Toshiro Aigaki

Tokyo Metropolitan University, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (120)515.58 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The Drosophila melanogaster sex-peptide (melSP) is a seminal fluid component that induces post-mating responses (PMR) of females via the sex peptide receptor (SPR). Although SP orthologs are found in many Drosophila species, their functions remain poorly characterized. It is unknown whether SP functions are conserved across species or rather specific to each species. Here, we developed a GFP-tagged melSP (G-SP) and used it to visualize cross-species binding activity to the female reproductive system of various species. First we demonstrated that ectopically expressed G-SP induced PMR in D. melanogaster females and bound to the female reproductive system, most notably to the common oviduct. No binding occurred in the females lacking SPR, indicating that G-SP binding was dependent on SPR. Next we tested whether G-SP binds to the common oviducts from 11 Drosophila species using dissected reproductive tracts. The binding was observed in six species belonging to the D. melanogaster species group, but not to those outside the group. Injection of melSP reduced the receptivity of females belonging to the D. melanogaster species group, but not of those outside the group, being consistent with the ability to bind G-SP. Thus the SP-mediated PMR appears to be limited to this species group. SPR was expressed in the oviducts at high levels in this group, therefore we speculate that an enhanced expression of SPR in the oviduct was critical to establish the SP-mediated PMR during evolution. Copyright © 2015, The Genetics Society of America.
    Genetics 05/2015; DOI:10.1534/genetics.115.177550 · 4.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Drosophila provides a powerful genetic model to analyze lipid metabolism. Drosophila has an adipose-like organ called the fat body, which plays a crucial role in energy homeostasis. Here, we conducted a fat body-specific misexpression screen to identify genes involved in lipid metabolism. We found that over-expression of a nuclear protein with nine C2H2 type zinc-finger motifs and a PHD-finger, Misexpression suppressor of ras 4 (MESR4), reduces lipid accumulation in the fat body, whereas MESR4 knockdown increases it. We further show that MESR4 up-regulates the expression of major lipases, which may account for the reduction in lipid storage in the fat body and the release of free fatty acids (FFAs) in the body. These results suggest that MESR4 acts as an important upstream regulator of energy homeostasis.
    Genes to Cells 01/2015; 20(4). DOI:10.1111/gtc.12221 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Egg activation is the process by which a mature oocyte becomes capable of supporting embryo development. In vertebrates and echinoderms, activation is induced by fertilization. Molecules introduced into the egg by the sperm trigger progressive release of intracellular calcium stores in the oocyte. Calcium wave(s) spread through the oocyte and induce completion of meiosis, new macromolecular synthesis, and modification of the vitelline envelope to prevent polyspermy. However, arthropod eggs activate without fertilization: in the insects examined, eggs activate as they move through the female's reproductive tract. Here, we show that a calcium wave is, nevertheless, characteristic of egg activation in Drosophila. This calcium rise requires influx of calcium from the external environment and is induced as the egg is ovulated. Pressure on the oocyte (or swelling by the oocyte) can induce a calcium rise through the action of mechanosensitive ion channels. Visualization of calcium fluxes in activating eggs in oviducts shows a wave of increased calcium initiating at one or both oocyte poles and spreading across the oocyte. In vitro, waves also spread inward from oocyte pole(s). Wave propagation requires the IP3 system. Thus, although a fertilizing sperm is not necessary for egg activation in Drosophila, the characteristic of increased cytosolic calcium levels spreading through the egg is conserved. Because many downstream signaling effectors are conserved in Drosophila, this system offers the unique perspective of egg activation events due solely to maternal components.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2015; DOI:10.1073/pnas.1420589112 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A peptide aptamer that changes fluorescence upon binding to verotoxin was selected in vitro using ribosome display with a tRNA carrying an environment-sensitive fluorescent probe. The aptamer specifically bound to verotoxin with a dissociation constant (K d) of 3.94 ± 1.6 µM, and the fluorescence decreased by 78 % as the verotoxin concentration was increased. The selected peptide can be used for detection of verotoxin.
