[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Old age is associated with a poor recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI). In a retrospective study we investigated if the biochemical response following TBI is age dependent. Extracellular fluids were continuously sampled by microdialysis in 69 patients admitted to our NSICU following severe TBI. The concentrations of glycerol, glutamate, lactate, pyruvate, and eight different cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-8, MIP-1β, RANTES, FGF2, and VEGF) were determined by fluorescence multiplex bead technology. Patients in the oldest age group (≥65 years) had significantly higher microdialysate concentrations of glycerol and glutamate compared to younger patients: the mean microdialysate concentration of glycerol increased from 55.9 μmol/L (25-44 year) to 252 μmol/L (≥65 years; p<0.0001); similarly glutamate increased from 15.8 mmol/L to 92.2 mmol/L (p<0.0001). The lactate-pyruvate ratio was also significantly higher in the patients ≥65 years of age (63.9) compared with all the other age groups. The patterns of cytokine responses varied. For some cytokines (IL-1b, IL-10, and IL-8) there were no differences between age groups, while for others (MIP-1b, RANTES, VEGF, and IL-6) some differences were observed, but with no clear correlation with increasing age. For FGF2 the mean microdialysate concentration was 43 pg/mL in patients ≥65 years old, significantly higher compared to all other age groups (p<0.0001). Increased concentrations of glycerol and glutamate would indicate more extensive damaging processes in the elderly. An increase in concentration of FGF2 could serve a protective function, but could also be related to a dysregulation of the timing in the cellular response in elderly patients.
Journal of neurotrauma 01/2012; 29(1):112-8. DOI:10.1089/neu.2010.1732 · 3.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microdialysis has become a routine method for biochemical surveillance of patients in neurosurgical intensive care units.
To analyze the intracerebral extracellular levels of 3 interleukins (ILs) during the 7 days after major subarachnoid hemorrhage or traumatic brain injury).
Microdialysate from 145 severely injured neurosurgical intensive care unit patients (88 with subarachnoid hemorrhage, 57 with traumatic brain injury) was collected every 6 hours for 7 days. The concentrations of IL-1β and IL-6 were determined by fluorescence multiplex bead technology, and IL-10 was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Presented are the response patterns of 3 ILs during the first week after 2 different types of major brain injury. These patterns are different for each IL and also differ with respect to the kind of pathological impact. For both IL-1β and IL-6, the initial peaks (mean values for all patients at day 2 being 26.9 ± 4.5 and 4399 ± 848 pg/mL, respectively) were followed by a gradual decline, with IL-6 values remaining 100-fold higher compared with IL-1β. Female patients showed a stronger and more sustained response. The response of IL-10 was different, with mean values less than 23 pg/mL and with no significant variation between any of the postimpact days. For all 3 ILs, the responses were stronger in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. The study also indicates that under normal conditions, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 are present only at very low concentrations or not at all in the extracellular space of the human brain.
This is the first report presenting in some detail the human cerebral response of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 after subarachnoid hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury. The 3 ILs have different reaction patterns, with the response of IL-1β and IL-6 being related to the type of cerebral damage sustained, whereas the IL-10 response was less varied.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microdialysate fluid from 145 severely injured NSICU-patients, 88 with subarachnoidal haemorrage (SAH), and 57 with traumatic brain injury (TBI), was collected by microdialysis during the first 7 days following impact, and levels of the neurotrophins fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were analysed. The study illustrates both similarities and differences in the reaction patterns of the 2 inflammatory proteins. The highest concentrations of both FGF2 and VEGF were measured on Day 2 (mean (+/- SE) values being 47.1 +/- 15.33 and 116.9 +/- 41.85 pg/ml, respectively, in the pooled patient material). The VEGF concentration was significantly higher in TBI-patients, while the FGF2 showed a tendency to be higher in SAH-patients. This is the first report presenting in some detail the human cerebral response of FGF2 and VEGF following SAH and TBI. Apart from increasing the understanding of the post-impact inflammatory response of the human brain, the study identifies potential threshold values for these chemokines that may serve as monitoring indicators in the NSICU.
British Journal of Neurosurgery 06/2010; 24(3):261-7. DOI:10.3109/02688690903521605 · 0.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The extracellular levels of eight different inflammatory agents were analyzed during the initial 36 hours after insertion of microdialysis catheters in patients.
