[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To develop an educational protocol about HPV and Pap tests for adolescents, to evaluate the protocol for understandability and clarity, and to evaluate the protocol for its effectiveness in increasing knowledge about HPV.
In phase 1, investigators and adolescents developed the protocol. In phase 2, adolescents evaluated the protocol qualitatively, investigators evaluated its effectiveness in increasing HPV knowledge in a sample of adolescents, and the protocol was revised. In phase 3, investigators evaluated the effectiveness of the revised protocol in an additional adolescent sample.
Urban, hospital-based teen health center.
A total of 252 adolescent girls and boys in the three study phases.
Pre- and post-protocol knowledge about HPV, measured using a 10- or 11-item scale.
Scores on the HPV knowledge scale increased significantly (P < 0.0001) among adolescents who participated in phases 2 and 3 after they received the protocol. Initial differences in scores based on race, insurance type, and condom use were not noted post-protocol.
The protocol significantly increased knowledge scores about HPV in this population, regardless of sociodemographic characteristics and risk behaviors. Effective, developmentally appropriate educational protocols about HPV and Pap tests are particularly important in clinical settings as cervical cancer screening guidelines evolve, HPV DNA testing is integrated into screening protocols, and HPV vaccines become available. In-depth, one-on-one education about HPV may also prevent adverse psychosocial responses and promote healthy sexual and Pap screening behaviors in adolescents with abnormal HPV or Pap test results.
Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology 10/2007; 20(5):281-7. · 1.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pediatricians will play a critical role in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine delivery. The objectives of this research were to examine pediatricians' views about key issues related to HPV vaccine delivery and identify their strategies for effective vaccine delivery.
A diverse sample of practicing pediatricians was recruited from a three-state region using a purposeful sampling strategy. Participants completed in-depth, semi-structured interviews. Qualitative data were analyzed using framework analysis.
The mean age of the 31 participants was 47 years (range 30-78 years), and 17 (55%) were female. In all, 18 were white, nine (29%) black, and four (13%) Latino. Participants noted that cultural issues, including a family's religious and ethnic background, were important considerations when recommending an HPV vaccine. Almost all participants believed that vaccination should be universal rather than targeted, but opinions regarding legislative mandates for vaccination varied. Those in favor of mandates cited their potential to maximize the public health impact of immunization, while those opposed noted that HPV is not transmitted casually and were concerned about limited data on the long-term safety and efficacy of HPV vaccines. Pediatricians noted that specific strategies for effective vaccine delivery would be needed for an STI vaccine targeted toward adolescents, especially considering the poor public understanding of HPV. These included provision of HPV vaccines in alternative settings, guidance for pediatricians as to how to address parental concerns, and specific educational initiatives.
The views of pediatricians, who have extensive experience administering vaccines to children and adolescents, will be valuable as HPV vaccine delivery strategies are designed.
Journal of Adolescent Health 09/2007; 41(2):119-25. · 2.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As new cervical cancer screening recommendations are adopted, more adolescents may learn they are infected with human papillomavirus (HPV). The objective of this study was to explore personal meaning of HPV and Pap test results in adolescent and young adult women.
The authors recruited sexually active 14- to 21-year-old adolescent girls from an urban teen health center. Participants underwent HPV and Pap testing at baseline and returned 2 weeks later to receive test results and to be interviewed about their responses to test results. The authors analyzed interview transcripts using qualitative methods and developed a conceptual framework to explain participants' responses.
Of the 100 participants, 51% were HPV positive and 23% had an abnormal Pap test. Personal meaning was comprised of four core dimensions: labeling of results, perceived risk of HPV-related disease, personal accountability, and anticipated shame or stigma. The association between test result and personal meaning was mediated through cognitive understanding of test results, which in turn was influenced by education about HPV and prior health experiences.
Clinicians who communicate HPV and Pap test results to adolescent girls should provide accurate information in a nonjudgmental manner, take into account adolescents' personal experiences with sexually transmitted infections and cancer, and explore personal meaning of results such as anticipated risk and stigma. In this way, clinicians may be able to minimize adverse psychosocial outcomes while promoting positive reproductive health behaviors.
Health Psychology 04/2007; 26(2):192-200. · 3.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objectives of this qualitative study were to describe the range of pediatricians' attitudes about human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines and to explore factors influencing their intention to recommend HPV vaccines, extending the findings of previous quantitative studies.
A diverse sample of pediatricians participated in semistructured individual interviews to assess attitudes and intentions regarding HPV immunization. Framework analysis was used for qualitative analysis.