    Biotechnology Letters 11/2014; 37(3). DOI:10.1007/s10529-014-1719-7 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We established a method for bioluminescence imaging (BLI) to track real-time gene expression in live Drosophila embryos. We constructed a transgenesis vector containing multiple cloning sites and enhanced green-emitting luciferase (ELuc; Emerald Luc), a brighter and pH-insensitive luciferase for promoter analysis. To evaluate the utility of BLI using an ELuc reporter together with an optimized microscope system, we visualized the expression pattern of armadillo (arm), a member of the Wnt pathway in Drosophila, throughout embryogenesis. We generated transgenic flies carrying the arm:: ELuc fusion gene, and successfully performed BLI continuously for 22 h in the same embryos. Our study showed, for the first time, that arm::Eluc expression was dramatically increased in the anterior midgut rudiment, myoblasts of the dorsal/lateral musculature, and the posterior spiracle after stage 13, and the cephalic region at stage 17. To further demonstrate the application of our BLI system, we revealed that arm transcriptional activity in embryos was modulated inversely by treatment with ionomycin or 6-bromoindirubin-3-oxime (BIO), an inhibitor and activator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, respectively. Therefore, our microscopic BLI system is useful for monitoring gene expression in live Drosophila embryos, and for investigating regulatory mechanisms by using chemicals and mutations that might affect expression. ᅟ Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00216-014-8000-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 07/2014; 406(23). DOI:10.1007/s00216-014-8000-8 · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) plays an important role as a systemic regulator of metabolism in multicellular organisms. Hyperinsulinemia, a high level of blood insulin, is often associated with impaired physiological conditions such as hypoglycemia, insulin resistance, and diabetes. However, due to the complex pathophysiology of hyperinsulinemia, the causative role of excess insulin/IGF signaling has remained elusive. To investigate the biological effects of a high level of insulin in metabolic homeostasis and physiology, we generated flies overexpressing Drosophila insulin-like peptide 2 (Dilp2), which has the highest potential of promoting tissue growth among the Ilp genes in Drosophila. In this model, a UAS-Dilp2 transgene was overexpressed under control of sd-Gal4 that drives expression predominantly in developing imaginal wing discs. Overexpression of Dilp2 caused semi-lethality, which was partially suppressed by mutations in the insulin receptor (InR) or Akt1, suggesting that dilp2-induced semi-lethality is mediated by the PI3K/Akt1 signaling. We found that dilp2-overexpressing flies exhibited intensive autophagy in fat body cells. Interestingly, the dilp2-induced autophagy as well as the semi-lethality was partially rescued by increasing the protein content relative to glucose in the media. Our results suggest that excess insulin/IGF signaling impairs the physiology of animals, which can be ameliorated by controlling the nutritional balance between proteins and carbohydrates, at least in flies.
    Frontiers in Physiology 04/2014; 5:147. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2014.00147 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several lines of evidence associate misregulated genetic expression with risk factors for diabetes, Alzheimer's, and other diseases that sporadically develop in healthy adults with no background of hereditary disorders. Thus, we are interested in genes that may be expressed normally through parts of an individual's life, but can cause physiological defects and disease when misexpressed in adulthood. We attempted to identify these genes in a model organism by arbitrarily misexpressing specific genes in adult Drosophila melanogaster, using 14,133 Gene Search lines. We identified 39 "reduced-lifespan genes" that, when misexpressed in adulthood, shortened the flies' lifespan to less than 30% of that of control flies. About half of these genes have human orthologs that are known to be involved in human diseases. For about one-fourth of the reduced-lifespan genes, suppressing apoptosis restored the lifespan shortened by their misexpression. We determined the organs responsible for reduced lifespan when these genes were misexpressed specifically in adulthood, and found that while some genes induced reduced lifespan only when misexpressed in specific adult organs, others could induce reduced lifespan when misexpressed in various organs. This finding suggests that tissue-specific dysfunction may be involved in reduced lifespan related to gene misexpression. Gene ontology analysis showed that reduced-lifespan genes are biased toward genes related to development. We identified 39 genes that, when misexpressed in adulthood, shortened the lifespan of adult flies. Suppressing apoptosis rescued this shortened lifespan for only a subset of the reduced-lifespan genes. The adult tissues in which gene misexpression caused early death differed among the reduced-lifespan genes. These results suggest that the cause of reduced lifespan upon misexpression differed among the genes.
    BMC Genetics 04/2014; 15(1):46. DOI:10.1186/1471-2156-15-46 · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Titanium was treated with 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (DOPA) or dopamine to immobilize bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2), a biomolecule. DOPA and dopamine solutions turned into suspensions, and precipitates were produced at high pH. Both treatments produced a brown surface on titanium that was thicker at high pH than low pH. Dopamine produced a thicker layer than DOPA. The hydrophobicity of the surfaces increased after treatment with dopamine independent of pH. Furthermore, there were more amino groups in the layers formed at pH 8.5 than pH 4.5 in both treatments. Dopamine treatment produced more amino groups in the layer than DOPA. BMP2 was immobilized on the treated surfaces via a coupling reaction using carbodiimide. More BMP2 was immobilized on surfaces treated at pH 8.5 than pH 4.5 in both treatments. The immobilized BMP induced specific signal transduction and alkali phosphatase, a differentiation marker. Thus, the present study demonstrates that titanium treated with DOPA or dopamine can become bioactive via the surface immobilization of BMP2, which induces specific signal transduction.
    12/2013; 2013:265980. DOI:10.1155/2013/265980
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    ABSTRACT: A peptide that binds and emits fluorescence in response to conformational change in a target protein was developed by in vitro selection using tRNA carrying a fluorogenic amino acid. This technology could prove to be useful for the development of separation-free immunoassays and bio-imaging analyses.
    Chemical Communications 12/2013; 50(22). DOI:10.1039/c3cc47624c · 6.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An epidermal growth factor (EGF) derivative with affinity for apatite and titanium surfaces was designed using a peptide moiety derived from salivary statherin, a protein that adheres to hydroxyapatite. Since the active sequence has two phosphoserine residues, the EGF derivative was prepared by organic synthesis, and a 54 residue peptide was successfully prepared using this method. Circular dichroism spectra indicated that the conformation of EGF was not significantly altered by the addition of the affinity peptide sequence and the mitogenic activity was only slightly reduced when compared with the wild-type protein. However, the binding affinity of the modified EGF to hydroxyapatite and titanium was significantly higher than the unmodified EGF. The phosphate groups in the affinity sequence contributed to the affinity of modified EGF to both apatite and titanium. The modified EGF significantly enhanced the growth of cells on hydroxyapatite and titanium. It was also demonstrated that the bound EGF enhanced the signal transduction for longer periods than unbound EGF. In conclusion, the modified EGF had significantly higher binding affinity for apatite and titanium than soluble EGF, and the bound EGF significantly enhanced cell growth by long-lasting activation of intracellular signal transduction.
    Biomaterials 09/2013; 34(38). DOI:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.09.004 · 8.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The capacity of tumour cells to maintain continual overgrowth potential has been linked to the commandeering of normal self-renewal pathways. Using an epithelial cancer model in Drosophila melanogaster, we carried out an overexpression screen for oncogenes capable of cooperating with the loss of the epithelial apico-basal cell polarity regulator, scribbled (scrib), and identified the cell fate regulator, Abrupt, a BTB-zinc finger protein. Abrupt overexpression alone is insufficient to transform cells, but in cooperation with scrib loss of function, Abrupt promotes the formation of massive tumours in the eye/antennal disc. The steroid hormone receptor coactivator, Taiman (a homologue of SRC3/AIB1), is known to associate with Abrupt, and Taiman overexpression also drives tumour formation in cooperation with the loss of Scrib. Expression arrays and ChIP-Seq indicates that Abrupt overexpression represses a large number of genes, including steroid hormone-response genes and multiple cell fate regulators, thereby maintaining cells within an epithelial progenitor-like state. The progenitor-like state is characterised by the failure to express the conserved Eyes absent/Dachshund regulatory complex in the eye disc, and in the antennal disc by the failure to express cell fate regulators that define the temporal elaboration of the appendage along the proximo-distal axis downstream of Distalless. Loss of scrib promotes cooperation with Abrupt through impaired Hippo signalling, which is required and sufficient for cooperative overgrowth with Abrupt, and JNK (Jun kinase) signalling, which is required for tumour cell migration/invasion but not overgrowth. These results thus identify a novel cooperating oncogene, identify mammalian family members of which are also known oncogenes, and demonstrate that epithelial tumours in Drosophila can be characterised by the maintenance of a progenitor-like state.
