- cells. Thus, by identifying residual malignant CD34+CD38- cells after chemotherapy, MRD detection at the stem cell level turned out to be possible. This might facilitate characterization of these chemotherapy-resistant leukemogenic cells, thereby being of help to identify new targets for therapy.
    Leukemia 09/2007; 21(8):1700-7. · 10.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In CD34-positive acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the leukemia-initiating event originates from the CD34(+)CD38(-) stem cell compartment. Survival of these cells after chemotherapy may lead to minimal residual disease (MRD) and subsequently to relapse. Therefore, the prognostic impact of stem cell frequency in CD34-positive AML was investigated. First, the leukemogenic potential of unpurified CD34(+)CD38(-) cells, present among other cells, was investigated in vivo using nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice transplantation experiments. Second, we analyzed whether the CD34(+)CD38(-) compartment at diagnosis correlates with MRD frequency after chemotherapy and clinical outcome in 92 AML patients. In vivo data showed that engraftment of AML blasts in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice directly correlated with stem cell frequency of the graft. In patients, a high percentage of CD34(+)CD38(-) stem cells at diagnosis significantly correlated with a high MRD frequency, especially after the third course of chemotherapy. Also, it directly correlated with poor survival. In contrast, total CD34(+) percentage showed no such correlations. Both in vivo data, as well as the correlation studies, show that AML stem cell frequency at diagnosis offers a new prognostic factor. From our data, it is tempting to hypothesize that a large CD34(+)CD38(-) population at diagnosis reflects a higher percentage of chemotherapy-resistant cells that will lead to the outgrowth of MRD, thereby affecting clinical outcome. Ultimately, future therapies should be directed toward malignant stem cells.
    Clinical Cancer Research 10/2005; 11(18):6520-7. · 7.84 Impact Factor
  • Leukemia Research. 33:S31–S32.

Publication Stats

332 Citations
108.47 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2014
    • VU University Medical Center
      • Department of Haematology
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2008
    • VU University Amsterdam
      • Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA)
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands