Parisa Mirmoghtadaee

Islamic Azad University Tehran North Branch, Teheran, Tehrān, Iran

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Publications (20)10.47 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A growing body of evidence supports an association between oral health and cardiovascular diseases and diabetes in adults. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between tooth brushing frequency and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents. This nationwide population-based study was conducted among 5258 Iranian students, aged 10-18 years, living in urban and rural areas of 27 provinces in Iran. The association of tooth brushing frequency was assessed with anthropometric indexes and cardiometabolic risk factors after adjustment for potential confounders. Higher frequency of tooth brushing was associated with lower mean levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in both genders (P < 0.0001) and lower frequency of elevated LDL-C in girls (P = 0.03). The frequency of elevated blood pressure decreased with higher tooth brushing frequency in boys (P = 0.03). After adjustment for many potential cofounders such as age, gender, anthropometric indexes, screen time, socioeconomic status, and family history of non-communicable diseases, participants who washed their teeth at least once a day had lower risk of high LDL-C and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in comparison to those who reported lower frequency of tooth brushing; some different associations were observed among girls and boys. Our findings suggest an independent and protective role of teeth brushing frequency for some cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents. Increasing both the general health awareness and improving oral health should be considered in primordial and primary prevention of non-communicable diseases.
    International journal of preventive medicine 03/2013; 4(3):271-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Risk factors, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and smoking play an important role in the high prevalence of NCDs. In this study we assessed the type and prevalence of NCD risk factors among an Iranian adult population. We conducted a cross sectional study of 500 men and 500 women, aged 15-65 years, selected by multi-stage random cluster sampling from urban areas of Isfahan, the second largest city in Iran. The prevalences of 8 risk factors were determined in this study: sedentary lifestyle (47.2%), overweight and obestity (body mass index > or = 25 kg/m2) (60.8%), hypertension (elevated systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure) (22%), low high density lipoprotein level (27.6%), high total cholesterol level (16.9%), high triglyceride level (22.1%) and high fasting blood sugar (7.6%). Sedentary life and overweight/obesity were common at all ages, especially among women. Given the high prevalence of NCD risk factors in the studied population, there is an urgent need for age-appropriate interventions to result in lifestyle changes to decrease the prevalence of NCD risk factors.
    The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health 09/2012; 43(5):1227-32. · 0.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of our study was to determine the content of fat and fatty acid composition of breast milk, and its association with the mother's diet. This cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant mothers who came to health care centers for last prenatal care in Isfahan, Iran. Eight to 72 hours after delivery, 2 to 5 ml of colostrum was collected by hand into tubes. They were kept in an ice box and sent within half an hour to the collaborating health centre for freezing at -20°C until analysis, which was performed at the laboratory of NNFTRI in Tehran. The milk samples were homogenized by Vortex (Heidolph Vortex Shaker REAX 1. 220 V. 30 W Germany) at 2400 rpm for 30 sec. The data of 86 out of 91 samples were complete. The mean maternal age and gestational age was 28.37 ± 5.55 years old and 38.7 ± 1.2 weeks, respectively. The content of fat was 2.17 ± 1.22 g/100 ml breast milk. Arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) and docosohexaanoic acid DHA (22:6n-3) made 0.8 ± 0.4% and 0.3 ± 0.2% of total fatty acids. Although the AA/DHA ratio in our study is suitable, but the content of DHA is nearly low. Dietary habits of women in reproductive age group should be improved, with special emphasis on the fatty acid content of breast milk. This may have long-term impact on health promotion and disease prevention.
    Journal of research in medical sciences 09/2012; 17(9):824-7. · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of a simple office-based program for encouraging healthy lifestyle on controlling childhood obesity and associated cardiometabolic risk factors. This non-randomized 24-week lifestyle modification trial was conducted among 457 obese children and adolescents, aged 2-18 years, who had at least one cardiometabolic risk factor in addition to obesity. This trial included three components of exercise, diet education and behavior modification, with all recommendations provided by a pediatrician, two general physicians and a nurse. Instead of strict inhibitory recommendations, healthier lifestyle was encouraged. Overall 448 (98.04%) of enrolled children completed the trial with a mean age of 9.6 ± 2.9 years. After the trial, the mean of anthropometric measures and cardiometabolic risk factors decreased significantly, the mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased significantly, and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome decreased from 20.8% to 1.8%. Triglycerides, LDL-C, diastolic blood pressure and WC had the highest decrease in all age groups, with the most prominent changes in the 14-18-year age group. By each -1SD decline in BMI and WC, risk factors had significant improvement. Motivational office-based counseling can be effective in treatment of childhood obesity and its associated cardio-metabolic risk factors. Such approach can be implemented in the primary health care system; and can be of special concern in low- and middle-income countries with limited human and financial resources. We suggest that expanding the roles of non-physician clinicians such as nurse practitioners can help to increase the amount of time available for such services.