    PLoS Genetics 07/2013; 9(7):e1003627. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003627 · 8.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The effect of an AA deficiency on catecholamine biosynthesis in adult mice in vivo is unknown. Therefore, we quantified catecholamine and the expression of catecholamine synthetic enzymes in the adrenal glands of senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30)/gluconolactonase (GNL) knockout (KO) mice placed in an AA-deficient state. METHODS: At 30 days of age, mice were divided into the following 4 groups: AA (-) SMP30/GNL KO, AA (+) SMP30/GNL KO, AA (-) wild type (WT), and AA (+) WT. The AA (+) groups were given water containing 1.5 g/L AA, whereas the AA (-) groups received water without AA until the experiment ended. In addition, all mice were fed an AA-depleted diet. Catecholamine levels were measured by a liquid chromatographic method. Tyrosine hydroxylase, dopa decarboxylase, dopamine β-hydroxylase, and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase mRNA expression levels were measured with the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine β-hydroxylase protein levels were quantified by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: In the adrenals of AA (-) SMP30/GNL KO mice, noradrenaline and adrenaline levels decreased significantly compared to other three groups of mice, although there were no significant differences in dopamine β-hydroxylase or phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase mRNA content. Moreover, there was no significant difference in their dopamine β-hydroxylase protein levels. On the other hand, AA depletion did not affect dopamine levels in adrenal glands of mice. CONCLUSION: An AA deficiency decreases the noradrenaline and adrenaline levels in adrenal glands of mice in vivo.
    European Journal of Nutrition 03/2013; DOI:10.1007/s00394-013-0515-9 · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Theories of lifespan evolution are a source of confusion amongst aging researchers. After a century of aging research the dispute over whether the aging process is active or passive persists and a comprehensive and universally accepted theoretical model remains elusive. Evolutionary aging theories primarily dispute whether the aging process is exclusively adapted to favor the kin or exclusively non-adapted to favor the individual. Interestingly, contradictory data and theories supporting both exclusively programmed and exclusively non-programmed theories continue to grow. However, this is a false dichotomy; natural selection favors traits resulting in efficient reproduction whether they benefit the individual or the kin. Thus, to understand the evolution of aging, first we must understand the environment-dependent balance between the advantages and disadvantages of extended lifespan in the process of spreading genes. As described by distinct theories, different niches and environmental conditions confer on extended lifespan a range of fitness values varying from highly beneficial to highly detrimental. Here, we considered the range of fitness values for extended lifespan and develop a fitness-based framework for categorizing existing theories. We show that all theories can be classified into four basic types: secondary (beneficial), maladaptive (neutral), assisted death (detrimental), and senemorphic aging (varying between beneficial to detrimental). We anticipate that this classification system will assist with understanding and interpreting aging/death by providing a way of considering theories as members of one of these classes rather than consideration of their individual details.
