Anneke M J van Hees

Maastricht University, Maastricht, Provincie Limburg, Netherlands

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Publications (9)37.58 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Insulin resistance is characterized by disturbances in lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle. Our aim was to investigate whether gene expression and fatty acid (FA) profile of skeletal muscle lipids are affected by diets differing in fat quantity and quality in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and varying degrees of insulin sensitivity. 84 subjects (age 57.3±0.9 y, BMI 30.9±0.4kg/m(2), 42M/42F) were randomly assigned to one of four iso-energetic diets: high-SFA (HSFA); high-MUFA (HMUFA) or two low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diets, supplemented with 1.24g/day of long-chain n-3 PUFA (LFHCCn-3) or control oil (LFHCC) for 12weeks. In a subgroup of men (n=26), muscle TAG, DAG, FFA and phospholipid contents were determined including their fractional synthetic rate (FSR) and FA composition at fasting and 4h after consumption of a high-fat mixed-meal, both pre- and post-intervention. Genes involved in lipogenesis were downregulated after HMUFA (mean fold change -1.3) and after LFHCCn-3 (fold change -1.7) in insulin resistant subjects (< median of (S(I))), whereas in insulin sensitive subjects (>median of insulin sensitivity) the opposite effect was shown (fold change +1.6 for both diets). HMUFA diet tended to decrease FSR in TAG (P=.055) and DAG (P=.066), whereas the LFHCCn-3 diet reduced TAG content (P=.032). In conclusion, HMUFA and LFHCCn-3 diets reduced the expression of the lipogenic genes in skeletal muscle of insulin resistant subjects, whilst HMUFA reduced the fractional synthesis rate of DAG and TAG and LFHCC n-3 the TAG content. Our data indicate that these diets may reduce muscle fat accumulation by affecting the balance between FA synthesis, storage and oxidation.
    Metabolism: clinical and experimental 06/2012; 61(11):1554-65. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic variants of Period 2 (PER2), a circadian clock gene, have been linked to metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, it is still unknown whether these genetic variants interact with the various types of plasma fatty acids. This study investigated whether common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PER2 locus (rs934945 and rs2304672) interact with various classes of plasma fatty acids to modulate plasma lipid metabolism in 381 participants with MetS in the European LIPGENE study. Interestingly, the rs2304672 SNP interacted with plasma total SFA concentrations to affect fasting plasma TG, TG-rich lipoprotein (TRL-TG), total cholesterol, apoC-II, apoB, and apoB-48 concentrations (P-interaction < 0.001-0.046). Carriers of the minor allele (GC+GG) with the highest SFA concentration (>median) had a higher plasma TG concentration (P = 0.001) and higher TRL-TG (P < 0.001) than the CC genotype. In addition, participants carrying the minor G allele for rs2304672 SNP and with a higher SFA concentration (>median) had higher plasma concentrations of apo C-II (P < 0.001), apo C-III (P = 0.009), and apoB-48 (P = 0.028) compared with the homozygotes for the major allele (CC). In summary, the rs2304672 polymorphism in the PER2 gene locus may influence lipid metabolism by interacting with the plasma total SFA concentration in participants with MetS. The understanding of these gene-nutrient interactions could help to provide a better knowledge of the pathogenesis in MetS.
    Journal of Nutrition 05/2012; 142(7):1213-8. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective was to determine the contribution of dietary fat quantity and composition to lipolysis and lipolytic gene expression in humans in relation to obesity, insulin resistance, and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Men and women with the MetS were randomly assigned to one of four isoenergetic diets: a high-fat saturated fat diet (n=10), a high-fat monounsaturated fat diet (n=7), and two low-fat high-complex carbohydrate (LFHCC) diets, one supplemented with 1.24g/day long-chain n-3 PUFA (LFHCC: n=7, LFHCCn-3: n=8). Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were taken before and after the 12-week dietary intervention period. ATGL and HSL mRNA and protein expression was determined. Whole body rate of appearance of free fatty acids (Ra(FFA)) was determined by intravenous infusion of [(2)H(2)]-palmitate in a subgroup of men (n=20). Adipose tissue ATGL and HSL mRNA and protein expression was not affected by alterations in dietary fat composition. Pooled analysis comparing the low- and high-fat diets showed that ATGL and HSL protein expression was significantly reduced after the LFHCC diets (P=.04), irrespective of long-chain n-3 PUFA. Moreover, LFHCC diets lowered fasting insulin, HOMA(IR), and (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations (P≤.05). Changes in ATGL and HSL protein expression was positively associated with changes in whole body Ra(FFA) (P<.03). The low-fat high-complex carbohydrate diets reduced ATGL and HSL protein expression and significantly improved circulating lipids and insulin sensitivity. Under isoenergetic conditions, dietary fat quantity, rather than composition, may be most important for modulating subcutaneous adipose tissue ATGL and HSL protein expression.
