Allyson Sholl

University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, United States

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Publications (7)32.45 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the host response to oncolytic viruses is important to maximize their antitumor efficacy. Despite robust cytotoxicity and high virus production of an oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) in cultured human sarcoma cells, intratumoral (ITu) virus injection resulted in only mild antitumor effects in some xenograft models, prompting us to characterize the host inflammatory response. Virotherapy induced an acute neutrophilic infiltrate, a relative decrease of ITu macrophages, and a myeloid cell-dependent upregulation of host-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Anti-VEGF antibodies, bevacizumab and r84, the latter of which binds VEGF and selectively inhibits binding to VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2) but not VEGFR1, enhanced the antitumor effects of virotherapy, in part due to decreased angiogenesis but not increased virus production. Neither antibody affected neutrophilic infiltration but both partially mitigated virus-induced depletion of macrophages. Enhancement of virotherapy-mediated antitumor effects by anti-VEGF antibodies could largely be recapitulated by systemic depletion of CD11b+ cells. These data suggest the combined effect of oHSV virotherapy and anti-VEGF antibodies is in part due to modulation of a host inflammatory reaction to virus. Our data provide strong preclinical support for combined oHSV and anti-VEGF antibody therapy and suggest that understanding and counteracting the innate host response may help enable the full antitumor potential of oncolytic virotherapy.Molecular Therapy (2013); doi:10.1038/mt.2013.39.
    Molecular Therapy 03/2013; · 7.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We and others have shown that regulatory T cells (Treg) accumulate dramatically with age in both humans and mice. Such Treg accrual contributes to age-related immunosenescence as they reduce the response to tumors and parasite infection. While we reported earlier that aged Treg have decreased expression of the pro-apoptotic molecule Bim and germline deletion of Bim promoted earlier accumulation of Treg, it remains unclear whether the effects of Bim are: (i) Treg intrinsic and (ii) dominant to other BH3-only pro-apoptotic molecules. Further, the mechanism(s) controlling Bim expression in aged Treg remain unclear. Here we show that Treg-specific loss of Bim is sufficient to drive Treg accrual with age and that additional loss of the downstream apoptotic effectors Bax and Bak did not exacerbate Treg accumulation. Further, our results demonstrate that a subpopulation of Treg expands with age and is characterized by lower expression of CD25 (IL-2Rα) and Bim. Mechanistically, we found that IL-2 levels decline with age and likely explain the emergence of CD25(lo)Bim(lo) Treg because Treg in IL-2(-/-) mice are almost entirely comprised of CD25(lo)Bim(lo) cells, and IL-2 neutralization increases CD25(lo)Bim(lo) Treg in both young and middle-aged mice. Interestingly, the Treg population in aged mice had increased expression of CD122 (IL-2/IL-15Rβ) and neutralization or genetic loss of IL-15 led to less Treg accrual with age. Further, the decreased Treg accrual in middle-aged IL-15(-/-) mice was restored by the additional loss of Bim (IL-15(-/-)Bim(-/-)). Together, our data show that aging favors the accrual of CD25(lo) Treg whose homeostasis is supported by IL-15 as IL-2 levels become limiting. These data have implications for manipulating Treg to improve immune responses in the elderly.
    Frontiers in Immunology 01/2013; 4:161.
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    ABSTRACT: As acute infections resolve, most effector CD8(+) T cells die, whereas some persist and become memory T cells. Recent work showed that subsets of effector CD8(+) T cells, identified by reciprocal expression of killer cell lectin-like receptor G1 (KLRG1) and CD127, have different lifespans. Similar to previous reports, we found that effector CD8(+) T cells reported to have a longer lifespan (i.e., KLRG1(low)CD127(high)) have increased levels of Bcl-2 compared with their shorter-lived KLRG1(high)CD127(low) counterparts. Surprisingly, we found that these effector KLRG1(low)CD127(high) CD8(+) T cells also had increased levels of Bim compared with KLRG1(high)CD127(low) cells. Similar effects were observed in memory cells, in which CD8(+) central memory T cells expressed higher levels of Bim and Bcl-2 than did CD8(+) effector memory T cells. Using both pharmacologic and genetic approaches, we found that survival of both subsets of effector and memory CD8(+) T cells required Bcl-2 to combat the proapoptotic activity of Bim. Interestingly, inhibition or absence of Bcl-2 led to significantly decreased expression of Bim in surviving effector and memory T cells. In addition, manipulation of Bcl-2 levels by IL-7 or IL-15 also affected expression of Bim in effector CD8(+) T cells. Finally, we found that Bim levels were significantly increased in effector CD8(+) T cells lacking Bax and Bak. Together, these data indicate that cells having the highest levels of Bim are selected against during contraction of the response and that Bcl-2 determines the level of Bim that effector and memory T cells can tolerate.
    The Journal of Immunology 03/2011; 186(10):5729-37. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Calcineurin (CN) is a phosphatase that activates nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT). While the CN inhibitors cyclosporine A (CsA) and tacrolimus (FK506) can prevent graft rejection, they also cause inflammatory diseases. We investigated the role of calcineurin using mice deficient in the CN catalytic subunit Aβ (CNAβ). Cnab(-/-) mice exhibit defective thymocyte maturation, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly. Further, as Cnab(-/-) mice age, they exhibit spontaneous T-cell activation and enhanced production of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, and IFNγ). FOXP3(+) T(reg) cells were significantly decreased in Cnab(-/-) mice likely contributing to increased T-cell activation. Interestingly, we found that CNAβ is critical for promotion of BCL-2 expression in FOXP3(+) T(reg) and for permitting TGFβ signaling, as TGFβ induces FOXP3 in control but not in Cnab(-/-) T-cells. Together, these data suggest that CNAβ is important for the production and maintenance of T(reg) cells and to ensure mature T-cell quiescence.
    Clinical Immunology 03/2011; 138(3):321-30. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that regulatory T cells (Treg) accumulate dramatically in aged animals and negatively impact the ability to control persistent infection. However, the mechanisms underlying the age-dependent accrual of Treg remain unclear. In this study, we show that Treg accumulation with age is progressive and likely not the result of increased thymic output, increased peripheral proliferation, or from enhanced peripheral conversion. Instead, we found that Treg from aged mice are more resistant to apoptosis than Treg from young mice. Although Treg from aged mice had increased expression of functional IL-7Rα, we found that IL-7R signaling was not required for maintenance of Treg in vivo. Notably, aged Treg exhibit decreased expression of the proapoptotic molecule Bim compared with Treg from young mice. Furthermore, in the absence of Bim, Treg accumulate rapidly, accounting for >25% of the CD4(+) T cell compartment by 6 mo of age. Additionally, accumulation of Treg in Bim-deficient mice occurred after the cells left the transitional recent thymic emigrant compartment. Mechanistically, we show that IL-2 drives preferential proliferation and accumulation of Bim(lo) Treg. Collectively, our data suggest that chronic stimulation by IL-2 leads to preferential expansion of Treg having low expression of Bim, which favors their survival and accumulation in aged hosts.
    The Journal of Immunology 01/2011; 186(1):156-63. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During an immune response, most effector T cells die, whereas some are maintained and become memory T cells. Factors controlling the survival of effector CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells remain unclear. In this study, we assessed the role of IL-7, IL-15, and their common signal transducer, STAT5, in maintaining effector CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses. Following viral infection, IL-15 was required to maintain a subpopulation of effector CD8(+) T cells expressing high levels of killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily G, member 1 (KLRG1), and lower levels of CD127, whereas IL-7 and IL-15 acted together to maintain KLRG1(low)CD127(high) CD8(+) effector T cells. In contrast, effector CD4(+) T cell numbers were not affected by the individual or combined loss of IL-15 and IL-7. Both IL-7 and IL-15 drove phosphorylation of STAT5 within effector CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. When STAT5 was deleted during the course of infection, both KLRG1(high)CD127(low) and KLRG1(low)CD127(high) CD8(+) T cells were lost, although effector CD4(+) T cell populations were maintained. Furthermore, STAT5 was required to maintain expression of Bcl-2 in effector CD8(+), but not CD4(+), T cells. Finally, IL-7 and IL-15 required STAT5 to induce Bcl-2 expression and to maintain effector CD8(+) T cells. Together, these data demonstrate that IL-7 and IL-15 signaling converge on STAT5 to maintain effector CD8(+) T cell responses.
    The Journal of Immunology 08/2010; 185(4):2116-24. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intracranial (i.c.) infection of mice with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) results in anorexic weight loss, mediated by T cells and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma). Here, we assessed the role of CD4(+) T cells and IFN-gamma on immune cell recruitment and proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine production in the central nervous system (CNS) after i.c. LCMV infection. We found that T-cell-depleted mice had decreased recruitment of hematopoietic cells to the CNS and diminished levels of IFN-gamma, CCL2 (MCP-1), CCL3 (MIP-1alpha), and CCL5 (RANTES) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Mice deficient in IFN-gamma had decreased CSF levels of CCL3, CCL5, and CXCL10 (IP-10), and decreased activation of both resident CNS and infiltrating antigen-presenting cells (APCs). The effects of IFN-gamma signaling on macrophage lineage cells was assessed using transgenic mice, called "macrophages insensitive to interferon gamma" (MIIG) mice, that express a dominant-negative IFN-gamma receptor under the control of the CD68 promoter. MIIG mice had decreased levels of CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, and CXCL10 compared to controls despite having normal numbers of LCMV-specific CD4(+) T cells in the CNS. MIIG mice also had decreased recruitment of infiltrating macrophages and decreased activation of both resident CNS and infiltrating APCs. Finally, MIIG mice were significantly protected from LCMV-induced anorexia and weight loss. Thus, these data suggest that CD4(+) T-cell production of IFN-gamma promotes signaling in macrophage lineage cells, which control (i) the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, (ii) the recruitment of macrophages to the CNS, (iii) the activation of resident CNS and infiltrating APC populations, and (iv) anorexic weight loss.
    Journal of Virology 07/2009; 83(17):8604-15. · 5.08 Impact Factor