[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Risk factors for hip fracture are well studied because of the negative impact on patients and the community, with mortality in the first year being almost 30% in the elderly. Age, gender and fall risk-increasing drugs, identified by the National Board of Health and Welfare in Sweden, are well known risk factors for hip fracture, but how multimorbidity level affects the risk of hip fracture during use of fall risk-increasing drugs is to our knowledge not as well studied. This study explored the relationship between use of fall risk-increasing drugs in combination with multimorbidity level and risk of hip fracture in an elderly population.
Data were from Ostergotland County, Sweden, and comprised the total population in the county aged 75 years and older during 2006. The odds ratio (OR) for hip fracture during use of fall risk-increasing drugs was calculated by multivariate logistic regression, adjusted for age, gender and individual multimorbidity level. Multimorbidity level was estimated with the Johns Hopkins ACG Case-Mix System and grouped into six Resource Utilization Bands (RUBs 0-5).
2.07% of the study population (N = 38,407) had a hip fracture during 2007. Patients using opioids (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.34-1.82), dopaminergic agents (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.24-2.55), anxiolytics (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.11-1.54), antidepressants (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.42-1.95) or hypnotics/sedatives (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.13-1.52) had increased ORs for hip fracture after adjustment for age, gender and multimorbidity level. Vasodilators used in cardiac diseases, antihypertensive agents, diuretics, beta-blocking agents, calcium channel blockers and renin-angiotensin system inhibitors were not associated with an increased OR for hip fracture after adjustment for age, gender and multimorbidity level.
Use of fall risk-increasing drugs such as opioids, dopaminergic agents, anxiolytics, antidepressants and hypnotics/sedatives increases the risk of hip fracture after adjustment for age, gender and multimorbidity level. Fall risk-increasing drugs, high age, female gender and multimorbidity level, can be used to identify high-risk patients who could benefit from a medication review to reduce the risk of hip fracture.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Age, gender and socioeconomic status have been shown to be associated with the use of prescription drugs, even after adjustment for multimorbidity. General practitioners have a holistic and patient-centred perspective and our hypothesis is that this may reflect on the prescription of drugs. In Sweden the patient may seek secondary care without a letter of referral and the liability of the prescription of drugs accompanies the patient, which makes it suitable for this type of research. In this study we examine the odds of having prescription drug use in the population and the rates of prescription drugs among patients, issued in primary health care, according to age, gender and socioeconomic status after adjustment for multimorbidity level.Method
Data were collected on all individuals above 20 years of age in Östergötland county with about 400 000 inhabitants in year 2006. The John Hopkins ACG Case-mix was used as a proxy for multimorbidity level. Odds ratio (OR) of having prescription drugs issued in primary health care in the population and rates of prescription drug use among patients in primary health care, stated as incidence rate ratio (IRR), according to age, gender and socioeconomic status were calculated and adjusted for multimorbidity.ResultsAfter adjustment for multimorbidity, individuals 80 years or older had higher odds ratio (OR 3.37 (CI 95% 3.22-3.52)) and incidence rate ratio (IRR 6.24 (CI 95% 5.79-6.72)) for prescription drug use. Male individuals had a lower odds ratio of having prescription drugs (OR 0.66 (CI 95% 0.64-0.69)), but among patients males had a slightly higher incidence rate of drug use (IRR 1.06 (CI 95% 1.04-1.09)). Individuals with the highest income had the lowest odds ratio of having prescription drugs and individuals with the second lowest income had the highest odds ratio of having prescription drugs (OR 1.10 (CI 95% 1.07-1.13)). Individuals with the highest education had the lowest odds ratio of having prescription drugs (OR 0.61 (CI 95% 0.54-0.67)).Conclusion
Age, gender and socioeconomic status are associated with large differences in the use of prescribed drugs in primary health care, even after adjustment for multimorbidity level.
BMC Family Practice 11/2014; 15(1):183. · 1.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Smoking, diabetes, male sex, hypercholesterolaemia and hypertension are well-established risk factors for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, less is known about their role in influencing the outcome in the event of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The aim of this study was to determine if these risk factors are associated specifically with acute myocardial infarction (MI) or unstable angina (UA) in patients with suspected ACS.
BMJ Open 07/2014; 4(7):e005077. · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective. To study the associations between active choice of primary care provider and healthcare utilization, multimorbidity, age, and sex, comparing data from primary care and all healthcare in a Swedish population. Design. Descriptive cross-sectional study using descriptive analyses including t-test, correlations, and logistic regression modelling in four separate models. Setting and subjects. The population (151 731) and all healthcare in Blekinge in 2007. Main outcome measure. Actively or passively listed in primary care, registered on 31 December 2007. Results. Number of consultations (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.30-1.32), multimorbidity level (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.67-1.70), age (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.03-1.03), and sex (OR for men 0.67, 95% CI 0.65-0.68) were all associated with registered active listing in primary care. Active listing was more strongly associated with number of consultations and multimorbidity level using primary care data (OR 2.11, 95% CI 2.08-2.15 and OR 2.14, 95% CI 2.11-2.17, respectively) than using data from all healthcare. Number of consultations and multimorbidity level were correlated and had similar associations with active listing in primary care. Modelling number of consultations, multimorbidity level, age, and sex gave four separate models with about 70% explanatory power for active listing in primary care. Combining number of consultations and multimorbidity did not improve the models. Conclusions. Number of consultations and multimorbidity level were associated with active listing in primary care. These factors were also associated with each other differently in primary care than in all healthcare. More complex models including non-health-related individual characteristics and healthcare-related factors are needed to increase explanatory power.
Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care 06/2014; 32(2):99-105. · 1.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is the most common severe chronic disease in primary care. It is typically diagnosed at a late stage, and it is also difficult to predict its trajectory and hence to tailor treatment and rehabilitation. The overall aim is to study determinants of exacerbations of COPD treated in primary care and to study, if the prognosis is related to patient-related, healthcare system markers or levels of the potential biomarkers such as microfibrillar-associated protein 4 (MFAP4) and surfactant protein D (SP-D). Furthermore, we aim to establish a cohort of COPD patients treated in Danish primary care comprising register data, data captured from the GPs' electronic patient record system (EPR) and a biobank in order to make analyses on factors associated with different tractories of COPD treated in primary care.Methods/design: A cohort study of incident and prevalent COPD patients treated and followed by their GPs using data capture, which is a computer system collecting data from the GPs' own EPR and transferring them to the Danish General Practice Research Database. The participating COPD patients were investigated at a baseline consultation by their own GP, and the results were registered using a pop-up menu by the GP. During the consultation blood samples were taken and the patients were given a questionnaire. The patients will then be followed prospectively at yearly consultations and in between these consultations by means of the data capture system. The collected data will also be combined with register data from other sources. The data collection started in December 2012, and so far 30 practices with 77 GPs have included about 350 patients. The study aims to include 2000 patients till the end of 2016, and after that to continue to collect data on these patients using the data capture system.
BMC Pulmonary Medicine 05/2014; 14(1):88. · 2.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been reported that there is a difference in drug prescription between males and females. Even after adjustment for multi-morbidity, females tend to use more prescription drugs compared to males. In this study, we wanted to analyse whether the gender difference in drug treatment could be explained by gender-related morbidity.
Data was collected on all individuals 20 years and older in the county of Ostergotland in Sweden. The Johns Hopkins ACG Case-Mix System was used to calculate individual level of multi-morbidity. A report from the Swedish National Institute of Public Health using the WHO term DALY was the basis for gender-related morbidity. Prescription drugs used to treat diseases that mainly affect females were excluded from the analyses.
The odds of having prescription drugs for males, compared to females, increased from 0.45 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.44-0.46) to 0.82 (95% CI 0.81-0.83) after exclusion of prescription drugs that are used to treat diseases that mainly affect females.
Gender-related morbidity and the use of anti-conception drugs may explain a large part of the difference in prescription drug use between males and females but still there remains a difference between the genders at 18%. This implicates that it is of importance to take the gender-related morbidity into consideration, and to exclude anti-conception drugs, when performing studies regarding difference in drug use between the genders.
BMC Public Health 04/2014; 14(1):329. · 2.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In several countries, morbidity burdens have prompted authorities to change the system for allocating resources among patients from a demographic-based to a morbidity-based casemix system. In Danish general practice clinics, there is no morbidity-based casemix adjustment system.
The aim of this paper was to assess what proportions of the variation in fee-for-service (FFS) expenditures are explained by type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients' co-morbidity burden and illness characteristics.
We use patient morbidity characteristics such as diagnostic markers and co-morbidity casemix adjustments based on resource utilisation bands and FFS expenditures for a sample of 6706 T2DM patients in 59 general practices for the year 2010. We applied a fixed-effect approach.
Average annual FFS expenditures were approximately 398 euro per T2DM patient. Expenditures increased progressively with the patients' degree of co-morbidity and were higher for patients who suffered from diagnostic markers. A total of 17-25% of the expenditure variation was explained by age, gender and patients' morbidity patterns.
T2DM patient morbidity characteristics are significant patient related FFS expenditure drivers in diabetes care. To address the specific health care needs of T2DM patients in GP clinics, our study indicates that it may be advisable to introduce a morbidity based casemix adjustment system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In primary care, fee-for-services (FFS) tariffs are often based on political negotiation rather than costing systems. The potential for comprehensive measures of patient morbidity to explain variation in negotiated FFS expenditures has not previously been examined.
To examine the relative explanatory power of morbidity measures and related general practice (GP) clinic characteristics in explaining variation in politically negotiated FFS expenditures.
We applied a multilevel approach to consider factors that explain FFS expenditures among patients and GP clinics. We used patient morbidity characteristics such as diagnostic markers, multimorbidity casemix adjustment based on resource utilisation bands (RUB) and related GP clinic characteristics for the year 2010. Our sample included 139,527 patients visiting GP clinics.
Out of the individual expenditures, 31.6 % were explained by age, gender and RUB, and around 18 % were explained by RUB. Expenditures increased progressively with the degree of resource use (RUB0-RUB5). Adding more patient-specific morbidity measures increased the explanatory power to 44 %; 3.8-9.4 % of the variation in expenditures was related to the GP clinic in which the patient was treated.
Morbidity measures were significant patient-related FFS expenditure drivers. The association between FFS expenditure and morbidity burden appears to be at the same level as similar studies in the hospital sector, where fees are based on average costing. However, our results indicate that there may be room for improvement of the association between politically negotiated FFS expenditures and morbidity in primary care.
The European Journal of Health Economics 07/2013; 15(6). · 2.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective. To detect chronic heart failure in elderly patients with a registered diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treated in Swedish primary health care using natriuretic peptide NT-proBNP.
Design. A cross-sectional study.
Setting. Two primary health care centres in southeastern Sweden each with about 9000 listed patients.
Subjects. Patients aged 65 years and older with a registered diagnosis of COPD.
Main Outcome Measures. Percentage of patients with elevated NT-proBNP, percentage of patients with abnormal left ventricular function assessed by echocardiography, and association between elevated NT-proBNP and symptoms, signs, and electrocardiography.
Results. Using NT-proBNP threshold of 1200 pg/mL, we could detect and confirm chronic heart failure in 5.6% of the study population with concurrent COPD. An elevated level of NT-proBNP was only associated with nocturia and abnormal electrocardiography.
Conclusions. We found considerably fewer cases of heart failure in patients with COPD than could be expected from the results of previous studies. Our study shows the need for developing improved strategies to enhance the validity of a suspected heart failure diagnosis in patients with COPD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: An early and accurate diagnosis of chronic heart failure is a big challenge for a general practitioner. Assessment of left ventricular function is essential for the diagnosis of heart failure and the prognosis. A gold standard for identifying left ventricular function is echocardiography. Echocardiography requires input from specialized care and has a limited access in Swedish primary health care. Impedance cardiography (ICG) is a noninvasive and low-cost method of examination. The survey technique is simple and ICG measurement can be performed by a general practitioner. ICG has been suggested for assessment of left ventricular function in patients with heart failure. We aimed to study the association between hemodynamic parameters measured by ICG and the value of ejection fraction as a determinant of reduced left ventricular systolic function in echocardiography. METHODS: A non-interventional, observational study conducted in the outpatients heart failure unit. Thirty-six patients with the diagnosis of chronic heart failure were simultaneously examined by echocardiography and ICG. Distribution of categorical variables was presented as numbers. Distribution of continuous variables was presented as a mean and 95% Confidence Interval. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare variables and show differences between the groups. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: We found that three ICG parameters: pre-ejection fraction, left ventricular ejection time and systolic time ratio were significantly associated with ejection fraction measured by echocardiography. CONCLUSIONS: The association which we found between EF and ICG parameters was not reported in previous studies. We found no association between EF and ICG parameters which were suggested previously as the determinants of reduced left ventricular systolic function.The knowledge concerning explanation of hemodynamic parameters measured by ICG that is available nowadays is not sufficient to adopt the method in practice and use it to describe left ventricular systolic dysfunction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate how distance to hospital and socioeconomic status (SES) influence the use of secondary health care (SHC) when taking comorbidity into account. Design and setting. A register-based study in Östergötland County. Subjects. The adult population of Östergötland County. Main outcome measures. Odds of SHC use in the population and rates of SHC use by patients were studied after taking into account comorbidity level assigned using the Adjusted Clinical Groups (ACG) Case-Mix System. The baseline for analysis of SES was individuals with the lowest education level (level 1) and the lowest income (1st quartile). Results. The study showed both positive and negative association between SES and use of SHC. The risk of incurring SHC costs was 12% higher for individuals with education level 1. Individuals with income in the 2nd quartile had a 4% higher risk of incurring SHC costs but a 17% lower risk of emergency department visits. Individuals with income in the 4th quartile had 9% lower risk of hospitalization. The risk of using SHC services for the population was not associated with distance to hospital. Patients living over 40 km from hospital and patients with higher SES had lower use of SHC services. Conclusions. It was found that distance to hospital and SES influence SHC use after adjusting for comorbidity level, age, and gender. These results suggest that GPs and health care managers should pay a higher degree of attention to this when planning primary care services in order to minimize the potentially redundant use of SHC.
Scandinavian journal of primary health care 01/2013; · 2.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a great variability in licit prescription drug use in the population and among patients. Factors other than purely medical ones have proven to be of importance for the prescribing of licit drugs. For example, individuals with a high age, female gender and low socioeconomic status are more likely to use licit prescription drugs. However, these results have not been adjusted for multi-morbidity level. In this study we investigate the odds of using licit prescription drugs among individuals in the population and the rate of licit prescription drug use among patients depending on gender, age and socioeconomic status after adjustment for multi-morbidity level.
The study was carried out on the total population aged 20 years or older in Östergötland county with about 400 000 inhabitants in year 2006. The Johns Hopkins ACG Case-mix was used as a proxy for the individual level of multi-morbidity in the population to which we have related the odds ratio for individuals and incidence rate ratio (IRR) for patients of using licit prescription drugs, defined daily doses (DDDs) and total costs of licit prescription drugs after adjusting for age, gender and socioeconomic factors (educational and income level).
After adjustment for multi-morbidity level male individuals had less than half the odds of using licit prescription drugs (OR 0.41 (95% CI 0.40-0.42)) compared to female individuals. Among the patients, males had higher total costs (IRR 1.14 (95% CI 1.13-1.15)). Individuals above 80 years had nine times the odds of using licit prescription drugs (OR 9.09 (95% CI 8.33-10.00)) despite adjustment for multi-morbidity. Patients in the highest education and income level had the lowest DDDs (IRR 0.78 (95% CI 0.76-0.80), IRR 0.73 (95% CI 0.71-0.74)) after adjustment for multi-morbidity level.
This paper shows that there is a great variability in licit prescription drug use associated with gender, age and socioeconomic status, which is not dependent on level of multi-morbidity.