    Metabolism: clinical and experimental 04/2012; 61(10):1404-12. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Disturbances in skeletal muscle lipid metabolism may play an important role in development of insulin resistance (IR). The aim was to investigate transcriptional control of skeletal muscle fatty acid (FA) metabolism in individuals with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) with varying degrees of insulin sensitivity (S(I)). 122 individuals with MetS (NCEP-ATP III criteria) at age 35-70 years, BMI 27-38 kg/m(2) were studied (subgroup EU-LIPGENE study). Individuals were divided into quartiles of S(I) measured during a frequently sampled insulin modified intravenous glucose tolerance test. Skeletal muscle normalized mRNA expression levels of genes important in skeletal muscle FA handling were analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR. The expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2), diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT1), and nuclear respiration factor (NRF) was higher in the lowest two quartiles of S(I) (<50th) compared with the highest two quartiles of S(I) (>50th). Interestingly, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1α (PGC1α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), and muscle carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1b (mCPT1), important for oxidative metabolism, showed a complex mRNA expression profile; levels were lower in both the most "insulin sensitive" (IS) as well as the most "IR" individuals. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mRNA was reduced in the lowest quartile of S(I). Enhanced gene expression of SREBP1c and ACC2 in the IR state suggests a tendency towards FA storage rather than oxidation. From the lower expression of PGC1α, PPARα, and mCPT1 in both the most "IS" as well as the most "IR" individuals, it may be speculated that "IS" subjects do not need to upregulate these genes to have a normal FA oxidation, whereas the most "IR" individuals are inflexible in upregulating these genes.
    Obesity 06/2011; 19(11):2158-66. · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Disturbances in skeletal muscle lipid metabolism may precede or contribute to the development of whole body insulin resistance. In this study, we examined fasting and postprandial skeletal muscle fatty acid (FA) handling in insulin resistant (IR) men. Thirty men with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) (National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III) were included in this sub-study to the LIPGENE study, and divided in two groups (IR and control) based on the median of insulin sensitivity (S(I) = 2.06 (mU/l(-1))·min(-1)·10(-4)). Fasting and postprandial skeletal muscle FA handling were examined by combining the forearm balance technique with stable isotopes of palmitate. [(2)H(2)]-palmitate was infused intravenously to label endogenous triacylglycerol (TAG) and free FAs (FFAs) in the circulation and [U-(13)C]-palmitate was incorporated in a high-fat mixed meal (2.6 MJ, 61 E% fat) to label chylomicron-TAG. Muscle biopsies were taken to determine muscle TAG, diacylglycerol (DAG), FFA, and phospholipid (PL) content, their fractional synthetic rates (FSRs) and degree of saturation, as well as messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. In the first 2 h after meal consumption, forearm muscle [(2)H(2)]-labeled TAG extraction was higher in IR vs. control (P = 0.05). Fasting percentage saturation of muscle DAG was higher in IR vs. control (P = 0.016). No differences were observed for intramuscular TAG, DAG, FFA, and PL content, FSR, and muscle mRNA expression. In conclusion, increased muscle (hepatically derived) TAG extraction during postprandial conditions and increased saturation of intramuscular DAG are associated with insulin resistance, suggesting that disturbances in skeletal muscle FA handling could play a role in the development of whole body insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.
    Obesity 02/2011; 19(7):1350-9. · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the metabolic syndrome (MetS), increased fat storage in 'nonadipose' tissues such as skeletal muscle may be related to insulin resistance ('lipid overflow' hypothesis). The objective of this study was to examine the effects of dietary fat modification on the capacity of skeletal muscle to handle dietary and endogenous fatty acids (FAs). In total, 29 men with the MetS were randomly assigned to one of four diets for 12 weeks: a high-fat saturated fat diet (HSFA, n=6), a high-fat monounsaturated fat diet (HMUFA, n=7) and two low-fat high-complex carbohydrate diets supplemented with (LFHCCn-3, n=8) or without (LFHCC, n=8) 1.24 g per day docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid. Fasting and postprandial skeletal muscle FA handling was examined by measuring arteriovenous concentration differences across the forearm muscle. [(2)H(2)]-palmitate was infused intravenously to label endogenous triacylglycerol (TAG) and free fatty acids in the circulation and subjects received a high-fat mixed meal (2.6 MJ, 61 energy% fat) containing [U-(13)C]-palmitate to label chylomicron-TAG. Postprandial circulating TAG concentrations were significantly lower after dietary intervention in the LFHCCn-3 group compared to the HSFA group (DeltaiAUC -139+/-67 vs 167+/-70 micromol l(-1) min(-1), P=0.009), together with decreased concentrations of [U-(13)C]-labeled TAG, representing dietary FA. Fasting TAG clearance across forearm muscle was decreased on the HSFA diet, whereas no differences were observed in postprandial forearm muscle FA handling between diets. Chronic manipulation of dietary fat quantity and quality did not affect forearm muscle FA handling in men with the MetS. Postprandial TAG concentrations decreased on the LFHCCn-3 diet, which could be (partly) explained by lower concentration of dietary FA in the circulation.
