[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CaVbeta subunits of voltage-gated calcium channels contain two conserved domains, a src-homology-3 (SH3) domain and a guanylate kinase-like (GK) domain with an intervening HOOK domain. We have shown in a previous study that, although Gbetagamma-mediated inhibitory modulation of CaV2.2 channels did not require the interaction of a CaVbeta subunit with the CaValpha1 subunit, when such interaction was prevented by a mutation in the alpha1 subunit, G protein modulation could not be removed by a large depolarization and showed voltage-independent properties (Leroy et al., J Neurosci 25:6984-6996, 2005). In this study, we have investigated the ability of mutant and truncated CaVbeta subunits to support voltage-dependent G protein modulation in order to determine the minimal domain of the CaVbeta subunit that is required for this process. We have coexpressed the CaVbeta subunit constructs with CaV2.2 and alpha2delta-2, studied modulation by the activation of the dopamine D2 receptor, and also examined basal tonic modulation. Our main finding is that the CaVbeta subunit GK domains, from either beta1b or beta2, are sufficient to restore voltage dependence to G protein modulation. We also found that the removal of the variable HOOK region from beta2a promotes tonic voltage-dependent G protein modulation. We propose that the absence of the HOOK region enhances Gbetagamma binding affinity, leading to greater tonic modulation by basal levels of Gbetagamma. This tonic modulation requires the presence of an SH3 domain, as tonic modulation is not supported by any of the CaVbeta subunit GK domains alone.
Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 02/2009; 457(4):743-56. · 4.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is little information about the excitatory cholinergic mechanisms of mouse small intestine although this model is important for gene knock-out studies.
Using patch-clamp techniques, voltage-dependent and pharmacological properties of carbachol- or intracellular GTPgammaS-activated cationic channels in mouse ileal myocytes were investigated.
Three types of cation channels were identified in outside-out patches (17, 70 and 140 pS). The voltage-dependent behaviour of the 70 pS channel, which was also the most abundantly expressed channel (approximately 0.35 micro(-2)) was most consistent with the properties of the whole-cell muscarinic current (half-maximal activation at -72.3+/-9.3 mV, slope of -9.1+/-7.4 mV and mean open probability of 0.16+/-0.01 at -40 mV; at near maximal activation by 50 microM carbachol). Both channel conductance and open probability depended on the permeant cation in the order: Cs+ (70 pS) >Rb+ (66pS) >Na+ (47 pS) >Li+ (30 pS). External application of divalent cations, quinine, SK&F 96365 or La3+ strongly inhibited the whole-cell current. At the single channel level the nature of the inhibitory effects appeared to be very different. Either reduction of the open probability (quinine and to some extent SK&F 96365 and La3+) or of unitary current amplitude (Ca2+, Mg2+, SK&F 96365, La3+) was observed implying significant differences in the dissociation rates of the blockers.
The muscarinic cation current of murine small intestine is very similar to that in guinea-pig myocytes and murine genetic manipulation should yield important information about muscarinic receptor transduction mechanisms.
British Journal of Pharmacology 10/2006; 149(2):179-87. · 5.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The carbachol-evoked inward cationic current in guinea-pig ileum smooth muscle cells is comprised of three types nonselective cationic channels (NSCC) with small (10 +/- 2 pS), medium (56 +/- 8pS) and large (135 +/- 14 pS) unitary conductance. All three types of NSCC could be activated by external application of carbachol as well as by internal application of GTPgS. It was found that behavior of carbachol- and GTPgammaS-evoked whole-cell current is mainly determined by the properties of medium conductance channels. The U-shaped I-V relationship of the whole-cell cationic current at negative potentials range arrives from voltage-dependence of its Po of this channel.