[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brucellosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients living in areas that are endemic for the infection.
A 20 years old Saudi male was diagnosed to have severe aplastic anemia at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre in Riyadh in April 2006. One hundred and twelve days following his successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant, he presented with pyrexia in addition to neutropenia and mild thrombocytopenia. Brucella serology was strongly positive and blood cultures grew Brucella melitensis. The bacteremic episode of brucellosis was successfully treated with streptomycin, doxycyclin and ciprofloxacin at the outpatient clinic. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a naturally occurring Brucella infection complicated by Brucella bacteremia in a recipient of hematopoietic stem cell transplant.
Brucellosis may cause systemic infections, complicated bacteremias and serious morbidity in immunocompromised patients living in countries that are endemic for the infection. It should be considered as a possible cause of fever and pancytopenia in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients living in these geographical locations. Nevertheless, the infection is curable provided the diagnosis is made early and an appropriate antimicrobial therapy is promptly initiated.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Klebsiella oxytoca can cause various infectious complications in healthy as well as in immunocompromised individuals.
Case 1: A 49 year old female with multiple myeloma received an autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant in October 2005. Eight days following her autograft she developed septic shock caused by Klebsiella oxytoca bacteremia which was successfully treated with intravenous meropenem and gentamicin. Case 2: A 29 year old female with sickle cell anemia and severe aplastic anemia underwent an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant in July 2005. Seven months following her unsuccessful allograft, she developed septic shock due to Klebsiella oxytoca bacteremia caused by a urinary tract infection. The septic episode was successfully managed with intravenous meropenem and gentamicin. Both patients were treated at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. To our knowledge, they are the first reports of Klebsiella oxytoca bacteremias and septic shocks in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.
Klebsiella oxytoca should be considered as a possible cause of severe infections in recipients of various forms of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, these infections may be complicated by bacteremias, septic shocks, systemic dysfunctions and even deaths if not managed promptly and appropriately.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sphingomonas paucimobilis is an aerobic gram-negative bacillus that causes a variety of infections in healthy as well as in immunocompromised individuals. The organism is usually susceptible to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, aminoglycosides, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and carbapenems. However, resistance to penicillins and the first-generation cephalosporins is commonly encountered. Reported here is a patient with acute myeloid leukemia who developed S. paucimobilis bacteremia complicated by septic shock just before receiving an autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (SCT) at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre in Riyadh. The septic episode was successfully treated in the intensive care unit. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of septic shock caused by S. paucimobilis bacteremia in a hematopoietic SCT recipient.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant can develop life-threatening complications at any time following their transplants. These complications require repeated clinical assessment, appropriate and thorough screening as well as a comprehensive management approach. We report a young adult male who received a sibling allograft in the second complete remission of his acute lymphoblastic leukemia at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre in Riyadh. The patient developed severe colitis which was caused by: acute exacerbation of chronic graft versus host disease of the lower gastrointestinal tract, cytomegalovirus disease of the colon and a superadded Salmonella infection caused by food poisoning. The multifactorial colitis was properly investigated and successfully managed. To our knowledge, this is the first case of multifactorial colitis in a recipient of hematopoietic stem cell transplant.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brucellosis may cause serious infections in healthy individuals living in countries that are endemic for the infection. However, reports of brucella infections in immunocompromised hosts are relatively rare.
Reported here are two patients with acute leukemia who developed Brucella melitensis bacteremia during their follow up at the Armed Forces Hospital in Riyadh. The first patient developed B. melitensis bacteremia during the transformation of his myelodysplasia into acute myeloid leukemia. The second patient developed B. melitensis bacteremia while his acute lymphoblastic leukemia was under control. Interestingly, he presented with acute cholecystitis during the brucella sepsis. Both brucella infections were associated with a marked reduction in the hematological parameters in addition to other complications. The bacteremic episodes were successfully treated with netilmicin, doxycycline and ciprofloxacin.
Brucellosis can cause systemic infections, complicated bacteremia and serious morbidity in patients with acute leukemia living in endemic areas. These infections may occur at the presentation of the leukemia or even when the leukemia is in remission. Nevertheless, the early diagnosis of brucellosis and the administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy for sufficient duration usually improves the outcome in these immunocompromised patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tuberculous infections in patients with hematological disorders and hematopoietic stem cell transplant vary in incidence, complications and response to treatment.
A retrospective study of patients with various benign and malignant hematological disorders and recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplant who were treated at Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital, Saudi Arabia between January 1991 and December 2002 and who developed tuberculous infections was conducted.
Tuberculous infections occurred in eighteen patients with hematological disorders and hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The main associated factors were: reduced immunity due to the primary hematological disorder, age more than 50 years and the administration of cytotoxic chemotherapy, steroids or radiotherapy. These infections frequently involved the lungs and predominantly occurred in males and in patients with chronic myeloproliferative disorders, myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia. In patients treated with intravenous cytotoxic chemotherapy, tuberculous infections tended to occur earlier and also tended to be more disseminated compared to infections occurring in patients treated with oral chemotherapy. Anti-tuberculous treatment was given to 16 patients and it was successful in 15 of these patients.
Tuberculous infections cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients with various hematological disorders and in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The early administration of anti-tuberculous therapy and compliance with drug treatment are associated with successful outcomes while delayed management, drug resistance and the presence of miliary infections are associated with poor prognosis and high mortality rates.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 02/2007; 6:16. · 1.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infections caused by Achromobacter xylosoxidans cause significant morbidity and mortality in debilitated individuals. Eradication of these infections requires prolonged therapy with antimicrobial agents and removal of any infected central venous catheter. The outcome is usually poor in patients with high risk malignancy, septic complications, and/or multi-organ dysfunction.
Libyan Journal of Medicine 01/2007; 2(4):218-9. · 0.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Surgical intervention in patients with malignant hematological disorders is a major undertaking due to the expected risks of bleeding, infection and poor wound healing.Methods and materials: A retrospective study of patients treated at the Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital, Saudi Arabia between January 1991 and December 2002 was conducted. The results of patients with acute leukemia and lymphoma who underwent surgical procedures (study group) were compared with those of a control group composed of patients with the same spectrum of disorders treated over the same period of time and given the same treatment protocols but never required any surgery.Results: No single death occurred intraoperatively or in the immediate postoperative period due to surgical therapy per se. However, follow up of both groups of patients revealed a shorter long-term survival and higher rates of relapse and severe invasive infections in the surgical group compared to the control group of patients. The mean survival for the study group was 1871 ± 307 days versus 3094 ± 279 days for the control group of patients (P = 0.0027). Thirty (75%) study patients suffered relapses of their malignant hematological disorders versus 23 (37.1%) control patients. Forty-five relapses were encountered in the study group of patients (1.5 relapses per relapsed patient) versus 26 relapses in the control group (1.13 relapses per relapsed patient). Various infections occurred in 37 (92.5%) study patients and 32 (51.6%) control patients. Recurrent infections developed in 30 (75%) study patients and 22 (35.5%) control patients (P = 0.00008). Infections causing tissue invasion were encountered in 29 (72.5%) study patients and 22 (35.5%) control patients.Conclusion: Even major surgical procedures can be performed in patients with leukemia or lymphoma provided enough preparatory measures are made to minimize bleeding and infectious complications. Surgery may, however, be associated with long-term complications such as a high incidence of relapse of the primary malignant hematological disorder and an increased rate of severe and invasive infections.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) has recently emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen. Treatment of invasive infections caused by this organism is difficult as the bacterium is frequently resistant to a wide range of commonly used antimicrobials. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP - SXT) is recommended as the agent of choice for the treatment of S. maltophilia infections. However, the development of resistance to this antibiotic represents a real challenge to laboratorians and clinicians. This letter describes the first isolation of S. maltophilia resistant to TMP - SXT from two patients treated at Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital which is a major tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 02/2006; 5:23. · 1.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most viral infections are known to exert adverse effects on bone marrow function. However, certain viruses have recently been found to be therapeutically beneficial in the treatment of some malignant disorders.
A retrospective study was conducted at the Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The changes in the hematological parameters following varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection in patients with a variety of hematological disorders were compared with those in a control group having the same spectrum of disorders and treated in the same unit over the same period of time but never had VZV infection. Both groups of patients received the same treatment protocols for their primary hematological disorders. Definitive treatment (DT) such as chemotherapy alone, anti-thymocyte globulin or bone marrow transplant was also employed in the management of patients belonging to both groups.
White blood cell counts, platelet counts and hemoglobin concentrations in the study group started to increase 40 d after chickenpox or herpes zoster infection and these increases lasted for periods as long as 1050 d. The changes in platelet counts were more pronounced than those in other hematological parameters. There was a significant difference (P < 0.0001) between the two groups of patients in the values of platelet counts achieved between 280 and 1050 d after DT (mean platelet count: 262 x 10(9)/L in the study group vs. 180 x 10(9)/L in the control group, median: 288.17 x 10(9)/L in the study group vs. 180 x 10(9)/L in the control group, range: 102 to 415 x 10(9)/L in the study group vs. 26 to 365 x 10(9)/L in the control group of patients). Compared to the control group, the study group of patients achieved their maximum blood counts much earlier after DT. The maximum leucocytic count was achieved at a mean duration of 269.21 d in the study group and 349.61 d in the control group. The maximum hemoglobin level was achieved at a mean duration of 319.5 d in the study group and 402.6 d in the control group. The maximum platelet count was achieved at a mean duration of 271.4 d in the study group and 318.9 d in the control group of patients.
VZV may behave differently from other members of the herpes group of viruses e.g. human cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus. Our observations suggest that VZV infection causes stimulation of bone marrow activity.
European Journal Of Haematology 10/2005; 75(3):234-40. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary tuberculosis is a rare event in patients with hematological malignancies. Prevalence has been reported to range
from 1% to 10%. The risk factors are: geographic localization, malnutrition, old age, steroids, cytotoxic chemotherapy, radiotherapy
and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Reactivation of an old infection is usually associated with immunosuppression,
and disseminated infections occur in up to 10% of patients. The diagnosis of tuberculosis is usually difficult despite the
recent advances in diagnostic tools. Empirical therapy may become a life-saving option in a patient with strongly suspected
tuberculous infection. Prolonged treatment is required in: disseminated infection, severe immunosuppression and slow response
to therapy. Bone marrow suppression and disordered hepatic function are serious side effects of therapy. Isoniazid is valuable
in chemoprophylaxis and in the treatment of latent infections. Corticosteroids and surgical intervention may be employed.
Macrolides are effective in the treatment of nontuberculous mycobacteria. Development of multidrug resistant strains and noncompliance
with treatment are real concerns.