    Frontiers in Genetics 03/2013; 4:25. DOI:10.3389/fgene.2013.00025
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    ABSTRACT: Aconitase catalyzes the conversion of citrate to isocitrate in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and its deficiency in humans is associated with an infantile neurodegenerative disorder affecting mainly the cerebellum and retina. Here we investigated the effect of gene knockout and knockdown of the mitochondrial aconitase Acon in Drosophila. Acon-knockout flies were homozygous lethal, indicating that Acon is essential for viability. RNA interference-generated Acon-knockdown flies exhibited a variety of phenotypes, such as reduced locomotor activity, a shortened lifespan, and increased cell death in the developing brain. Metabolomic analysis revealed that acetyl-CoA, citrate/isocitrate, and cis-aconitate were significantly increased, while most metabolites of glycolysis and the TCA cycle were reduced. Reduced ATP and increased triacylglyceride suggested that lipids were used as an energy source because of the impaired glycolysis and TCA cycle. The Acon-knockdown model should facilitate further understanding of the pathophysiology of m-aconitase deficiency in humans.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.02.040 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30), which is also called regucalcin, exhibits gluconolactonase (GNL) activity. Biochemical and biological analyses revealed that SMP30/GNL catalyzes formation of the γ-lactone-ring of l-gulonate in the ascorbic acid biosynthesis pathway. The molecular basis of the γ-lactone formation, however, remains elusive due to the lack of structural information on SMP30/GNL in complex with its substrate. Here, we report the crystal structures of mouse SMP30/GNL and its complex with xylitol, a substrate analogue, and those with 1,5-anhydro-d-glucitol and d-glucose, product analogues. Comparison of the crystal structure of mouse SMP30/GNL with other related enzymes has revealed unique characteristics of mouse SMP30/GNL. First, the substrate-binding pocket of mouse SMP30/GNL is designed to specifically recognize monosaccharide molecules. The divalent metal ion in the active site and polar residues lining the substrate-binding cavity interact with hydroxyl groups of substrate/product analogues. Second, in mouse SMP30/GNL, a lid loop covering the substrate-binding cavity seems to hamper the binding of l-gulonate in an extended (or all-trans) conformation; l-gulonate seems to bind to the active site in a folded conformation. In contrast, the substrate-binding cavities of the other related enzymes are open to the solvent and do not have a cover. This structural feature of mouse SMP30/GNL seems to facilitate the γ-lactone-ring formation.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e53706. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0053706 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polymeric micelle prepared through the self-assembly of cationic cholesterol-modified gelatin was tested for siRNA delivery. It exerted the desired effect of gene knockdown in HeLa cells stably expressing the luciferase gene and achieved a two-fold increase in the knockdown ability when compared to Lipofectamine® 2000. It was found that the polymeric micelle exhibited excellent stability and increased the biological stability of the siRNA in serum.
    Molecular BioSystems 01/2013; 9(5). DOI:10.1039/c2mb25424g · 3.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ascorbic acid (AA) functions as an electron donor and scavenges reactive oxygen species such as superoxide, singlet oxygen, and hydroxyl radicals in vitro. However, little is known about the effect of an AA deficiency on protein and lipid oxidation levels in the liver. Therefore, we measured the levels of protein carbonyl and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in livers from senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30)/gluconolactonase (GNL) knockout (KO) mice. These mice are deficient in AA, because they lack the SMP30/GNL gene, which is essential for the biosynthesis of AA in vivo. To track the effect of an AA deficiency, at 30 d of age, mice were divided into the following four groups: AA (-) SMP30/GNL KO, AA (+) SMP30/GNL KO, AA (-) wild type (WT), and AA (+) WT. The AA (+) groups were given water containing 1.5 g/L AA, whereas the AA (-) groups received water without AA for 57 d. All mice were fed an AA-free diet. Subsequently, protein carbonyl levels in livers from AA (-) SMP30/GNL KO mice were significantly higher than those from the other three groups; however, TBARS levels were not significantly different among the four groups. Therefore, AA must act as an anti-oxidant for proteins but might not directly protect lipid oxidation in the liver.
    Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 01/2013; 59(6):489-95. DOI:10.3177/jnsv.59.489 · 0.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Titanium and stainless steel were modified with dopamine for the immobilization of biomolecules, epidermal growth factor (EGF). First, the treatment of metal surfaces with a dopamine solution under different pH conditions was investigated. At higher pH, the dopamine solution turned brown and formed precipitates. Treatment of the metals with dopamine at pH 8.5 also resulted in the development of brown color at the surface of the metals. The hydrophobicity of the surfaces increased after treatment with dopamine, independently of pH. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the formation of a significant amount of an organic layer on both surfaces at pH 8.5. According to ellipsometry measurements, the organic layer formed at pH 8.5 was about 1000 times as thick as that formed at pH 4.5. The amount of amino groups in the layer formed at pH 8.5 was also higher than that observed in the layer formed at pH 4.5. EGF molecules were immobilized onto the dopamine-treated surfaces via a coupling reaction using carbodiimide. A greater amount of EGF was immobilized on surfaces treated at pH 8.5 compared with pH 4.5. Significantly higher growth of rat fibroblast cells was observed on the two EGF-immobilized surfaces compared with non-immobilized surfaces in the presence of EGF. The present study demonstrated that metals can become bioactive via the surface immobilization of a growth factor and that the effect of the immobilized growth factor on metals was greater than that of soluble growth factor.