    International journal of obesity (2005) 05/2010; 34(5):859-70. · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypertension is a key feature of the metabolic syndrome. Lifestyle and dietary changes may affect blood pressure (BP), but the knowledge of the effects of dietary fat modification in subjects with the metabolic syndrome is limited. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of an isoenergetic change in the quantity and quality of dietary fat on BP in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. In a 12-week European multi-centre, parallel, randomised controlled dietary intervention trial (LIPGENE), 486 subjects were assigned to one of the four diets distinct in fat quantity and quality: two high-fat diets rich in saturated fat or monounsaturated fat and two low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diets with or without 1.2 g/d of very long-chain n-3 PUFA supplementation. There were no overall differences in systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP or pulse pressure (PP) between the dietary groups after the intervention. The high-fat diet rich in saturated fat had minor unfavourable effects on SBP and PP in males.
    The British journal of nutrition 03/2010; 104(2):160-3. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Elevated plasma concentrations of remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) are atherogenic. However, factors that determine RLP-C are not fully understood. This study evaluates which factors affect RLP-C in the fasting and postprandial state, using multiple regression analyses in a large cohort of lean and obese participants. All participants (n = 740) underwent a test meal challenge containing 95 energy % (en%) fat (energy content 50% of predicted daily resting metabolic rate). Fasting and postprandial concentrations of circulating metabolites were measured over a 3-h period. Obese participants (n = 613) also participated in a 10-wk weight loss program (-2510 kJ/d), being randomized to either a low-fat or a high-fat diet (20-25 vs. 40-45en% fat). Postprandial RLP-C was associated with fasting RLP-C, waist:hip ratio (WHR), HOMA(IR) (homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance) (P < 0.001), and age, independently of BMI and gender [adjusted R(2) (adj. R(2)) = 0.70). These factors were also related to fasting RLP-C (P < 0.010), along with gender and physical activity (adj. R(2) = 0.23). The dietary intervention resulted in significantly lower fasting RLP-C concentrations, independently mediated by weight loss, improvements in HOMA(IR), and the fat content of the prescribed diet. However, after inclusion of plasma triglyceride (TG), HDL-cholesterol, and FFA concentrations in the models, HOMA(IR) and WHR no longer significantly predicted fasting RLP-C, although WHR remained a predictor of postprandial RLP-C (P = 0.002). Plasma TG was strongly associated with both fasting and postprandial RLP-C (P < 0.001). In conclusion, plasma RLP-C concentrations are mainly associated with plasma TG concentrations. Interestingly, the high-fat diet was more effective at decreasing fasting RLP-C concentrations in obese participants than the low-fat diet.
    Journal of Nutrition 01/2009; 138(12):2399-405. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is characterised by increased triacylglycerol storage in adipose tissue. There is in vitro evidence for a blunted beta-adrenergically mediated lipolytic response in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of obese individuals and evidence for this at the whole-body level in vivo. We hypothesised that the beta-adrenergically mediated effect on lipolysis in abdominal SAT is also impaired in vivo in obese humans. We investigated whole-body and abdominal SAT glycerol metabolism in vivo during 3 h and 6 h [2H5]glycerol infusions. Arterio-venous concentration differences were measured in 13 lean and ten obese men after an overnight fast and during intravenous infusion of the non-selective beta-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline [20 ng (kg fat free mass)(-1) min(-1)]. Lean and obese participants showed comparable fasting glycerol uptake by SAT (9.7+/-3.4 vs 9.3+/-2.5% of total release, p=0.92). Furthermore, obese participants showed an increased whole-body beta-adrenergically mediated lipolytic response versus lean participants. However, their fasting lipolysis was blunted [glycerol rate of appearance: 7.3+/-0.6 vs 13.1+/-0.9 micromol (kg fat mass)(-1) min(-1), p<0.01], as was the beta-adrenergically mediated lipolytic response per unit SAT [Delta total glycerol release: 140+/-71 vs 394+/-112 nmol (100 g tissue)(-1) min(-1), p<0.05] compared with lean participants. Net triacylglycerol flux tended to increase in obese compared with lean participants during beta-adrenergic stimulation [Delta net triacylglycerol flux: 75+/-32 vs 16+/-11 nmol (100 g tissue)(-1) min(-1), p=0.06]. We demonstrated in vivo that beta-adrenergically mediated lipolytic response is impaired systematically and in abdominal SAT of obese versus lean men. This may be important in the development or maintenance of increased triacylglycerol stores and obesity.
    Diabetologia 02/2008; 51(2):320-7. · 6.49 Impact Factor