Cerebral extracellular fluid from 38 patients who were treated in a neurosurgical intensive care unit for severe brain injury was collected every 6 hours for 36 hours. The concentration of interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta, regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), fibroblast growth factor-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor was determined by a multiplex assay, and IL-10 was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
This is the first report regarding the presence of IL-10, IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta, regulated on activation, T-cell expressed and secreted, vascular endothelial growth factor, and fibroblast growth factor-2 in the tissue level proper of the living human brain. The study also provides new information regarding the response of IL-1 beta and IL-6 after insertion of a microdialysis catheter. The study confirms that the intriguing patterns of interplay between different components of the inflammatory response studied in laboratory settings are present in the human brain. This was most clearly observed in the variations in response between the three different chemokines investigated, as well as in the rapid and transient response of fibroblast growth factor-2.
The data presented illustrate the opportunity to monitor biochemical events of possible importance in the human brain and indicate the potential of such monitoring in neurosurgical intensive care. The study also underlines that any analysis of events in the brain involving mechanical invasiveness needs to take into account biochemical changes that are directly related to the manipulation of brain tissue.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During a 3-year period, mobile xenon-computerized tomography (Xe-CT) for bedside quantitative assessment of cerebral blood flow was used as an integrated tool for decision making during the care of complicated patients in our neurosurgical intensive care units (NSICU), in an attempt to make a preliminary evaluation regarding the usefulness of this method in routine work in the neurosurgical intensive care. With approximately 200 studies involving 75 patients, we identified six different categories where the use of bedside Xe-CT significantly influenced (or, with more experience, could have influenced) the decision making, or facilitated the handling of patients. These categories included identification of problems not apparent from other types of monitoring, avoidance of adverse effects from treatment, titration of standard treatments, evaluation of the vascular resistance reserve, assessment of adequate perfusion pressure and better utilization of resources from access to the bedside cerebral blood flow (CBF) technology. We conclude that quantitative bedside measurements of CBF could be an important addition to the diagnostic and monitoring arsenal of NSICU-tools.
British Journal of Neurosurgery 09/2007; 21(4):332-9. DOI:10.1080/02688690701411574 · 0.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to make a preliminary evaluation of whether microdialysis monitoring of cytokines and other proteins in severely diseased neurosurgical patients has the potential of adding significant information to optimize care, thus broadening the understanding of the function of these molecules in brain injury.
Paired intracerebral microdialysis catheters with high-cutoff membranes were inserted in 14 comatose patients who had been treated in a neurosurgical intensive care unit following subarachnoidal hemorrhage or traumatic brain injury. Samples were collected every 6 hours (for up to 7 days) and were analyzed at bedside for routine metabolites and later in the laboratory for interleukin (IL)-l and IL-6; in two patients, vascular endothelial growth factor and cathepsin-D were also checked. Aggregated microprobe data gave rough estimations of profound focal cytokine responses related to morphological tissue injury and to anaerobic metabolism that were not evident from the concomitantly collected cerebrospinal fluid data. Data regarding tissue with no macroscopic evidence of injury demonstrated that IL release not only is elicited in severely compromised tissue but also may be a general phenomenon in brains subjected to stress. Macroscopic tissue injury was strongly linked to IL-6 but not IL- lb activation. Furthermore, IL release seems to be stimulated by local ischemia. The basal tissue concentration level of IL-lb was estimated in the range of 10 to 150 pg/ml; for IL-6, the corresponding figure was 1000 to 20,000 pg/ml.
Data in the present study indicate that catheters with high-cutoff membranes have the potential of expanding microdialysis to the study of protein chemistry as a routine bedside method in neurointensive care.
Journal of Neurosurgery 06/2007; 106(5):820-5. DOI:10.3171/jns.2007.106.5.820 · 3.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the properties of a new intracerebral micro-dialysis catheter with a high cut-off membrane (molecular cut-off 100 kDalton) with a standard catheter (CMA70, molecular cut-off 20 kDalton).
Paired intracerebral microdialysis catheters were inserted in fifteen comatose patients treated in a neurosurgical intensive care unit following subarachnoid haemorrhage or traumatic brain injury. The high-cut-off catheter (D(100)) differed from the CMA 70 catheter by the length (20 mm) and cut-off properties of the catheter membranes (100 kDalton) and the perfusion fluids used (Ringer-Dextran 60). Samples were collected every 4-6 hours, analyzed bedside (for glucose, glutamate, glycerol, lactate, pyruvate and urea) and later in the laboratory (for total protein).
Fluid recovery was similar for the two types of catheters, but significantly more protein was recovered by the D(100) catheter. The recovery of glycerol and pyruvate did not differ, while minor differences in recovery of glutamate and glucose were observed. The recovery of lactate was considerably lower in the D(100) catheter (p < 0.01), influencing the lactate/pyruvate-ratio. The patterns of concentration changes over time were consistent for all metabolites, and independent of type of catheter.
Microdialysis catheters with high cut-off membranes can be used in routine clinical practice in the NSICU, adding the possibility of macro-molecule sampling from the extracellular space during monitoring.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Combining previously independently established techniques our objective was to develop and evaluate a method for bedside qualitative assessment of cerebral blood flow in neurointensive care (NICU) patients. The CT-protocol was optimized using phantoms and comparing a mobile CT-scanner (Tomoscan-M, Philips) with two stationary CT scanners. Thirty-two per cent xenon was delivered with standard equipment (Enhancer 3000). Mean cortical flow in volunteers was 48 ml/min/100 g, with the mean vascular territorial flow varying between 45 and 66 ml/min/100 g. The potential clinical usefulness was illustrated in three patients with vasospasm following subarachnoid haemorrhage. Our conclusion is that quantitative bedside measurements of CBF can be repeatedly performed in an easy and safe way in a standard NICU-setting, using xenon-inhalation and a mobile CT-scanner. The method is useful for the decision-making, and is a good example of how the quality of multi-modality monitoring in the NICU can be developed and further diversified.
British Journal of Neurosurgery 11/2005; 19(5):395-401. DOI:10.1080/02688690500389898 · 0.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate a new intracerebral microdialysis catheter with a high-cutoff membrane and its potential for the study of macromolecules in the human brain.
Paired intracerebral microdialysis catheters were inserted in 10 patients who became comatose after subarachnoid hemorrhage or traumatic brain injury and were then treated in our neurosurgical unit. The only differences from the routine use of microdialysis in our clinic were the length (20 mm) and cutoff properties of the catheter membranes (100 kD) and the perfusion fluids used (standard perfusion fluid, 3.5% albumin, or Ringer-dextran 60). Samples were weighed (for net fluid fluxes) and analyzed at bedside (for routine metabolites) and later in the laboratory (for total protein and interleukin-6). The in vitro recovery of glucose, glutamate, and glycerol were also investigated under different conditions.
Even brief perfusion with standard perfusion fluid resulted in a significant loss of volume from the microdialysis system. For albumin and Ringer-dextran 60 fluid, recovery was comparable to standard settings. Interleukin-6 (highest value close to 25,000 pg/ml) was sampled from all catheters, and total protein was analyzed from catheters perfused with Ringer-dextran 60 (average concentration, 234 mug protein/ml). There were detectable patterns of variations in the concentration of interleukin-6, seemingly related to concomitant variations in intracerebral conditions. In the present study, no direct comparison was made with the standard CMA 70 catheter (CMA Microdialysis, Stockholm, Sweden), but in vivo, the measured mean concentrations of glucose, glycerol, lactate, and pyruvate were comparable to those previously reported from standard catheters. In vitro, the recovery of metabolites was better when using Ringer-dextran 60 compared with albumin.
Microdialysis catheters with high-cutoff membranes can be used in routine clinical practice, allowing for sampling and analysis of cytokines and other macromolecules.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pseudo-aneurysm is a rare complication of craniotomy. Blunt injury to the temporal artery region is the usual cause, but still a rare complication. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage was successfully treated by aneurysm clipping. The patient developed hydrocephalus, and was admitted for a shunt operation seventeen days later. The craniotomy had healed normally, but a palpable temporal lump was present in the skin incision. INTERVENTION: The pulsating mass proved to be a postoperative aneurysm of the superficial temporal artery (S.T.A.) and was successfully occluded with 500 units Thrombostat (thrombin glue) which was injected into the aneurysm sac using a 22-gauge needle guided by ultrasound. The permanency of the obliteration was verified by ultrasound examination.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Experimental data have suggested that hypothermia (32-34 degrees C) may improve outcome after cerebral ischaemia, but its efficacy has not yet been established conclusively in humans. In this study we examined the feasibility and safety of deliberate moderate perioperative hypothermia during operations for subarachnoid aneurysms.
A total of 359 operations for intracranial cerebral aneurysms were included in this prospective study. By using cold intravenous infusions (4 degrees C) and convective cooling our aim was to reduce the patient's core temperature to more than 34 degrees C within 1 h before operation. The protocol assessed postoperative complications such as infections, prolonged mechanical ventilation, pulmonary complications and coagulopathies.
During surgery, the body temperature was reduced to a mean of 32.5 (SD 0.4) degrees C. Cooling was accomplished at a rate of 4.0 (SD 0.4) degrees C h(-1). All patients were normothermic at 5 (sd 2) h postoperatively. Peri/postoperative complications included circulatory instability (n=36, 10%), arrhythmias (n=17, 5%) coagulation abnormalities and blood transfusion (n=169, 47%), infections (n=29, 8%) and pulmonary complications (infiltrate or oedema while on ventilatory support) (n=97, 27%). Eighteen patients died within 30 days (5%). There was no significant correlation between the extent of hypothermia and any of the complications. However, there was a strong correlation between the occurrence of complications and the severity of the underlying neurological disease as assessed by the Hunt and Hess score.
Moderate hypothermia accomplished within 1 h of induction of anaesthesia and maintained during surgery for subarachnoid aneurysms appears to be a safe method as far as the risks of peri/postoperative complications such as circulatory instability, coagulation abnormalities and infections are concerned.
BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 10/2004; 93(3):343-7. DOI:10.1093/bja/aeh206 · 4.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 3-Aminopropanal (3-AP), a degradation product of polyamines such as spermine, spermidine and putrescine, is a lysosomotropic small aldehyde that causes apoptosis or necrosis of most cells in culture, apparently by inducing moderate or extensive lysosomal rupture, respectively, and secondary mitochondrial changes. Here, using the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line, we found simultaneous occurrence of apoptotic and necrotic cell death when cultures were exposed to 3-AP in concentrations that usually are either nontoxic, or only cause apoptosis. At 30 mM, but not at 10 mM, the lysosomotropic base and proton acceptor NH3 completely blocked the toxic effect of 3-AP, proving that 3-AP is lysosomotropic and suggesting that the lysosomal membrane proton pump of neuroblastoma cells is highly effective, creating a lower than normal lysosomal pH and, thus, extensive intralysosomal accumulation of lysosomotropic drugs. A wave of internal oxidative stress, secondary to changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, followed and gave rise to further lysosomal rupture. The preincubation of cells for 24 h with a chain-breaking free radical-scavenger, alpha-tocopherol, before exposure to 3-AP, significantly delayed both the wave of oxidative stress and the secondary lysosomal rupture, while it did not interfere with the early 3-AP-mediated phase of lysosomal break. Obviously, the reported oxidative stress and apoptosis/necrosis are consequences of lysosomal rupture with ensuing release of lysosomal enzymes resulting in direct/indirect effects on mitochondrial permeability, membrane potential, and electron transport. The induced oxidative stress seems to act as an amplifying loop causing further lysosomal break that can be partially prevented by alpha-tocopherol. Perhaps secondary brain damage during a critical post injury period can be prevented by the use of drugs that temporarily raise lysosomal pH, inactivate intralysosomal 3-AP, or stabilize lysosomal membranes against oxidative stress.
Brain Research 09/2004; 1016(2):163-9. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2004.04.075 · 2.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: By pursuing a policy of very early aneurysm treatment in neurosurgical centers, in-hospital rebleeds can be virtually eliminated. Nonetheless, as many as 15% of patients with aneurysm rupture suffer ultraearly rebleeding with high mortality rates, and these individuals are beyond the reach of even the most ambitious protocol for diagnosis and referral. Only drugs given immediately after the diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has been established at the local hospital level can, in theory, contribute to the minimization of such ultraearly rebleeding. The object of this randomized, prospective, multicenter study was to assess the efficacy of short-term antifibrinolytic treatment with tranexamic acid in preventing rebleeding.
Only patients suffering SAH verified on computerized tomography (CT) scans within 48 hours prior to the first hospital admission were included. A 1-g dose of tranexamic acid was given intravenously as soon as diagnosis of SAH had been verified in the local hospitals (before the patients were transported), followed by doses of 1 g every 6 hours until the aneurysm was occluded; this treatment did not exceed 72 hours. In this study, 254 patients received tranexamic acid and 251 patients were randomized as controls. Age, sex, Hunt and Hess and Fisher grade distributions, as well as aneurysm locations, were congruent between the groups. Outcome was assessed at 6 months post-SAH by using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). Vasospasm and delayed ischemic neurological deficits were classified according to clinical findings as well as by transcranial Doppler (TCD) studies. All events classified as rebleeding were verified on CT scans or during surgery.
More than 90% of patients reached the neurosurgical center within 12 hours of their first hospital admission after SAH; 70% of all aneurysms were clipped or coils were inserted within 24 hours of the first hospital admission. Given the protocol, only one rebleed occurred later than 24 hours after the first hospital admission. Despite this strong emphasis on early intervention, however, a cluster of 27 very early rebleeds still occurred in the control group within hours of randomization into the study, and 13 of these patients died. In the tranexamic acid group, six patients rebled and two died. A reduction in the rebleeding rate from 10.8 to 2.4% and an 80% reduction in the mortality rate from early rebleeding with tranexamic acid treatment can therefore be inferred. Favorable outcome according to the GOS increased from 70.5 to 74.8%. According to TCD measurements and clinical findings, there were no indications of increased risk of either ischemic clinical manifestations or vasospasm that could be linked to tranexamic acid treatment. Neurosurgical guidelines for aneurysm rupture should extend also into the preneurosurgical phase to guarantee protection from ultraearly rebleeds. Currently available antifibrinolytic drugs can provide such protection, and at low cost. The number of potentially saved lives exceeds those lost to vasospasm.
Journal of Neurosurgery 11/2002; 97(4):771-8. DOI:10.3171/jns.2002.97.4.0771 · 3.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sudden onset headache is a common condition that sometimes indicates a life-threatening subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) but is mostly harmless. We have performed a prospective study of 137 consecutive patients with this kind of headache (thunderclap headache=TCH). The examination included a CT scan, CSF examination and follow-up of patients with no SAH during the period between 2 days and 12 months after the headache attack. The incidence was 43 per 100 000 inhabitants >18 years of age per year; 11.3% of the patients with TCH had SAH. Findings in other patients indicated cerebral infarction (five), intracerebral haematoma (three), aseptic meningitis (four), cerebral oedema (one) and sinus thrombosis (one). Thus no specific finding indicating the underlying cause of the TCH attack was found in the majority of the patients. A slightly increased prevalence of migraine was found in the non-SAH patients (28%). The attacks occurred in 11 cases (8%) during sexual activity and two of these had an SAH. Nausea, neck stiffness, occipital location and impaired consciousness were significantly more frequent with SAH but did not occur in all cases. Location in the temporal region and pressing headache quality were the only features that were more common in non-SAH patients. Recurrent attacks of TCH occurred in 24% of the non-SAH patients. No SAH occurred later in this group, nor in any of the other patients. It was concluded that attacks caused by a SAH cannot be distinguished from non-SAH attacks on clinical grounds. It is important that patients with their first TCH attack are investigated with CT and CSF examination to exclude SAH, meningitis or cerebral infarction. The results from this and previous studies indicate that it is not necessary to perform angiography in patients with a TCH attack, provided that no symptoms or signs indicate a possible brain lesion and a CT scan and CSF examination have not indicated SAH.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With increasing use of endovascular procedures, the number of aneurysms treated surgically will decline. In this study the authors review complications related to the surgical treatment of aneurysms and address the issue of maintaining quality standards on a national level.
A prospective, nonselected amalgamation of every aneurysm case treated in five of six neurosurgical centers in Sweden during 1 calendar year was undertaken (422 patients; 7.4 persons/100,000 population/year). The treatment protocols at these institutions were very similar. Outcome was assessed using clinical end points. In this series, 84.1% of the patients underwent surgery, and intraoperative complications occurred in 30% of these procedures. Poor outcome from technical complications was seen in 7.9% of the surgically treated patients. Intraoperative aneurysm rupture accounted for 60% and branch sacrifice for 12% of all technical difficulties. Although these complications were significantly related to aneurysm base geometry and the competence of the surgeon, problems still occurred apparently at random and also in the best of hands (17%). The temporary mean occlusion time in the patients who suffered intraoperative aneurysm rupture was twice as long as the temporary arrest of blood flow performed to aid dissection.
The results obtained in this series closely reflect the overall management results of this disease and support the conclusion that surgical complications causing a poor outcome can be estimated on a large population-based scale. Intraoperative aneurysm rupture was the most common and most devastating technical complication that occurred. Support was found for a more liberal use of temporary clips early during dissection, regardless of the experience of the surgeon. Temporary regional interruption of arterial blood flow should be a routine method for aneurysm surgery on an everyday basis. A random occurrence of difficult intraoperative problems was clearly shown, and this factor of unpredictability, which is present in any preoperative assessment of risk, strengthens the case for recommending neuroprotection as a routine adjunct to virtually every aneurysm operation, regardless of the surgeon's experience.
Journal of Neurosurgery 04/2002; 96(3):515-22. DOI:10.3171/jns.2002.96.3.0515 · 3.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The author sought to describe overall management data on cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and to focus the actuarial need for different treatment modalities on a population-based scale. Such data would seem important in the planning of regional or national multimodality strategies for the treatment of AVMs. This analysis of a nonselected, consecutive series of patients representing every diagnosed case of cerebral AVM in a population of 1,000,000 over one decade may serve to shed some light on these treatment aspects.
During the 11-year period from 1989 to 1999, data from every patient harboring a cerebral AVM that was presented clinically or discovered incidentally in a strictly defined population of 986,000 people were collected prospectively. No patient was lost to follow up. There were 12.4 de novo diagnosed AVMs per 1,000,000 population per year (135 AVMs). Large high-grade AVMs (Spetzler-Martin classification) were rare, and Grade 1 to 3 lesions represented 85% of the caseload. Hemorrhage was the initial manifestation of AVM in 69.6% of the cases. lntracerebral hematoma was the most common hemorrhagic manifestation occurring in 78 patients. There were 4.4 cases per 1,000,000 population per year of hematomas needing expedient surgical evacuation. In the remaining patients who did not require hematoma surgery, small, critically located Grade 3 and Grade 4 lesions amounted to 1.6 cases per 1,000,000 population per year. There were 5.8 cases per 1,000,000 population per year of Grade 1 to 2 and larger noncritically located Grade 3 malformations. There were 0.5 cases per 1,000,000 population per year of Grade 5 AVMs. The overall outcome in 135 patients was classified as good according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale (Score 5) in 61% of the cases, and the overall mortality rate was 9%.
In centers with population-based referral, AVM of the brain is predominantly a disease related to intracranial bleeding. and parenchymal clots have a profound impact on overall management outcome. The rupture of an AVM is as devastating as that of an aneurysm. Aneurysm ruptures are more lethal, whereas AVM rupture tends to result in more neurological disability due to the high occurrence of lobar intracerebral hematoma. In an attempt to quantify the need for different modalities of AVM treatment based on a population of 1,000,000 people, figures for surgeries performed range from six to 10 operations per year and embolization as well as gamma knife surgery procedures range from two to seven per year, depending on the strategy at hand. When using nonsurgical approaches to Grade 1 to 3 lesions, the number of patients requiring treatment with more than one method for obliteration increases drastically as does the potential risk for procedure-related complications.
Journal of Neurosurgery 11/2001; 95(4):633-7. DOI:10.3171/jns.2001.95.4.0633 · 3.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Forty percent of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage have prodromal warning episodes and difficulties in identifying these events are repeatedly documented. Modifications of diagnostic and referral patterns through educational programs of local doctors may help to identify such patients before a major devastating rupture occurs.
A teaching program about sudden onset headache, targeting referring doctors, was systematically applied and its impact on early misdiagnosis of ruptured aneurysms was prospectively studied.
Forty percent of all studied patients experienced a warning episode, manifested as apoplectic headache, prior to hospitalization. An initial diagnostic error was evident in 12% of the patients. Diagnostic errors were reduced by 77% as a result of continuous interaction between neurosurgeons and local physicians.
Misdiagnosed warning episodes cause greater loss of lives and higher morbidity on a population basis than does delayed ischemic complications from vasospasm in aneurysmal SAH. Teaching programs focused on local physicians have a profound impact on outcome at low cost.