Ahmad M Al-Majali

Jordan University of Science and Technology, Arbēla, Irbid, Jordan

Are you Ahmad M Al-Majali?

Claim your profile

Publications (37)41.15 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Besnoitia besnoiti is an apicomplexan parasite and the causative agent of bovine besnoitiosis which is considered as a re-emergent disease in Europe. A cross-sectional serological study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and to identify risk factors associated with B. besnoiti infection in 68 dairy herds (n = 806 cows) in Jordan during the period from January to June 2007 and the spring of 2014. Data regarding herd's management was obtained by filling questionnaires through personal interviews with farmers. An indirect ELISA test was used to detect antibodies against B. besnoiti. Chi-square analysis and multivariable logistic regression model were used to identify risk factors associated with seropositivity to B. besnoiti. At the individual cow and herd level, the true prevalence of seropositive animals was 6 and 28.7 %, respectively. Cows between 2 and 6 years of age had significantly higher seroprevalence of B. besnoiti than other age groups. The highest seroprevalence of B. besnoiti was found in Zarqa and Irbid governorates. Multivariable logistic regression model identified that exchanging visits by farm workers to neighboring farms as a risk factor for seropositivity to B. besnoiti, while smaller herd size and twice a day farm cleaning using sweeping and water hosing were identified as protective factors. This is the first study that investigated the seroprevalence of B. besnoiti infection in dairy herds in Jordan. Further studies are warranted to explore the clinical manifestation of B. besnoiti infection as well as to identify the possible presence of other Besnoitia species and definitive hosts for the parasite.
    Parasitology Research 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00436-015-4448-5 · 2.33 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effect of intravaginal fluorogestone acetate (FGA) sponges on prolactin levels (PRL) and correlations between PRL and milk somatic cell count (SCC) and steroid hormones levels of Damascus-local cross goats during transitional period to anestrous were investigated in this study. Fifty-six goats were assigned to three groups. Group 1 (FGA, n = 19) was treated with 40 mg FGA and equine chorionic gonadotropin (600 IU, i.m.) at time of sponge withdrawal (day 0). Group 2 (FGA-PGF; n = 19) was treated similar to group 1 but was also injected with dinoprost tromethamine (naturally occurring PGF2α) (10 mg, i.m.) on day 0. Control goats (n = 18) were left untreated. On day 0, five fertile bucks were turned in with all goats. Milk and blood samples were collected on days -13 (day of sponge insertion), -6, 0, 1, 2, 7, 13, and 20. Prolactin levels were at lowest values on day -13 of the study and increased (p < 0.05) from day -6 to day 20 in all groups. A significant positive correlation (p < 0.05) between PRL and progesterone and between PRL and estradiol levels was found in this study. No significant correlation was found between PRL and SCC of all groups during the study except on days 2 and 20 where PRL levels were correlated (p < 0.05) with SCC of left udder halves of FGA group. In conclusion, estrus induction with FGA resulted in significant increase in PRL. A positive correlation was found between PRL and steroid hormones, but there was no correlation between PRL and goat milk SCC.
    Tropical Animal Health and Production 11/2014; 47(2). DOI:10.1007/s11250-014-0716-0 · 0.97 Impact Factor
  • S M Abutarbush, A M Al-Majali
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study are to report clinical WNV infection in horses and to determine the seroprevalence of and risk factors for WNV infection in horses in Jordan. In late summer and early fall of 2012, two mares were presented for evaluation of neurological signs. The first mare had hind-limb ataxia. The second mare was slightly depressed and lethargic. She had ataxia in her four limbs and cranial nerves deficits. Both horses were found positive for WNV IgM antibodies using commercial IgM-capture ELISA test. Both horses were treated symptomatically and recovered uneventfully. The occurrence of clinical cases initiated the need for a seroprevalence and risk factors study. Two hundred and fifty-three normal horses were randomly enrolled in the study. Enrolled horses were grouped into five major regions according to the geographical proximity and climatic similarities. From each region, around 50 horses were sampled. The serum collected from each horse was screened by a competitive ELISA, and those that reacted positive using the previous ELISA test were further tested using commercial IgM-capture ELISA test. Sixty-three horses (24.9%) of the 253 surveyed were seropositive to WNV. Of the 63 horses, none had IgM antibodies for WNV. The region with the highest prevalence was Jordan Valley and Balqa. Horses used for polo (OR = 9.77; 95%CI = 1.32-25.44) and horses located in Jordan Valley and Balqa region (OR = 13.31; 95% CI = 2.33-32.54) were identified as risk factors for seropositivity to WNV in Jordan. These risk factors were attributed to the hot and humid weather, which enhance vector availability. West Nile virus appears to be endemic in Jordan. Future studies are warranted to evaluate the virus situation in the country during the next few years in an attempt to control it.
    Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 01/2014; 61. DOI:10.1111/tbed.12191 · 3.12 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective-To evaluate the ability of atropine sulfate, butylscopolammonium bromide combined with metamizole sodium, and flunixin meglumine to ameliorate the clinical adverse effects of imidocarb dipropionate in horses. Animals-28 horses with piroplasmosis. Procedures-28 horses were randomly assigned to 4 equal groups according to the pretreatment administered. Fifteen minutes before administration of 2.4 mg of imidocarb dipropionate/kg IM, horses in the first group were pretreated with 0.02 mg of atropine sulfate/kg IV, the second group with a combination of 0.2 mg of butylscopolammonium bromide/kg IV and 25 mg of metamizole sodium/kg IV, the third group with 1.1 mg of flunixin meglumine/kg IV, and the fourth (control) group with 1 mL of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution/50 kg IV. Physical examination, including evaluation of rectal temperature, heart and respiratory rates, capillary refill time, mucous membrane color, hydration status, abdominal sounds, signs of abdominal pain, salivation, diarrhea, and number of defecations, was performed. Results-Imidocarb dipropionate use in the control group was associated with serious adverse effects including signs of abdominal pain (4/7 horses) and diarrhea (2/7). Horses pretreated with atropine had no diarrhea, but 6 had signs of abdominal pain. Only 1 horse that received butylscopolammonium-metamizole pretreatment had signs of abdominal pain and 3 had diarrhea, which was numerically but not significantly different than the control group. Of horses pretreated with flunixin, 3 had signs of abdominal pain and 3 had diarrhea. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-A combination of butylscopolammonium bromide and metamizole sodium may be useful to ameliorate the adverse effects of imidocarb dipropionate in horses, although group size was small and significant differences from the control group were not found.
    American Journal of Veterinary Research 11/2013; 74(11):1404-8. DOI:10.2460/ajvr.74.11.1404 · 1.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    10/2013; 9(2):184-192. DOI:10.12816/0001101
  • Source
  • Source
  • Source
    K.M Al-Qudah, A.M. Al-Majali
  • Abdelsalam Q Talafha, Ahmad M Al-Majali
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence and to identify risk factors associated with Neospora caninum infection in 62 dairy herds (n = 671 cows) in Jordan between January and June 2007. Information regarding herd management was recorded through personal interviews with farmers. Antibodies against N. caninum were detected using an indirect ELISA test. Chi-square analysis and multivariable logistic regression model were used to identify risk factors associated with N. caninum seropositivity. The true prevalence of antibodies against N. caninum in individual cows and cattle herds was 35 and 66.5 %, respectively. There was no significant difference in the percentage of seropositive animals between different age groups. Multivariable logistic regression model revealed workers frequently visiting nearby farms as a risk factor for seropositivity to N. caninum, while presence of a calving pen was suggested as a protective factor. Amman, Balqa, and Mafrak governorates had significantly lower seroprevalence to N. caninum compared to other Jordanian governorates. Results of this study indicated that N. caninum infection may be widespread in Jordan.
    Tropical Animal Health and Production 08/2012; 45(2). DOI:10.1007/s11250-012-0244-8 · 0.97 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine seroprevalence and to identify risk factors associated with Chlamydophila abortus infection in 62 nonvaccinated dairy herds (671 cows) in Jordan between January and June 2007. Information regarding herd management was recorded through a personal interview with farmers. Antibodies against C. abortus were detected using an ELISA test kit. Chi-square analysis and multivariable logistic regression model were used to identify risk factors associated with C. abortus seropositivity. The true prevalence of antibodies against C. abortus in individual cows and cattle herds were 19.9 % and 66.3 %, respectively. Univariable Chi-square analysis revealed three variables with P ≤ 0.25 that were further offered to multivariable logistic regression analysis. Small-sized herds were identified as a risk factor for seropositivity to C. abortus, while sweeping followed by water hosing and using disinfectants were identified as protective factors. Cows in the age groups of >8 and ≤10 years old and >2 and ≤6 years old had the highest and lowest significant seroprevalence to C. abortus, respectively. Results of this study indicated that C. abortus is highly prevalent in Jordan's dairy herds and Chlamydophila infection could be controlled by applying strict biosecurity measures in the dairy farms.