BMC Public Health 07/2012; 12:575. · 2.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE. This study examined whether age, gender, and comorbidity were of importance for an individual's choice of listing with either a public or a private primary health care (PHC) practice. DESIGN AND SETTING. The study was a register-based closed cohort study in one private and one public PHC practice in Blekinge County in southern Sweden. Subjects. A cohort (12 696 individuals) was studied comprising all those listed with the public or private PHC practice on 1 October 2005 who were also listed with the public PHC practice on 1 October 2004. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. The listing/re-listing behaviour of the population in this cohort was studied at two points in time, 1 October 2005 and 1 October 2006, with respect to age, gender, and comorbidity level as measured by the ACG Case-Mix system. RESULTS. Individuals listed with the public practice both on 1 October 2005 and one year later were significantly older, were more often females, and had a higher comorbidity level than individuals listed with the private practice. Individuals with a higher comorbidity level were more likely to re-list or to stay listed with the public practice. CONCLUSIONS. This study shows that the probability of choosing a public instead of private PHC provider increased with higher age and comorbidity level of the individuals. It is suggested that using a measure of comorbidity can help us understand more about the chronically ill individual's choice of health care provider. This would be of importance when health care policy-makers decide on reimbursement system or organization of PHC.
Scandinavian journal of primary health care 03/2011; 29(2):104-9. · 2.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adequate resource allocation is an important factor to ensure equity in health care. Previous reimbursement models have been based on age, gender and socioeconomic factors. An explanatory model based on individual need of primary health care (PHC) has not yet been used in Sweden to allocate resources. The aim of this study was to examine to what extent the ACG case-mix system could explain concurrent costs in Swedish PHC.
Diagnoses were obtained from electronic PHC records of inhabitants in Blekinge County (approx. 150,000) listed with public PHC (approx. 120,000) for three consecutive years, 2004-2006. The inhabitants were then classified into six different resource utilization bands (RUB) using the ACG case-mix system. The mean costs for primary health care were calculated for each RUB and year. Using linear regression models and log-cost as dependent variable the adjusted R2 was calculated in the unadjusted model (gender) and in consecutive models where age, listing with specific PHC and RUB were added. In an additional model the ACG groups were added.
Gender, age and listing with specific PHC explained 14.48-14.88% of the variance in individual costs for PHC. By also adding information on level of co-morbidity, as measured by the ACG case-mix system, to specific PHC the adjusted R2 increased to 60.89-63.41%.
The ACG case-mix system explains patient costs in primary care to a high degree. Age and gender are important explanatory factors, but most of the variance in concurrent patient costs was explained by the ACG case-mix system.
BMC Public Health 09/2009; 9:347. · 2.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships of different types of quality of life to strenuous and light physical activity in old age.
The Swedish SNAC-Blekinge baseline database, consisting of data on 585 men and 817 women 60-96 years of age, was utilized. The independent variables were light and strenuous physical activity. Four dependent variables concerned with various quality of life components were employed (well-being, engagement, emotional support and social anchorage). Age, gender, functional ability and co-morbidity were included as possible confounders. Non-parametric bivariate and multivariate statistical tests were performed.
Correlations suggested there to generally be a positive relationship between physical activity and quality of life. Multivariate logistic regression analyses controlling for possible confounders showed light physical activity to increase the odds of experiencing well-being, engagement and social anchorage, whereas strenuous physical activity increased the odds of experiencing engagement and emotional support. Thus, light physical activity and strenuous physical activity differed in their relation to quality of life generally.
The results indicate that physical activity has a salutogenic effect by enhancing the quality of life, and it can be assumed to be connected to quality of life by generating pleasure and relaxation.
Aging and Mental Health 02/2009; 13(1):1-8. · 1.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) is a set of clinical signs and symptoms, interpreted as the re- sult of cardiac ischemia, or abruptly decreased blood flow to the heart muscle. The subtypes of ACS in- clude Unstable Angina (UA) and Myocardial In- farction (MI). Acute MI is the single most com- mon cause of death for both men and women in the developed world. Several data mining studies have analyzed different types of patient data in order to generate models that are able to predict the severity of an ACS. Such models could be used as a basis for choosing an appropriate form of treatment. In most cases, the data is based on electrocardiograms (ECGs). In this preliminary study, we analyze a unique ACS database, featuring 28 variables, in- cluding: chronic conditions, risk factors, and labo- ratory results as well as classifications into MI and UA. We evaluate different types of feature selection and apply supervised learning algorithms to a subset of the data. The experimental results are promis- ing, indicating that this type of data could indeed be used to generate accurate models for ACS severity prediction.
26th Annual Workshop of the Swedish Artificial Intelligence Society; 01/2009
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lithuanian primary health care (PHC) is undergoing changes from the systems prevalent under the Soviet Union, which ensured free access to specialised health care. Currently four different PHC models work in parallel, which offers the opportunity to study their respective effect on referral rates. Our aim was to investigate whether there were differences in referrals rates from different Lithuanian PHC models in Klaipeda after adjustment for co-morbidity.
The population listed with 18 PHC practices serving inhabitants in Klaipeda city and region (250,070 inhabitants). Four PHC models: rural state-owned family medicine practices, urban privately owned family medicine practices, state-owned polyclinics and privately owned polyclinics. Information on listed patients and referrals during 2005 from each PHC practice in Klaipeda was obtained from the Lithuanian State Sickness Fund database. The database records included information on age, gender, PHC model, referrals and ICD 10 diagnoses. The Johns Hopkins ACG Case-Mix system was used to study co-morbidity. Referral rates from different PHC models were studied using Poisson regression models.
Patients listed with rural state-owned family medicine practices had a significantly lower referral rate to specialised health care than those in the other three PHC models. An increasing co-morbidity level correlated with a higher physician- to self-referral ratio.
Family medicine practices located in rural-, but not in urban areas had significantly lower referral rates to specialised health care. It could not be established whether this was due to organisation, training of physicians or financing, but suggests there is room for improving primary health care in urban areas. Patient's place of residence and co morbidity level were the most important factors for referral rate. We also found that gatekeeping had an effect on the referral pattern with respect to co-morbidity level, so that those with a physician referral were more likely to have had higher co-morbidity.
BMC Family Practice 12/2008; 9:63. · 1.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Convincing scientific evidence exists that smoking has devastating effects on health. The use of smokeless tobacco (snuff) as a tobacco habit has been reported to be considerably less harmful, and has been suggested as an aid to smoking cessation, among other things.
Cross-sectional data on general health and tobacco habits were obtained through a self-administered mail questionnaire in 2002 representing 50-year-old (n = 6236) and 60-year-old (n = 6232) Swedes in two counties. Participation rates were 70.2 and 75.7% in the both age cohorts, respectively. Of all participants 46.2% were male and 53.8% female. A general health index encompassing five items (score 0-5) was designed, with the best general health attributed to those scoring 5.
Male daily smokers accounted for 15.6% of the 50-year-olds and 18.7% of the 60-years-olds compared with 21.1 and 16.6%, respectively, for females. Corresponding figures for daily snuffing were 21.1 and 11.9% for men and 1.7 and 0.4% for women. When adjusting for age, sex, place of living, social network, education, and marital status, and related to subjects who never used tobacco, 'best general health' score 5, significant differences were found for ex-smokers (OR 0.82; 95% CI 0.74-0.90; P < 0.001) and ex-snuffers (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.61-0.90; P < 0.01).
Those who have stopped smoking or snuffing seem to be in a vulnerable condition with respect to general health and in need of extra support and health-promoting activities.
The European Journal of Public Health 04/2007; 17(2):151-4. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the relationship between light and strenuous exercise and depression, as well as gender differences in this relationship, in a representative sample of 860 elderly Swedish suburb-dwelling men and women in age cohorts from 60 to 96 years, drawn from among participants in the Swedish National Aging and Care study. The relationship between depression and self-reported changes in exercise status over time was also examined. Exercise activities were measured with four survey questions, and depression, with the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale. The inactive elderly had higher depression scores than more active individuals, both in terms of light and strenuous exercise. The continuously active group had lower depression scores than both continuously inactive individuals and individuals reporting a shift from activity to inactivity during the preceding year. Light exercise had a somewhat stronger effect on depression for women.
Journal of aging and physical activity 02/2007; 15(1):41-55. · 1.41 Impact Factor