    Pediatrics & Neonatology 04/2012; 53(2):90-7. · 0.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aims to explore the knowledge of a randomly selected cohort of Iranian general practitioners (GPs) on the topic of acetaminophen dosing for fever in children. In this cross-sectional study, which was conducted in March 2011 in Isfahan (Iran) 515 GPs who were practicing general family medicine were sent a self-administered 10-item questionnaire about the usage of acetaminophen for fever in pediatric patients. Questions were designed to evaluate the knowledge of GPs on acetaminophen dosing amount and interval for fever in children and were formatted as multiple choice answers. The questionnaire were face and content validated and checked for reliability before the study (Croanbach's alpha = 0.75) in two separate sample sets of the same population. 51.5% of questionnaires were returned and analyzed. 41.9% of the physicians gave doses different from the recommended dose (10-15 mg/kg every 4 hours). Only 23.8% of the physicians suggested true maximal daily dose of acetaminophen. 65.7% of the responders usually or always gave prescriptions for antipyretics and 8.7% did not routinely give parents instructions on the dosing of antipyretics. We found that some GPs do not strictly adhere to the dosing guidelines of acetaminophen, so intense clinical courses of pharmacology and rational usage of drugs and other relevant educational programs for medical students and practitioners seems to be necessary for the sake of safety of pediatric patients in Iran.
    Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association 03/2012; 62(3 Suppl 2):S55-7. · 0.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The aim of our study was to determine the content of fat and fatty acid composition of breast milk and the association with the mother's diet. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant mothers who came to health care centers for last prenatal care in Isfahan, Iran. Eight to 72 hours after delivery, 2 to 5 ml of colostrum was collected by hand into tubes. They were kept in an ice box and sent within half an hour to the collaborating health centre for freezing at -20°C until analysis, which was performed at the laboratory of NNFTRI in Tehran. The milk samples were homogenized by Vortex (Heidolph Vortex Shaker REAX 1. 220 V. 30 W Germany) at 2400 rpm for 30 sec. Results: The data of 86 out of 91 samples were complete. The mean maternal age and gestational age was 28.37 ± 5.55 years old and 38.7 ± 1.2 weeks, respectively. The content of fat was 2.17 ± 1.22 g/100 ml breast milk. Arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) and docosohexaanoic acid DHA (22:6n-3) made 0.8 ± 0.4% and 0.3 ± 0.2% of total fatty acids. Although the AA/DHA ratio in our study is suitable, but the content of DHA is nearly low. Conclusion: Dietary habits of women in reproductive age group should be improved, with special emphasis on the fatty acid content of breast milk. This may have long-term impact on health promotion and disease prevention. Received: 22-05-2012; Revised: 22-07-2012; Accepted: 24-07-2012 diet, individual and diurnal variations in fatty acid synthesis, genetic factors, stage of lactation influences on fatty acid composition of breast milk. [1,2,4] And due to various dietary habits and life styles worldwide, fatty acid composition of breast milk is different not only within countries but also within regions of a country., [1,5-9] In a study among German women, the percentage of AA and DHA was 0.7% and 0.46% of total fatty acid in mature breast milk, respectively. [10] In another study, DHA increased with consumption fatty sea fish or by supplementation with fish oil. In Iran, little is known of the FA composition in the milk of Iranian women and its relations to their diet. A study in the west of Iran showed the fat content and the total PUFA in milk samples of 52 women were 3.8 ± 1.5% and 16.5%, respectively. [11] The aim of our study was to determine the content of fat and AA and DHA of breast milk as two major LC-PUFA connected with favorable outcomes in human infants and to associate these results to the mother's diet such as carbohydrate, protein, calorie intake and lipid composition of colostrum as first food of newborns.
    Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. 01/2012;
  • Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Online 01/2012; · 0.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Addressing school health and safetyis an important public health issue. The aim of this study was to identify the status of safety and health (HSE) in Iranian schools, and to provide a monitoring and evaluation scoring system. A 81-item checklist was applied to obtain data regarding the performance of HSE in 60 schools in five Iranian provinces to award health stars (15-level stars). In all provinces, inadequacies and limitations were documented in safety measures such as access to emergency exits, and the risk of firing. By passing this pilot phase, now an agreement is signed between the Ministry of Health & Medical Education and the Ministry of Education & Training, and this plan is implemented as a national program in Iran for improvement of the safety in schools. We suggest that establishment and maintenance of the health management system in schools and ranking and granting stars to them is one of the most appropriate plans in this regard to be implemented in the region. An innovational plan is going to be executed for the first time in Iran and may be set forth as a successful pattern of institutionalization of health systematic and dynamic system in collective environments such as schools in the region.
    Medical Archives 01/2012; 66(2):129-32.
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the most effective and biodegradable dispersant of spilled oil in water surrounding two Persian Gulf provinces. This study compared the effects of three dispersants, Pars 1, Pars 2, and Gamlen OD4000 on removal of oil in two Persian Gulf provinces' water. Overall, 16 stations were selected. Using the Well method, the growth rate of isolated bacteria and fungi was identified. To specify the growth rate of microorganisms and their usage of oil in the presence of the above-mentioned dispersants, as exclusive sources of carbon, the bacteria were grown in culture medium for 28 days at 120 rpm, 30°C, and their optical density was measured by spectrophotometry. Then, we tested biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in microorganisms. The highest growth rate was documented for the growth of microorganisms on either Pars 1 or Pars 2 dispersants or their mixtures with oil. However, the culture having microorganisms grown on Pars 1 had higher BOD and COD than the other two dispersants (9200 and 16800 versus 500 and 960, P < 0.05). Mixture of oil and Pars 2 as well as oil and Pars 1 dispersants showed the highest BODs and CODs, respectively. In the Bahregan province, microorganisms grown on Pars 2 had maximum amount of BOD and COD in comparison with Pars 1 and Gamlen dispersants (7100 and 15200 versus 6000 and 10560, P < 0.05). Pars 1 and Pars 2 were the most effective dispersants with highest degradability comparing Gamlen. In each region, the most suitable compound for removing oil spill from offshores with least secondary contamination should be investigated.
    Journal of Environmental and Public Health 01/2012; 2012:981365.
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    ABSTRACT: Emergency contraception (EC) is a special contraception method that prevents pregnancy after an unsafe sexual contact. Pharmacists, as the most available member of medical team have a unique role in patient education for appropriate use of contraceptive methods. In this study, we assessed the pharmacists' knowledge about emergency contraception. A researcher made questionnaire was developed and used according to national guide line and electronic databanks. A group of experts and pharmacists validated the questionnaire. Reliability was measured by Half-Split Test. The questionnaires were filled by pharmacists. Average knowledge score were 8.12 ± 0.28 for women and 7.83 ± 0.31 for men (from a maximum of 15) which showed no significant difference between men and women (P = 0.492). There was no significant difference between pharmacists who had precipitated in continuing education programs and that of those who had not (P = 0.286). Scores of pharmacists who graduated 13 years ago or more did not significantly differ from others (P = 0.287). Because of low scores of pharmacist's knowledge about EC and the importance of unintended pregnancy prevention, its improvement is an urgent need. Regular and frequent continuing education programs could be one of the recommended interventions.
    International journal of preventive medicine 10/2011; 2(4):252-5.
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine the secular trends in the national prevalence of overweight and obesity among 6-year-old Iranian children, and to compare the results in Northern, Central and Southern parts of the country. The data were collected as part of a routine and mandatory national screening program on children entering elementary schools in 2007, 2008 and 2009. The study population comprised 2,600,065 children including 862,433 in 2007, 782,244 in 2008 and 955,388 in 2009. Of total children 12.8%, 13.5% and 10.9% were overweight in 2007, 2008 and 2009, respectively (P > 0.05). The corresponding figures for obesity were 3.4%, 3.5% and 3.4%, respectively (P > 0.05). In all surveys, the prevalence of overweight was higher in Southern region than in the other two regions. P for trend was not significant for prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in any of the regions. To the best of our knowledge, this study was the first of its kind in presenting the nationwide trend of overweight and obesity in young children living in a developing country. It showed a considerably high prevalence of overweight and obesity, but with a constant rate in three years. The higher prevalence of overweight in Southern region than in Central and Northern regions might be related to the lower socioeconomic position of this population. At a very young age, children's lifestyle is more under control of parents. Primordial and primary prevention efforts against the overweight epidemic can be effective and shall be further strengthened.