    Materials Science and Engineering C 12/2012; 32(8):2552–2561. DOI:10.1016/j.msec.2012.07.039 · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recombinant human gelatins with defined molecular weights were modified with cholesterol to make them amphiphilic in nature. We investigated the feasibility of these modified human gelatins acting as a carrier of antigenic proteins for inducing cellular immunity. The aim of this study was to synthesize novel and effective compounds for vaccine delivery in vivo. Two types of cholesterol-modified gelatin micelles, anionic cholesterol-modified gelatin (aCMG) and cationic-cholesterol modified gelatin (cCMG), were synthesized using different cholesterol derivatives such as the cholesterol-isocyanate (Ch-I) for aCMG and amino-modified cholesterol for cCMG. One was anionic and the other cationic, and therefore they differed in terms of their zeta potential. The aCMG and cCMG were characterized for their size, zeta potential, and in their ability to form micelles. Cytotoxicity was also evaluated. The modified human gelatins were then investigated as a carrier of antigenic proteins for inducing cellular immunity both in vitro in DC 2.4 cells, a murine dendritic cell line, as well as in vivo. The mechanism of entry of the polymeric micelles into the cells was also evaluated. It was found that only cCMG successfully complexed with the model antigenic protein, fluorescein-isothiocyanate ovalbumin (OVA) and efficiently delivered and processed proteins in DC 2.4 cells. It was hypothesized that cCMG enter the cells predominantly by a caveolae-mediated pathway that required tyrosine kinase receptors on the cell surface. Animal testing using mice showed that the cationic cholesterol-modified gelatin complexed with OVA produced significantly high antibody titers against OVA: 2580-fold higher than in mice immunized with free OVA. Conclusively, cCMG has shown to be very effective in stimulating an immune response due to its high efficiency, stability, and negligible cytotoxicity.
    International Journal of Nanomedicine 10/2012; 7:5437-50. DOI:10.2147/IJN.S36350 · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim:  Catecholamines, which are physiologically important neurotransmitters and hormones, apparently decrease in the brain and plasma as some species age. Because this observation has engendered controversy, we used mice to investigate whether age-related changes occur in adrenal catecholamine levels and in the expression of catecholamine synthetic enzymes. Methods:  Adrenal glands were collected from male C57BL/6NCr mice at the ages of 6, 12 and 24 months. Catecholamines, such as dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (AD) from those glands, were measured by using a highly sensitive liquid chromatographic method with peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence reaction detection. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopa decarboxylase, dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) mRNA expression levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results:  Although DA levels in the adrenals of 24-month-old mice were higher than in 6- and 12-month-old mice, the AD content decreased with age. In such mice, the ratio of DA to NA at 24 months was lower than at 12 months, and the ratio of NA to AD content at 24 months was significantly lower than at 6 months. The mRNA expression ratios in TH, DBH and PNMT in 24-month-old mice were all lower than in 12-month-old mice. Conclusions:  These results strongly suggest that catecholamine synthesis, in general, declines with aging in the adrenal glands of mice and that AD, in particular, undergoes a significant decrease with advancing age. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2012; ••: ••-••.
    Geriatrics & Gerontology International 08/2012; 13(2). DOI:10.1111/j.1447-0594.2012.00929.x · 1.58 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
515.58 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1995–2014
    • Tokyo Metropolitan University
      • • Department of Biological Sciences
      • • Graduate School of Science and Engineering
      • • Department of Chemistry
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2002–2013
    • RIKEN
      • Nano Medical Engineering Laboratory
      Вако, Saitama, Japan
  • 2006
    • Tokyo University of Science
      • Department of Biological Science and Technology
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 2003
    • The University of Arizona
      • Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 1985–1989
    • Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1988
    • Tokyo Metropolitan Institute
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan