[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many national mapping agencies offer geographic datasets on the Web. The potential users are interested in buying the dataset. An exchange of geographic data is a transaction and involves transaction costs. Transaction costs include the cost of measuring what has been exchanged and the cost of protecting rights, plus policing and enforcing agreements. Our research on transaction costs is based on experiments in Sweden and Germany. We focus on the cost of data acquisition, the search for information about the data provider, and the quality and price of its dataproducts. The experiments show that there is a difference if only one data provider exists or there are several different suppliers available. We conclude the paper with a description of the experiment, our first results and further research work.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adaptive WEB-GIS systems are emerging as a promising technology for managing highly dynamic situations such as in emergencies.
Such situations require quick response and combination of static and dynamic data. Context information is crucial for understanding
the possible roles within the rescue teams and the possibility for their collaboration. Emergency conditions require adjustments
of performance and behavior according to the information and activation of the components and according to the needs of the
users. In this paper, we propose a context-aware meta model for a WEB-GIS interface. This model is based on the unified modeling
language (UML) and the model driven architecture (MDA) paradigm. The proposed framework is described in terms of an emerging
web engineering paradigm by specializing a meta model transformation that adapts WEB-GIS interfaces to the context information.
A study case is taken from a flood emergency scenario. A discussion of the corresponding technological framework, together
with a description of a test case, is given in order to show the feasibility of the proposed concept.
Information Fusion and Geographic Information Systems, Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop, IF&GIS 2009, 17-20 May 2009, St. Petersburg, Russia; 01/2009
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this short paper we identify the beneficial properties of an incorporation of P2P concepts into the field of geoinformation technologies. We call for additional research in P2P computing related to its possible use in applications which support spatial decision-making processes
Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises, 2006. WETICE '06. 15th IEEE International Workshops on; 07/2006
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The system presented in the paper is the main result of an on-going European research project WORKPAD (IST- 2005-5-034749) that aims at building and developing an innovative software infrastructure (software,models, services, etc.) for supporting collaborative work of human operators in emergency/disaster scenarios. In such scenarios, different teams, belonging to different organizations, need to collaborate each other to reach a common goal; each team member is equipped with handheld devices (PDAs) and communication technologies, and should carry on specific tasks. In such a way we can consider the whole team as carrying on a process (macro-process), and the different teams (of the different organizations) collaborate through the interleaving of all the different processes. The idea is to investigate a 2-level framework for such scenarios: a back-end peer-to-peer community, providing advanced services requiring high computational power, data-knowledge-content integration, and a set of front-end peer-to-peer communities, that provide services to human workers, mainly by adaptively enacting processes on mobile ad-hoc networks.
Collaborative Technologies and Systems, 2006. CTS 2006. International Symposium on; 06/2006
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, we present a recently funded Euro-pean research project, namely WORKPAD, that aims at designing and developing an innovative software infrastructure (software, models, services, etc.) for supporting collaborative work of human operators in emergency/disaster scenarios. In such scenarios, different teams, belonging to different organizations, need to collaborate with one other to reach a common goal; each team member is equipped with handheld devices (PDAs) and communi-cation technologies, and should carry on specific tasks. In such a case we can consider the whole team as carrying on a process, and the different teams (of the different organizations) collaborate through the "interleaving" of all the different processes (macro-process). Each team is supported by some back-end centre, and the different centres need to cooperate at an inter-organizational level to reach an effective coordination among teams. The project will investigate a 2-level framework for such scenarios: a back-end peer-to-peer community, providing advanced services requir-ing high computational power, data & knowledge & content integration, and a set of front-end peer-to-peer communities, that provide services to human workers, mainly by adaptively enacting processes on mobile ad-hoc networks.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dieser Beitrag gibt zuerst eine kurze Einführung in die Thematik Public Participatory Geographic Information Systems (PP GIS), legt die wichtigsten Komponenten eines PP GIS dar und konzentriert sich dann auf online GIS unterstützte Beteiligungsprozesse in der räumlichen Planung. Nach der Erklärung der Methode SWOT werden in einer tabellarischen Übersicht Stärken, Schwächen, Chancen und Risiken von PP GIS analysiert. Anschließend konzentrieren wir uns auf die Motivation der Bürger und auf die Usability einer PP GIS Applikation. Diese zwei identifizierten Schwächen analysieren wir am Beispiel eines Projektes für die Stadt Salzburg, das derzeit in der Entwicklung ist. Wir schließen das Paper mit einem Ausblick in die Zukunft ab.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Public participatory geographic information systems (PP GIS) aim at enlarging citizen’s involvement and participation in decision-making
processes. In this paper we review existing online PP GIS applications and present the framework of our analysis. We concentrate
on the aspects of interactivity of such applications and the GIS functionalities needed for their operation. First results
of ongoing research exhibit that a vast majority of applications only deliver information to the citizen in a one-way communication
process. Although the technology is available, only few applications fulfill criteria of our analysis to be classified as
two-way communication tools. We conclude the paper with directions for our further research.
