ABSTRACT: Stress relaxation (or equivalently creep) allows a large range of the relaxation (retardation) spectrum of materials to be examined, particularly at lower frequencies. However, higher frequency components of the relaxation curves (typically of the order of Hertz) are attenuated due to the finite time taken to strain the specimen. This higher frequency information can be recovered by deconvolution of the stress and strain during the loading period. This paper examines the use of three separate deconvolution techniques: numerical (Fourier) deconvolution, semi-analytical deconvolution using a theoretical form of the strain, and deconvolution by a linear approximation method. Both theoretical data (where the exact form of the relaxation function is known) and experimental data were used to assess the accuracy and applicability of the deconvolution methods. All of the deconvolution techniques produced a consistent improvement in the higher frequency data up to the frequencies of the order of Hertz, with the linear approximation method showing better resolution in high-frequency analysis of the theoretical data. When the different deconvolution techniques were applied to experimental data, similar results were found for all three deconvolution techniques. Deconvolution of the stress and strain during loading is a simple and practical method for the recovery of higher frequency data from stress-relaxation experiments.
Journal of Biomechanics 12/2002; 35(11):1485-9. · 2.43 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: An in vitro biomechanical and radiographic study to evaluate the properties of a newly developed bioactive bone cement for stabilization of the fractured spine, suitable for minimally invasive application.
To determine the mechanical stability of the fractured spine after injection of the newly developed bioactive bone cement under quasi-static and cyclic loading regimens.
Bone cement injection has been reported as a potentially useful, minimally invasive technique for treating vertebral body fracture or stabilizing osteoporosis. However, potential problems associated with the use of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) have prompted the search for alternative solutions. The use of bioactive bone cement as a potential replacement for PMMA has been reported.
Biomechanical and radiographic analyses were used to test the mechanical stability of the fractured spine. The cement used was formed from hydroxyapatite powder containing strontium and bisphenol A diglycidylether dimethacrylate (D-GMA) resin. Twenty-six fresh porcine spine specimens (T10-L1) were divided into three groups: pilot, intact, and cemented. Spinal stiffness and failure strength were recorded in the intact group with the specimens flexed at 10 degrees. Uniform injuries were created in all specimens of the cemented group, and compressive loading was applied with 10 degrees of flexion until a fracture occurred. The bone cement was injected into the fractured spine, and stiffness was evaluated after 1 hour. Failure strength was also recorded after 3000 and 20,000 fatigue load cycles. Morphology of the specimens was observed and evaluated.
Results from a cell biocompatibility test indicated that the new bioactive bone cement was favorable for cell growth. Spinal stiffness significantly decreased after fracture (47.5% of intact condition). Instant stiffness of the spine recovered to 107.8% of the intact condition after bone cement injection. After 3000 and 20,000 cycles of fatigue loading, stiffness of the cemented spine was found to be 93.5% and 94.4% of intact stiffness, respectively (P < 0.05). Average failure strength of the spine was 5056 N (after 3000 cycles) and 5301 N (after 20,000 cycles) after bone cement injection and fatigue loading. Radiographs and cross-sectional observations indicated a good cement-bone bonding and fracture fill.
A new bioactive bone cement without cytotoxic effect has been developed. Results show that minimally invasive techniques to apply this cement to porcine spines results in augmentation of mild burst fractures such that the original stiffness and strength of the vertebra are recovered. This new cement therefore shows potential as an augmentation to traditional instrumentation in the surgical management of vertebral fractures. The potential for further clinical applications is currently under investigation.
Spine 12/2001; 26(24):2684-90; discussion 2690-1. · 2.08 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Sacral screw fixation is frequently used for fusion of the lower lumbar spine, but sacral screws appear to offer less secure fixation than lumbar pedicle screws, and failure due to loosening under fatigue loading is common. The aim of this study was to examine in vitro the stability of medial and lateral bicortical and unicortical sacral screw fixation under a physiologically relevant fatigue-loading pattern. Bone mineral density, screw insertion torque, and screw-fixation stiffness were measured prior to cyclic loading between 40 and 400 N compression at 2 Hz for 20,000 cycles. The screw-fixation stiffness was measured every 500 cycles, and the axial pullout strength of the screws was recorded following loading. All of the lateral insertions loosened under the applied loading, but some of the medial insertions remained stable. Medial insertions proved stiffer and stronger than lateral insertions, and bicortical fixations were stronger than unicortical fixations. Bone mineral density and insertion torque were correlated with screw stiffness and pullout strength, although better correlation was found for insertion torque than bone mineral density. Bone mineral density is a good preoperative indicator of sacral screw-fixation strength, and insertion torque is a good intraoperative indicator. An insertion torque greater than 1.5 Nm is suggested as an indicative value for a stable medial unicortical insertion, whereas an insertion torque greater than 2 Nm suggests a stable medial bicortical insertion. It appears that, apart from the choice of technique (screw orientation and depth), minimizing the load on the screws during the initial part of the fusion process is also critical to maintain stability of the fused section and to obtain a solid fusion mass.
Journal of Orthopaedic Research 10/2000; 18(5):808-14. · 2.81 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The pull-out strength of sacral screw fixation after cyclic loading was tested using young human cadaveric specimens.
To evaluate the effects of fatigue loading on the pull-out strength of medial and lateral unicortical and bicortical sacral screws and to correlate the pull-out strength with sacral bone density and the screw insertion torque.
The immediate biomechanical effects of depth of penetration, screw orientation, and bone density on sacral screw fixation have been studied in aged cadaveric specimens. The effect of cyclic loading on the pull-out strength of sacral screw fixation is unknown, however, and data from young specimens is rare.
Eleven fresh specimens of human sacrum were used in this study. Bone mineral density at the vertebral body and the ala were determined by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Seven-millimeter compact Cotrel-Dubousset sacral screws were inserted into the sacrum anteromedially and anterolaterally, both unicortically and bicortically, and the insertion torque for each screw was measured. Cyclic loading from 40 to 400 N was applied to each screw at a frequency of 2 Hz up to 20,000 cycles. Pull-out tests were conducted after completion of the fatigue tests.
The average bone density was 0.38 +/- 0.08 g/mL at the S1 body and 0.24 +/- 0.05 g/mL at the S1 ala. The insertion torque and average pull-out force after cyclic loading were significantly higher for bicortical fixation than for unicortical fixation for a particular screw alignment. The pull-out strength and insertion torque of medially oriented fixation was always higher than that for lateral fixation, however, regardless of whether the insertion was unicortical or bicortical. The pull-out force of unicortical and bicortical medial screw fixations after cyclic loading showed significant linear correlations with both the insertion torque and the bone mineral density of the S1 body.
In a young population, screw orientation (anterolateral or anteromedial) was more important in determining pull-out strength than screw depth (unicortical or bicortical) after fatigue loading, anteromedially directed screws being significantly stronger than laterallyplaced screws. Bone mineral density of the S1 body andinsertion torque were good preoperative and intraoperative indicators of screw pull-out strength.
Spine 06/2000; 25(9):1065-9. · 2.08 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: This study is designed to examine the effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) administration on the biomechanical properties of thin skin flap healing. A total of 42 rats were used in this study, and skin flaps 10 cm long by 3 cm wide were raised in 28 rats. One injection of bFGF was applied at three different times (immediately postoperatively, and 24 h and 48 h postoperatively) between the flap and wound bed of 14 rats (the bFGF treated group), while the other 14 rats with flaps had the same tissue culture medium treatment but without bFGF (the untreated group). The remaining 14 rats without flaps constituted the control group (normal group). The rats were killed 10 days postoperatively, and 1. 0 cm x 6.0 cm sections of the skin flap taken for mechanical and histological testing. The load, deformation and tensile strength at failure were recorded. The average flap survival area in the bFGF treated group was 27 cm(2), significantly higher (P< 0.001) than that seen in the untreated group. The average elastic stiffness of the skin flap in the bFGF treated group was also observed to be higher than in the untreated group although this difference was not significant. The mean tensile strength of the bFGF treated group (61 N) was significantly higher than the untreated group (38 N, P< 0.01) however. Despite this, the tensile strengths at failure of both of these groups were found to be significantly lower than that of normal skin (101 N, P< 0.01). A relaxation in load of about 8% was seen in specimens from the normal group and the bFGF treated group, while the untreated group showed a relaxation of about 15%.
British Journal of Plastic Surgery 04/2000; 53(3):225-9. · 1.29 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Single joints of the cervical spine were subject to axial
compressive loads and the load relaxation recorded for 15 minutes.
Isochronal plots of stress against strain were plotted for each specimen
and showed high linear correlation coefficients (>0.955).
Accordingly, a linear model was chosen and fitted to data obtained from
a fuller range (3 hours) of the complete relaxation curve. The
relaxation times extracted from this model were approximately 10 minutes
and 5 hours. Fourier transform of the relaxation curve allows the
storage modulus and the loss modulus of the relaxation spectrum to be
shown separately as functions of frequency. Fourier analysis shows that
the cervical spine has a wide and smooth distribution of relaxation
times. Examination of the higher frequency components of the relaxation
in the region of 1 to 20 Hz show the loss modulus to be almost flat and
tending towards zero. This work shows that while the disc is capable of
dissipating a large proportion of the applied strain energy, it can only
do this slowly, and the discs of the cervical spine are inefficient as
`shock absorbers' of axial loads
Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 1998. Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference of the IEEE;