The mean age of the 31 participants was 47 years, 17 (55%) were female, 9 (29%) were black, and 4 (13%) were Latino. The efficacy, safety, and potential health impact of vaccination were the primary factors driving participants' decisions about recommending HPV vaccines. Perceived benefits of HPV vaccination included prevention of HPV-related disease and the opportunity to educate adolescents. Perceived barriers included anticipated parental beliefs (eg, parental denial that their child would be at risk) and provider beliefs (eg, reluctance to discuss sexuality with preadolescents). Participants reported high intention to recommend HPV vaccines overall, but intention varied according to patient age, patient gender, and HPV vaccine type. The primary reasons underlying this variation included perceptions about the health impact of vaccination and relevance of HPV vaccines to the provider's patients. The main factors driving intention to recommend HPV vaccines included knowledge, personal and professional characteristics, office procedures, vaccine cost and reimbursement, parental factors, and specific attitudes about HPV vaccination.
These findings provide a framework for understanding pediatricians' decisions to recommend HPV vaccines and may be used to guide the design of interventions to maximize vaccine recommendations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To develop scales assessing acceptability of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing in adolescents, to compare acceptability of self to clinician testing, and to identify adolescent characteristics associated with acceptability.
Female adolescents 14-21 years of age attending a hospital based teen health centre self collected vaginal samples and a clinician, using a speculum, collected cervicovaginal samples for HPV DNA. Acceptability of and preferences for self and clinician testing were assessed at baseline and 2 week visits.
The mean age of the 121 participants was 17.8 years and 82% were black. The acceptability scales demonstrated good internal consistency, reliability, test-retest reliability, and factorial validity. Scores were significantly lower for self testing than clinician testing on the acceptability scale and three subscales measuring trust of the test result, confidence in one's ability to collect a specimen, and perceived effects of testing (p < 0.01). Of those who reported a preference, 73% preferred clinician to self testing. Acceptability scores for both self and clinician testing increased significantly pre-examination to post-examination (p < 0.01). Multivariable analyses demonstrated that race was independently associated with pre-examination and post-examination acceptability of self testing, and that sexual behaviours and gynaecological experiences were associated with specific acceptability subscales.
This sample of adolescents found clinician testing for HPV to be more acceptable than self testing and preferred clinician to self testing. If self testing for HPV is offered in the future, clinicians should not assume that adolescent patients will prefer self testing. Instead, they should educate adolescents about available testing options and discuss any concerns regarding self collection technique or accuracy of test results.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to explore the short-term psychological, behavioral, and interpersonal impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) and Pap results in adolescent and young adult women.
Sexually active young women 14-21 years of age were recruited using a purposeful sampling strategy from a hospital-based teen health center. Participants underwent HPV DNA and Pap testing at baseline. At a follow-up visit 2 weeks later, they received test results and participated in individual interviews designed to examine the impact of test results. Interview data were analyzed using framework analysis, a qualitative analytical method.
The mean age of the 100 participants was 17.2 years, and 82% were black. Fifty-one percent were HPV positive, and 23% had abnormal Pap tests. Psychological responses consisted of affective reactions to abnormal results, empowerment through knowledge of results, and self-confidence to prevent future disease. Personal behavioral intentions encompassed safe sexual behaviors, partner monitoring, and return for screening. Anticipated interpersonal consequences focused on the impact of communication about test results on relationships. Psychosocial and behavioral responses were influenced by the personal meaning participants derived from HPV and Pap results (e.g., perceptions of personal risk and anticipated stigma), cognitive understanding of test results, and such factors as coping mechanisms, locus of control, and relationship quality.
An understanding of young women's responses to HPV and Pap test results may help guide clinical interventions designed to prevent possibly harmful psychosocial and interpersonal responses to HPV and Pap testing but promote healthy sexual behaviors and regular screening.
Journal of Women s Health 10/2005; 14(7):650-9. · 1.42 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between coercive sexual experiences and subsequent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and/or squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) in adolescent and young adult women, and to determine whether risk behaviors mediate and sociodemographic factors moderate any observed associations.
Data were obtained from a longitudinal cohort study of female university students (N = 608). chi2 and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used to determine associations between history of a coercive sexual experience and subsequent risk behaviors, and between risk behaviors and HPV or SIL. Logistic regression models were used to determine whether a coercive sexual experience was associated with HPV or SIL and whether the association was mediated by risk behaviors and/or moderated by sociodemographic factors.
Twenty-two percent of participants reported a prior coercive sexual experience. Report of a prior coercive sexual experience was associated with a higher lifetime number of sexual partners (p < .0001), which in turn was associated with subsequent HPV infection (p < .0001) and SIL (p < .0001). In logistic regression models, coercive sexual experience was associated significantly with HPV (odds ratio [OR], 1.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-2.84) and at a marginal significance level with SIL (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, .97-3.70). When the number of sexual partners was included in the first model, the association between coercive sexual experience and HPV infection became nonsignificant and the beta coefficient decreased by 49%. Race and age did not appear to moderate the association between coercive sexual experience and HPV.
The number of sexual partners is an important mechanism through which adolescent and young adult women who report a coercive sexual experience acquire HPV.
Journal of Adolescent Health 05/2005; 36(5):363-71. · 2.97 Impact Factor