    Tropical Animal Health and Production 04/2012; 44(8). DOI:10.1007/s11250-012-0146-9 · 0.97 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A total of 423 blood samples were collected (during 2009 and 2010) from all the ram holdings at three major Jordanian governmental Awassi breeding stations (Al-Khanasry, Al- Mushairfa and Al-Fjaje) and two private flocks. All blood samples were screened for the presence of mutations at the CNGA3 gene (responsible for day blindness in Awassi sheep) using RFLP-PCR. The day blindness mutation was detected in all studied flocks. The overall allele and genotype frequencies of all studied flocks of the day blindness mutation were 0.088 and 17.49%, respectively. The genotype and allele frequencies were higher in station flocks than the farmer flocks (0.121, 24.15 and 0.012, 2.32, respectively). Al-Mushairfa and Al-Khanasry stations have the highest genotype and allele frequencies for the day blindness mutation that were 27.77, 30.00% and 0.14, 0.171, respectively. The investigated farmer flocks have low percentages (0.03, 5.88% at Al-Shoubak and 0.005 and 1.05%, at Al-Karak, respectively for genotype and allele frequencies) compared with the breeding stations. Ram culling strategy was applied throughout the genotyping period in order to gradually eradicate this newly identified day blindness mutation from Jordanian Breeding station, since they annually distribute a high percentage of improved rams to farmer's flocks.
    Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 01/2012; 25(1). DOI:10.5713/ajas.2011.11187 · 0.56 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purposes of this study were to estimate the seroprevalence and distribution of horse piroplasmosis, to evaluate risk factors associated with the occurrence of the disease and to compare the different diagnostic methods used for this disease. A total of 253 clinically normal horses were sampled, and a collection form was completed for each horse from five of six different climatic zones of Jordan. The sixth zone was not sampled because it did not include horse population. Competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) revealed 37 horses (14.6%) positive for Theileria equi, and none of the horses was positive for Babesia caballi. Microscopic examination of thin blood smears and PCR test revealed no positive results for either parasite. Grazing was the only risk factor that was associated with being seropositive to the disease; horses that graze are 11.5 more likely to be seropositive (P<0.05, OR=11.5, CI: 3.292, 39.962). This is the first study to estimate the prevalence of horse babesiosis using serological test and to identify risk factors associated with the disease in Jordan. Competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) test appears to be more reliable than microscopic examination and PCR in estimating the seroprevalence of the disease as well as identifying carrier horses to babesiosis.
    Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 07/2011; 59(1):72-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1865-1682.2011.01244.x · 3.12 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Saad Gharaibeh, Rami Al Rifai, Ahmad Al-Majali
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Clostridium perfringens (Cp) causes necrotic enteritis disease in commercial poultry. Antimicrobials are used to control and treat this disease and sometimes clinical outbreaks do not respond well to certain treatments. This study was designed to isolate Cp from clinical cases, type these isolates by multiplex PCR, and determine their antimicrobial susceptibility by micro-dilution method. A total of 67 Cp isolates were obtained from 155 broiler chicken flocks. All isolates were classified as type A and non-enterotoxin producers. Lincomycin, erythromycins, and tilmicosin showed very high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 50 of ≥256 μg/ml. However, tylosin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, penicillin, florfenicol, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, and oxytetracycline had variable MIC₅₀ of 64, 0.5, 1, 1, 8, 4, 8, 4, 8, 0.5 μg/ml, respectively. It is recommended that Cp infections in Jordan be treated with either penicillins or tetracyclines especially amoxicillin and oxytetracycline.
    Anaerobe 10/2010; 16(6):586-9. DOI:10.1016/j.anaerobe.2010.10.004 · 2.36 Impact Factor
  • Ahmad M Al-Majali, Mohammad S Khalifeh
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Heat-stable enterotoxin (STa) secretion from Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is crucial for the pathogenesis of diarrhea in both animal and human. The goal of this study was to investigate the distribution of the STa-specific receptors in the newborn camel's enterocytes and brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs). Flow cytometric analysis was used to investigate the density of STa-receptors on enterocytes and BBMVs prepared from anterior jejunum, posterior jejunum, ileum, and colon. Strong density and affinity of STa-receptors was present on enterocytes and BBMVs of the ileum compared to that in the other intestinal segments. It was concluded that the ileum is the major target for STa action in newborn camels.
