[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed culture-based and PCR-based tests for pneumococcal identification and serotyping from carriage specimens collected in rural and urban Kenya. Nasopharyngeal specimens from 237 healthy children <5 years old (C-NPs) and combined nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal specimens from 158 adults (A-NP/OPs, 118 HIV-positive) were assessed using pneumococcal isolation (following broth culture enrichment) with Quellung-based serotyping, real-time lytA-PCR, and conventional multiplexed PCR-serotyping (cmPCR). Culture-based testing from C-NPs, HIV-positive A-NP/OPs, and HIV-negative A-NP/OPs revealed 85.2%, 40.7%, and 12.5% pneumococcal carriage, respectively. In contrast, cmPCR serotypes were found in 93.2%, 98.3%, and 95.0% of these sets, respectively. Two of 16 lytA-negative C-NPs and 26 of 28 lytA-negative A-NP/OPs were cmPCR-positive for 1-10 serotypes (sts) or serogroups (sgs). A-NP/OPs averaged 5.5 cmPCR serotypes/serogroups (5.2 in HIV-positive, 7.1 in HIV-negative) and C-NPs averaged 1.5 cmPCR serotypes/serogroups. cmPCR serotypes/serogroups from lytA-negative A-NP/OPs included st2, st4, sg7F/7A, sg9N/9L, st10A, sg10F/10C/33C, st13, st17F, sg18C/18A/18B/18F, sg22F/22A, and st39. Nine strains of three non-pneumococcal species (S. oralis, S. mitis, and S. parasanguinis) (7 from A-OP, 1 from both A-NP and A-OP, and 1 from C-NP) were each cmPCR-positive for one of 7 serotypes/serogroups (st5, st13, sg15A/15F, sg10F/10C/33C, sg33F/33A/37, sg18C/18A/18B/18F, sg12F/12A/12B/ 44/46) with amplicons revealing 83.6-99.7% sequence identity to pneumococcal references. In total, 150 cmPCR amplicons from carriage specimens were sequenced, including 25 from lytA-negative specimens. Amplicon sequences derived from specimens yielding a pneumococcal isolate with the corresponding serotype were identical or highly conserved (>98.7%) with the reference cmPCR amplicon for the st, while cmPCR amplicons from lytA-negative specimens were generally more divergent. Separate testing of 56 A-OPs and 56 A-NPs revealed that ∼94% of the positive cmPCR results from A-NP/OPs were from OP microbiota. In contrast, A-NPs yielded >2-fold more pneumococcal isolates than A-OPs. Verified and suspected non-pneumococcal cmPCR serotypes/serogroups appeared to be relatively rare in C-NPs and A-NPs compared to A-OPs. Our findings indicate that non-pneumococcal species can confound serotype-specific PCR and other sequence-based assays due to evolutionarily conserved genes most likely involved in biosynthesis of surface polysaccharide structures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We developed and validated a real-time PCR assay consisting of 7 triplexed reactions to identify 11 individual serotypes plus 10 small serogroups representing the majority of disease-causing isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. This assay targets the 13 serotypes included within the 13-valent conjugate vaccine and 8 additional key serotypes or serogroups. Advantages over other serotyping assays are described. The assay will be expanded to 40 serotypes/serogroups. We will provide periodic updates at our protocol web site.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A child's death due to pneumococcal meningitis after contracting the disease in an after-school programme prompted an investigation to assess nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage among her contacts. The serotype of the meningitis case isolate was determined, together with the serotypes of the NP specimens of contacts, comprising the case patient's brother, the case patient's after-school programme contacts and the brother's day-care centre (DCC) contacts. NP swabs from 155 children and 69 adults were obtained. Real-time PCR and conventional multiplex PCR (CM-PCR) assays were used to detect pneumococcal carriage and determine serotypes. Broth-enriched culture of NP specimens followed by pneumococcal isolation and Quellung-based serotyping were also performed. DNA extracts prepared from cerebrospinal fluid of the index case and from the NP strain isolated from the brother and from one attendee of the brother's DCC were subjected to genotyping. Pneumococcal carriage assessed by real-time PCR and culture was 49.6 and 36.6%, respectively (P<0.05). Twenty-three serotypes were detected using CM-PCR, with serotypes 6A/6B, 14, 19F, 6C/6D, 22F/22A, 23F and 11A/11D being the most frequent. All eight serotype 22F/22A NP specimens recovered were from children attending the brother's DCC. The meningitis case isolate and the NP carriage isolate from the patient's brother were both serotype 22F and shared the same new multilocus sequence type (ST6403) with the attendee of the brother's DCC. CM-PCR proved to be useful for assessing carriage serotype distribution in a setting of high-risk pneumococcal transmission. The causal serotype appeared to be linked to the brother of the case patient and attendees of his DCC.
Journal of Medical Microbiology 01/2012; 61(Pt 5):686-92. DOI:10.1099/jmm.0.040790-0 · 2.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A second-generation 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, PCV13, was recently licensed. Although PCV13 includes serotype 6A, the usefulness of that antigen may be limited by the emergence of a new serotype, 6C, which was identified among isolates initially characterized (Quellung reaction) as serotype 6A. The epidemiology of serotype 6C prior to and after 7-valent PCV (PCV7) introduction is incompletely understood.
We analyzed conventionally serotyped 6A (CS6A) pneumococci from invasive disease case patients of all ages and carriage isolates from children and adults obtained in population-based studies among Navajo and White Mountain Apache communities during 1994-2009. Samples were tested by triplex polymerase chain reaction to resolve serotypes 6C and 6A.
A total of 74 invasive CS6A episodes occurred. All were retyped by polymerase chain reaction; 40 (54.1%) were serotype 6C. The mean annual incidence of serotype 6C invasive disease was 0.3 (95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.9), 0.7 (95% confidence interval, 0.2-1.3), and 1.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-2.1) cases per 100,000 population in the years prior to the PCV7 efficacy trial, during the time the PCV7 trial was conducted, and following PCV7 introduction and routine use, respectively (P = .01). In the routine vaccination era, 76% of invasive CS6As were serotype 6C; nearly all cases occurred in adults. The proportion of serotype 6C among CS6A carriage isolates increased from 42% to 61% to 94% in the prevaccine, early vaccine, and routine vaccination eras, respectively.
In the PCV7 routine use era, virtually all serogroup 6 invasive pneumococcal disease and carriage strains among Navajo and White Mountain Apache communities are 6C. Monitoring and evaluation of this and other emerging serotypes among invasive disease and carriage isolates is warranted.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The measurement of pneumococcal carriage in the nasopharyngeal reservoir is subject to potential confounders that include low-density and multiple-strain colonization. To compare different methodologies, we picked a random sampling of 100 nasopharyngeal specimens recovered from infants less than 2 years of age who were previously assessed for pneumococcal carriage and serotypes by a conventional method that used direct plating from the transport/storage medium (50 specimens were culture negative and 50 specimens were culture positive for pneumococci). We used a broth enrichment approach and a conventional PCR approach (with and without broth enrichment) to determine pneumococcal carriage and serotypes, and the results were compared to the initial conventional culture-based results. Additionally, we used a lytA-targeted real-time PCR for pneumococcal detection. Broth enrichment for both the culture-based and the PCR-based methods enhanced the isolation of pneumococci and detection of serotype diversity, with the most effective serotype deduction method being one that used broth enrichment prior to sequential multiplex PCR. Similarly, we also found that broth enrichment followed by the lytA-specific real-time PCR was the most sensitive for the detection of apparent pneumococcal carriage. The broth enrichment, conventional multiplex PCR, and real-time PCR approaches used in this study were effective in detecting pneumococcal carriage in the 50 specimens that were negative by conventional direct plating from transport medium (range of numbers of positive specimens, 8/50 to 22/50 [16 to 44%]), and the three different serotyping approaches that used broth enrichment increased the number of serotype identifications from the 100 specimens (12 to 29 additional serotype identifications to be positive). A PCR-based approach that employed a broth enrichment step appeared to best enhance the detection of mixed serotypes and low-density pneumococcal carriage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Determination of the DNA sequences corresponding to all 91 pneumococcal capsular biosynthetic (cps) loci (1, 3, 6, 9) has allowed serotype deduction from pneumococcal isolates and clinical specimens using conventional PCR assays (2, 4, 7, 8, 10). ...