    Journal of research in medical sciences 08/2011; 16(8):979-84. · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the national prevalence of short stature, underweight, overweight and obesity in 6-year-old Iranian children before school entry. Cross-sectional nationwide survey. Mandatory national screening programme before entrance to elementary school in 2008 in Iran. All Iranian children entering public and private elementary schools. The study population comprised 862,433 children (48.4% girls, 77.2% urban resident). Overall, 6.5% of children had short stature, 19.1% were underweight, 12.8% were overweight and 3.4% were obese. There was no significant difference in terms of gender, but considerably larger differences were documented among various provinces. The double burden of nutritional disorders among young children warrants a multi-faceted national policy with evidence-based local programmes. Such planning needs a comprehensive surveillance system and centralized data registry for children's growth.
    Public Health Nutrition 04/2011; 14(4):605-10. · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to compare the timing of puberty between various geographic locations and different ethnicities. This national survey was conducted in 20 provinces in Iran. Healthy Iranian girls were selected from public schools using cluster random sampling. A total number of 30 clusters including 7493 girls, aged 6.0-20 years, were selected. In order to compare different areas, the national classification of the provinces based on climate, ethnicity, geographic locations, and socioeconomic variables were used. Accordingly, there are 11 regions in Iran. Analysis of variance was used to compare the mean ages of menarche, pubarche, and thelarche in different regions. Tehranian girls, with 11.99 ± 1.35 years (mean ± SD), had the lowest age of menarche which was statistically significantly. The second region with lowest age at menarche was Fars (12.40 ± 1.27 years). The mean age at breast bud stage (B2) was significantly lower in Ghazvin-Zanjan region (8.97 ± 1.45 years). In Fars region, the mean age at B2 stage of breast development (11.01 ± 1.88 years) was higher than other regions except for Mazendran-Guilan and Tehran-related cities. The mean age at public hair development at Tanner stage 2 (PH2) in Kordestan-Lorestan-Ilam region (10.70 ± 1.23 years) was significantly higher than other regions. We found significant differences in the age of pubertal stages of girls living in various regions with different ethnicity and geographic characteristics. Considering the impact of pubertal age on general health, more studies should be done about the lifestyle and environmental factors affecting the onset of puberty.
    Journal of research in medical sciences 03/2011; 16(3):276-81. · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since 2005, pediculosis is one of the obligatory reportable diseases from community to the Center of Disease Control. This study is the first nationwide survey on the prevalence of pediculosis and some associated risk factors in Iranian children and adolescents. National data of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education were gathered in 2005 through school screening programs and obligatory reports from the country health centers. 12,359,448 Iranian children and adolescents were screened in 2005. Overall, 213,450 students, consisting of 198,947 girls and 14,320 boys were reported to have pediculosis. The prevalence of pediculosis was 581 per 100,000 population that varied from 1/100 000 to 8,303/100,000. In general, the highest prevalence of pediculosis was documented in south-eastern cities. The prevalence of pediculosis was significantly higher in girls than in boys (93% vs.7%, respectively, p<0.0001). In both genders, the highest prevalence of pediculosis was documented in the 6-10- year age group. Of those infected, 62% lived in rural areas, and 32% of those infected with pediculosis had a previous history of this infection. Most (99.37%) infected individuals had head lice, the rest had body and pubic pediculosis. The prevalence of pediculosis is low in Iranian children and adolescents, but this infestation is still a health problem in some south-eastern cities with warm climate and low to middle socioeconomic status.
    Iranian Red Crescent medical journal. 03/2011; 13(3):167-70.
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    ABSTRACT: For the first time, not only in Iran but also in the Eastern Mediterranean region, we report the prevalence of underweight and overweight among all children at school entry. The current study was part of the national screening survey of all children at school entry that was conducted in all 31 provinces of Iran in 2007. Body mass index (BMI) cut-off points provided by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used. This cross-sectional national study was performed among 899,035 children (48.8% girls and 51.2% boys); 76.7% of them lived in urban areas. Overall, 12.7% of the children had a BMI below the age- and gender-specific 5th percentile, and with the highest prevalence in the southern provinces. In addition, 17.0% of the children had high BMI levels, i.e., 13.5% were overweight and 3.5% were obese, with the highest prevalence in the capital city as well as in the western and northwestern provinces. Until a few years ago, childhood undernutrition has been the major nutritional problem in our community and still is the focus of nutritional policies and related medical education curriculum; however the higher prevalence of overweight other than underweight obtained in the current national survey is alarming and confirms the importance of considering childhood overweight as a health priority. This should be taken into account for all Middle Eastern countries that are expected to bear one of the world's greatest increases in the burden of chronic diseases notably diabetes in the next two decades.