    Tropical Animal Health and Production 04/2010; 42(6):1311-4. DOI:10.1007/s11250-010-9570-x · 0.97 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of xylazine–ketamine–diazepam anesthesia on heart rate, respiration rate, rectal temperature, rumen motility, peripheral blood pH, PaO2, and PaCO2 in adult female nonpregnant Awassi sheep and adult female nonpregnant Damascus goats. Anesthesia was induced using 0.1mg/kg, 5mg/kg, and 0.25mg/kg xylazine, ketamine, and diazepam respectively as a single intravenous injection. The heart rate, respiration rate, rectal temperature, rumen motility, peripheral arterial blood pH, PaO2, and PaCO2 were evaluated 15min before and at 15, 30, and 60min during anesthesia. In sheep, the heart rate, rumen motility, and PaO2 were decreased significantly (P < 0.05) at 15, 30, and 60min following anesthesia. The respiration rate and rectal temperature and blood pH were decreased significantly (P < 0.05) at 30 and 60min. The peripheral PaCO2 was increased significantly (P < 0.05) at 15 and 30min. In goats, the heart rate and rumen motility were decreased significantly (P < 0.05) at 15, 30, and 60min while the respiration rate was decreased only significantly (P < 0.05) at 60min. Rectal temperature was decreased significantly (P < 0.05) at 30 and 60min. The blood pH was decreased significantly (P < 0.05) at 15 and 30min. PaO2 was only significantly (P < 0.05) decreased at 15min while PaCO2 was increased significantly (P < 0.05) at 15 and 30min.
    Comparative Clinical Pathology 01/2010; 19(1):11-14. DOI:10.1007/s00580-009-0896-6
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To examine the effects of xylazine, ketamine, diazepam anesthesia on clinical pathology parameters in sheep and goats, seven adult, healthy, non-pregnant Awassi sheep weighing 40–60kg and seven adult, healthy non-pregnant Damascus breed goats weighing 35 to 55kg were used. Anesthesia was induced using 0.1mg/kg xylazine, 5mg/kg ketamine, and 0.25mg/kg diazepam as a single intravenous injection. Blood cell counts and plasma biochemical analysis were performed before anesthesia (T0), 2h after recovery, 24h after recovery, and 5days later. Hematological analysis indicated that there was a significant increase in neutrophil percentages (P ≤ 0.05) in sheep and goats at 2h and 24h after recovery. There was a mild lymphopenia and a significant leukocytosis at 24h after recovery in both species. Packed cell volume was significantly increased at 24 h and at 2 h and 24 h after recovery in sheep and goats, respectively, while total red blood cell count was significantly decreased at 24h after recovery in sheep and goats. There were no significant changes in hemoglobin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, total protein, and albumin concentrations. Glucose was significantly elevated at 2 h after recovery in goats only. Aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase were not significantly changed at any sampling point. It is therefore concluded that a combination of xylazine, ketamine, and diazepam can be used to induce short term anesthesia in sheep and goats with minimum effects on clinical laboratory parameters. KeywordsInjectable anesthesia-Xylazine-Ketamine-Diazepam-Sheep-Goats-Clinical pathology
    Comparative Clinical Pathology 01/2010; 19(6):571-574. DOI:10.1007/s00580-009-0923-7
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to compare the efficacy of intraventricular (IV), intramyocardial (IM) or combined IV and IM injections of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hADSCs) administered either immediately, 5, or 10days after induction of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in a nude rat model. Acute myocardial infarction was induced in 99, adult (250–350g BW), male nude rats strain Crl:NIH-Fox1RNU. Rats received either no cells (group I, n = 15) or 2 million, hADSCs as follows: group II (n = 19) IV injection immediately after AMI; group III (n = 18) IV injection 5days after AMI; group IV (n = 15) IV injection 5days and IM injection 10days after AMI; group V (n = 17) IV injection immediately after AMI and IM injection 10days after AMI and group VI (n = 15) IM injection 10days after AMI. Tissue sections from hearts were studied using H&E and immunohistochemistry. In the control group, there was a tendency toward granulation tissue formation, active phagocytosis, and variable angiogenesis when evaluated at 10days, early fibrosis when evaluated at 30days, and established fibrosis when evaluated at 60days. However, hADSC-treated groups showed a tendency toward cardiomyocyte regeneration and prominent angiogenesis when evaluated at 10days and smaller infarction size when evaluated at 30 and 60days. The present study showed a significantly decreased amount of scar tissue following myocardial infarction and enhanced regenerative capacity of myocardial cells following a single, intraventricular injection of 2 million hADSCs immediately after AMI. KeywordsStem cells-Adipose tissue-Myocardial infarction-Heart failure-Cellular cardiomyoplasty
    Comparative Clinical Pathology 01/2010; 19(6):593-600. DOI:10.1007/s00580-009-0927-3
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine the clinical pathology parameters in nude rats (Crl:NIH-Fox1RNU) following experimental induction of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), 50 male adult nude rats weighing 250–350g were used. Complete blood count, total and differential leukocyte counts, plasma total protein, albumin, glucose, urea, creatinine, total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase were determined before (time zero, T0), 1, and 5days following experimental induction of AMI. Lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase (CK), and creatinine kinase MB fraction (CK-MB) were determined at T0, 6, and 24h following AMI. There were no significant changes in the hematological parameters at any sampling point. Among all plasma biochemical parameters studied, only CK and CK-MB were significantly elevated 6h following induction of AMI. These data will aid scientists and researchers in the interpretation and better application of their results when using nude rats for AMI studies.