E-Government: Towards Electronic Democracy, International Conference, TCGOV 2005, Bolzano, Italy, March 2-4, 2005, Proceedings; 01/2005
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the most important goals of public participatory geographic information systems (PP GIS) is to improve citizen's participation in planning processes. Does this really happen? Unfortunately, very little empirical research exists which would testify or falsify this hypothesis. In the process of trying to involve the citizens in the planning processes, we observe the effect of rational ignorance. Ignorance about an issue is said to be rational when the cost of educating oneself about the issue sufficiently to make an informed decision can outweigh any potential benefit one could reasonably expect to gain from that decision, and so it would be irrational to waste time doing so. For most citizens the personal benefit of getting involved in planning activities and learning how to use a public participatory GIS application is usually low and the cost of participation high. Therefore, they rather decide to ignore the possibility of participation. In this paper, we concentrate on the rational ignorance in spatial participatory planning and the role of PP GIS in this process.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Public Participatory Geographical Information Systems (PP GIS) is a field of research that focuses on the use of GIS by the general public and aims at involving citizens in a decision-making processes. PP GIS applications increasingly use the Internet as a platform for communication and dissemination of information. They link community participation and geographic information in a diversity of social and environmental contexts. In this paper we compare twelve online PP GIS applications and evaluate them according to their usability, interactivity and visualisation. A qualitative expert analysis shows that a highly interactive citizen information exchange platform is the exception rather than the rule. After presenting first results of the study we discuss some directions for ongoing and future work including suggestions for PPGIS evaluation by non-expert users.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Potential buyers of geographic information are willing to pay for the value they perceive. In our approach we distinguish between the functional and cognitive value. Functional value evaluates the geographic information in the sense of characteristics and performance that are important for the buyer. It can be quantified by the improvement of the decision making process in which the information is used. In this paper we show that we can construct an agent-based computational model for quantifying the functional value of geographic information. The model is applied to the case study of car navigation in a city. The cognitive valuation is a subjective perception of value, cannot be easily quantified, and is excluded from this study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Users demand GI to help them with their spatial decisions. National Mapping Agencies and similar organisations collect Geographic Data. Several organisations contribute to the transformation from raw geographic data to usable GI. In this article the chain of contributors adding value is investigated. The corresponding economic theory gives guidelines for fixing the transfer prices between the participants, which determines their share of the value produced. Further considerations of the value chain contribute to explain the differences in GI related business between Europe and USA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is an important distinction of understanding the quality as seen from the buyer's or producer's perspective. Different aspects of (the) quality influence the costs for the producer and benefits to the user. The producer usually establishes the level of the quality. The qualitative product for the user is a product that meets his needs. What is the economically rational level of quality? The economically rational level of quality is the quality that brings the highest benefit to the user and maximizes the profit for the producer. The optimal point for the producer to make maximum profit is where the difference between the benefit of the quality produced and the cost of production is the highest. Measuring the quality enables to establish the level of the value the product has to the buyer. Costs of measuring the quality are discussed in this paper. Warranties, standards and brand names reduce the costs of measuring. The discussion is in terms of a single quality dimension, but it ...
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Users demand Geographic Information to help them with their spatial decisions. National Mapping Agencies and similar organisations collect Geographic Data. Several organisations contribute to the transformation from raw geographic data to usable geographic information. In this contribution we investigate how this chain of contributors produce the value of the geographic information. The corresponding economic theory gives guidelines for fixing the transfer prices between the participants, which determines their share of the value produced. Further considerations of the value chain contribute to explain the differences in Geoinformation business between Europe and USA. Abstract -- German Die Anwender brauchen Geographische Information fr ihre rumlichen Entscheidungen. Staatliche Vermessungsmter und hnliche Organisationen sammeln geographische Daten. Verschiedene Organisationen tragen zu der Bildung von brauchbarer Geographischer Information aus rohen geographischen Daten bei. In diesem...
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To set the optimal price for geographic data, which are used by other agents, is an important, but very difficult question. In this paper we review the current understanding of pricing geographic information. To set prices for geographic data in a rational manner, a surprising array of possibilities are used. Most of the current methods apply to selling raw data, and are based on the quantity of data provided and the length of time the data can be used. Prices relate to the costs of collection and maintenance of the data. These methods lead to high prices, which does not correspond to the intended use of the data and the value the user can draw from it. This is not economically rational and does not lead to maximum income, but also not to maximum use of the data. Another extreme case are public domain data or data sold at a cost of reproduction. We develop the concept of Geoinformation Product (GIP), which satisfies the needs of a particular part of a market (target users). Setting an ...
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A location based service provides location information to the user. This information has an economic value for the user only if it improves his decision-making process. We select driving in a city as an example of a decision-making process; every intersection represents a decision making point where the driver has to decide where to drive. In order to prove our methodological approach for measuring the benefits of using location based services we construct an agent-based model. In this paper we present our methodological approach and the basic elements of the agent-based model.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Game theory is a theory of decision-making and models dynamic and flexible economic relationships. In this paper we demonstrate how it can be implemented in a geoinformation trade situation. We set up a business game model where two producers of geoinformation produce and sell their products. The producers are rational in the sense that they are trying to maximize their profits, and they can set either a high or a low price for their geoinformation products. We focus on the implementation of different pricing strategies and show the resulting payoffs in the form of the profits gained by the geoinformation producers. According to our analysis, setting a low price is a strictly dominant strategy. A dominant strategy is the best choice for a player for every possible choice of the other player. We conclude the paper with a discussion of the analysis results and suggestions for further research.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Value pricing is pricing according to the value the buyer attaches to the characteristics of the product. It is market based pricing that is generally independent of the production cost. In order to be able to apply value pricing the producer has to identify the characteristics of geoinformation that have an economic value for the buyer. Such analysis can be done with metric conjoint analysis which is concerned with quantitative descriptions of the buyer's preferences and his value trade-offs. Additional requirement for the implementation of the value pricing is product differentiation where the producer differentiates his products in such a way as to better satisfy the varieties of the buyer's needs. The problem with value pricing is price dispersion. Price dispersion is a variation in prices for the same good and, consequently, can create perceptions of unfairness among buyers if they are able to share information about prices.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Map-based public participation with the medium interactive television is a very young research area. The conclusion after an intensive search on the internet is that nobody has dealt with this research topic yet. With interactive television the viewer is able to make personal input or feedback that has an influence on what he/she sees and hears or is subjected to. This paper has the focus on the description of the medium interactive television, deals with its technical background and describes the Multimedia Home Platform (MHP). It further concentrates on the advantages and disadvantages of the usage of map-based public participatory applications with the medium interactive television. Interactive TV has the potential to become an important medium for some groups in our society, especially for the elderly and for visually impaired people. The second part of the paper deals with the ongoing project iiTV@home. iiTV@home focuses on the development of a map-based public participatory application for interactive television. Users can get informed about ongoing projects on the national and on the city level. Within the scope of the project S-Bahn Salzburg they receive the possibility to take part in a barometer of public opinion, where they are supposed to answer some questions concerning the building progress. Further we describe the user requirements analysis with the help of the Unified Modelling Language (UML), show and describe the first design of the prototype and deal with the design and the architecture of the system. At last an outlook on the user test is given.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data quality of geographic information is of importance to the user and the producer. This paper provides an economic framework in which the relation between the quality of geographic data and its value can be discussed and shows how economically optimal quality can be achieved. A number of steps are necessary to construct such a theory. We show that the concept of the Geoinformation product, which is designed to support a particular decision situation, leads to a method to assess the value of geographic information and to discuss the contribution and the cost of data quality. It is then possible to identify the economically optimal level of data quality for the product. The optimal quality of the Geoinformation product is the quality where the difference between the benefits of using the product and cost of producing it is the highest. In this paper quality has a single dimension and a continuous scale. Further research should consider multiple quality aspects.