[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alternative and ecological strategies are necessary and demanded for disease management in order to reduce the use of pesticides in agriculture. Thus, the use of biological control agents such as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) or several strains of the beneficial fungus Trichoderma spp. to combat plant diseases is the basis of biocontrol of plant pathogens and is a good approach to reach this healthy and environmentally adequate objective.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: By means of an RT-PCR approach we isolated a specific tyrosine phosphatase (FsPTP1) induced by abscisic acid (ABA) and correlated with seed dormancy in Fagus sylvatica seeds. To provide genetic evidence of FsPTP1 function in seed dormancy and ABA signal transduction pathway, we overexpressed this gene in Cape Verde Island ecotype of Arabidopsis thaliana, which shows the deepest degree of seed dormancy among Arabidopsis accessions. As a result, 35S:FsPTP1 transgenic seeds showed a reduced dormancy and insensitivity to ABA and osmotic stress conditions accompanied by a reduction in the level of expression of RAB18 and RD29, well-known ABA-responsive genes. Taken together, all these data are consistent with a role of this tyrosine phosphatase as a negative regulator of ABA signaling. In addition, phenotypes of FsPTP1 transgenic plants resemble those observed in ethylene constitutive mutants, accompanied by an increase in the level of expression of a key gene involved in ethylene signaling such as EIN2. All the data presented along the paper suggest that the effect of tyrosine phosphatases in ABA action during the transition from seed dormancy to germination may be through modulation of ethylene signaling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salicylic acid (SA) is a plant hormone mainly associated with the induction of defense mechanism in plants, although in the last years there is increasing evidence on the role of SA in plant responses to abiotic stress. We recently reported that an increase in endogenous SA levels are able to counteract the inhibitory effects of several abiotic stress conditions during germination and seedling establishment of Arabidopsis thaliana and that this effect is modulated by gibberellins (GAs) probably through a member of the GASA (Giberellic Acid Stimulated in Arabidopsis) gene family, clearly showing the existence of a cross talk between these two plant hormones in Arabidopsis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exogenous application of gibberellic acid (GA(3)) was able to reverse the inhibitory effect of salt, oxidative, and heat stresses in the germination and seedling establishment of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), this effect being accompanied by an increase in salicylic acid (SA) levels, a hormone that in recent years has been implicated in plant responses to abiotic stress. Furthermore, this treatment induced an increase in the expression levels of the isochorismate synthase1 and nonexpressor of PR1 genes, involved in SA biosynthesis and action, respectively. In addition, we proved that transgenic plants overexpressing a gibberellin (GA)-responsive gene from beechnut (Fagus sylvatica), coding for a member of the GA(3) stimulated in Arabidopsis (GASA) family (FsGASA4), showed a reduced GA dependence for growth and improved responses to salt, oxidative, and heat stress at the level of seed germination and seedling establishment. In 35S:FsGASA4 seeds, the improved behavior under abiotic stress was accompanied by an increase in SA endogenous levels. All these data taken together suggest that this GA-responsive gene and exogenous addition of GAs are able to counteract the inhibitory effects of these adverse environmental conditions in seed germination and seedling growth through modulation of SA biosynthesis. Furthermore, this hypothesis is supported by the fact that sid2 mutants, impaired in SA biosynthesis, are more sensitive to salt stress than wild type and are not affected by exogenous application of GA(3).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive clones (FsDhn1 and FsClo1) were isolated from a cDNA library of ABA-treated seeds of Fagus sylvatica L. FsDhn1 codes for type-II late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, also known as dehydrins. The corresponding transcripts were ABA-induced and expressed when seeds were artificially dried. FsClo1 codes for a caleosin, a calcium-binding protein. By expressing FsCLO1 as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli, we obtained biochemical evidence of its ability to bind calcium, a second messenger involved in ABA signaling. This cDNA clone is seed specific, shows a LEA expression pattern and is also induced by ABA and dehydration treatments. The relationship of both genes with seed responses to ABA is discussed.