    Comparative Clinical Pathology 11/2009; 18(4):433-437. DOI:10.1007/s00580-009-0827-6
  • Source
    M S Khalifeh, A M Al-Majali, J R Stabel
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) is a crucial mediator in host defense and is one of the major killing mechanisms within macrophages. Its induction is highly affected by the types of cytokines and the infectious agents present. In the current study, NO production was evaluated after in vitro infection of unfractionated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) after 8h, 3 and 6 days of culture for cows in different stages of disease. In addition, the effects of in vitro exposure to inhibitory cytokines such as interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-gamma were correlated with the level of NO production. Nitric oxide production was consistently higher in cell cultures from subclinically infected animals at all time points. An upregulation of NO production was demonstrated in unfractionated cell cultures from healthy control cows after exposure to MAP infection as compared to noninfected cell cultures. A similar increase in NO due to the addition of MAP to cell cultures was also noted for clinically infected cows. NO level among subclinically infected cattle was greater at all time points tested and was further boosted with the combination of both in vitro MAP infection and IFN-gamma stimulation. Alternatively, nonspecific stimulation with LPS from Escherichia coli O111:B4-W resulted in an upregulation of NO production in all infected groups at 3 and 6 days after in vitro infection. Finally, the in vitro exposure to inhibitory cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-beta prior to MAP infection or LPS stimulation resulted in the downregulation of this inflammatory mediator (NO) in all experimental groups at all time points. In summary, a higher level of NO production was associated with cows in the subclinical stage of MAP infection. As well, the results demonstrated an increase in NO production upon infection with MAP and in the presence of exogenous IFN-gamma. Finally, the results suggest an important role of IL-10 and TGF-beta on the profile of NO production which may explain the low NO production in MAP clinically infected cows.
    Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 05/2009; 131(1-2):97-104. DOI:10.1016/j.vetimm.2009.03.020 · 1.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence and to identify risk factors associated with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in 62 non-vaccinated dairy herds (671 cows) in Jordan between January and June 2007. Information regarding herd management was recorded through a personal interview with farmers. Antibodies against BVDV were detected using an indirect ELISA test. Chi-square analysis and multivariable logistic regression model were used to identify risk factors for BVDV seropositivity. The true prevalence of antibodies against BVDV in individual cows and cattle herds was 31.6% and 80.7%, respectively. The seroprevalence of BVDV in medium and large size herds was significantly higher than that in smaller herds. There was no significant difference in BVD seroprevalence between different age groups. Random-effects logistic regression model revealed two major factors associated with seropositivity to BVDV; exchange of visits between adjacent farm workers and not isolating newly purchased animals before addition to the herd. The seroprevalence of BVDV in cows located in the northern Jordanian governorates was significantly higher than that in other studied governorates. Results of this study indicated that BVDV is highly prevalent in Jordan and BVDV infection could be controlled by livestock-trade control, and applying strict biosecurity measures in the dairy farms.
    Tropical Animal Health and Production 04/2009; 41(4):499-506. DOI:10.1007/s11250-008-9214-6 · 0.97 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

187 Citations
41.15 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997–2013
    • Jordan University of Science and Technology
      • Department of Clinical Veterinary Medical Sciences
      Arbēla, Irbid, Jordan
  • 2010
    • University of Jordan
      • Faculty of Medicine
      `Ammān, Amman, Jordan
  • 1998–2000
    • Purdue University
      • Department of Basic Medical Sciences (BMS)
      West Lafayette, Indiana, United States