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ABSTRACT: A 6.5-GHz FSK modulator suitable for low power wireless sensor network is presented. The energy efficient modulator employs closed-loop direct VCO modulation to achieve high data rate, multistage variable loop bandwidth technique for fast startup time and Σ-Δ for reduced power consumption in the synthesizer with fine resolution in frequency channel selection. The modulator, implemented using 0.25-μm CMOS, achieves 20-μs startup time with an effective data rate of 2.5 Mb/s while consuming 22 mW.
IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits 06/2004; · 3.06 Impact Factor