    World Journal of Pediatrics 08/2010; 6(3):223-7. · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the association of cell blood count with obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors in children. This cross-sectional study was conducted from 1st November 2007 to 1st October 2008 in the Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome Research Clinic of the Preventive Pediatric Cardiology Department, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan, Iran. It comprised 326 (172 girls and 154 boys) obese children aged 6-12 years. The mean age of participants was 8.8 +/- 2.7 years. A significant increasing trend in the mean body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), triglycerides (TG), total- and low density lipoprotein (LDL)- cholesterol were documented across the quartiles of the white blood cell (WBC) count, and for waist-to-hip ratio and total cholesterol across platelet quartiles. A similar increasing trend was documented for BMI, waist and hip circumference, diastolic blood pressure, LDL-C, and for TG from the second to the fourth quartile of the red blood cells. By the increase in the number of components of metabolic syndrome, the mean BMI, WBC, and TG increased significantly. The highest correlation was documented between WBC count and TG. The WBC count increased the risk of increased BMI (odds ratio [OR]=1.45, confidence interval [CI] 95%; 1.11-1.65, p=0.001), increased WC (OR; 1.47, CI 95%; 1.15-1.74, p=0.001), and high TG (CI 95%; 1.241.06-1.44, p=0.005 ). We found significant associations between CBC components and cardiometabolic risk factors in young obese children. These findings are confirmatory evidence of the pro-inflammatory state of obese individuals, even in young children.
    Saudi medical journal 04/2010; 31(4):406-12. · 0.62 Impact Factor
  • Ali M Sabzghabaee, Parisa Mirmoghtadaee, Mehdi Mohammadi
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    ABSTRACT: Fruits and vegetables are important components of a healthy diet, and their consumption could help prevent a wide range of diseases. In this study, fruit and vegetable consumption in elderly people were assessed. This cross-sectional study was conducted among elderly (≥65 year-old) people who came to pharmacies affiliated with Isfahan University of Medical Science. Face-to-face interview using a questionnaire including food frequency questionnaire and demographic and socioeconomic variables was administered. Of the total 504 participants, 56.3% were male and 43.7% were female. The mean daily serving of fruit and vegetable (combined) consumption in men and women were 4.58±1.31 and 4.65±1.28, respectively. The prevalence of daily fruit and vegetable intake of 5 or more servings was 37.9%. Low educational and low income participants ate lower fruits and vegetables (combined). Age, gender, smoking, and chronic disease had no significant influence on their consumption. Educational level was the only independent predictor of fruit and vegetable consumption (OR: 3.81, CI: 1.64-8.84). Most elderly people consumed less than the recommended levels of fruits and vegetables. From the point of view of prevention of chronic disease, health education programs which targeted elderly people particularly for those at the risk of low consumption are needed and recommended.
    International journal of preventive medicine 01/2010; 1(2):98-102.
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    ABSTRACT: Screening of students' health problems could lead to timely prevention and control of many health disorders. This study aimed to determine the nationwide prevalence of common disorders through school health screening program in Iran This cross-sectional national screening program was conducted in 2007-2008 among first- and third-grade-students in primary schools, first-grade-students of middle and high schools of all provinces in Iran. Data were obtained from 3,124,021 (81.9%) students reported from the whole country classified into 33 geographical zones. Of total students studied, 12.48% had weight abnormalities, 4.77% had visual disorders, 3.95 % had head lice, 2.24% had behavioral disorders, and 0.6% had hearing disorders. Among students studied, 0.4%, 0.7%, 0.4% and0.8% had endocrine, psychological, neurological and genitourinary disorders, respectively. In addition, 2.1%, 1.9%, 1.8%, 0.8%0.5%, 0.3% and 0.3% of students had ear, nose & pharynx disorder, anemia, skin & hair, cardiac, abdominal, vertebral and lung problems, respectively. In elementary schools, 57.6% of first-grade-students with at least one disorder were managed in outpatient settings and 6% of them were hospitalized for more investigation. Among third-grade-students of elementary schools, these values corresponded to 13.2% and 1.1%, respectively. Among first grade students of middle and high schools, this prevalence was 58.5% and 44.6% and 1.2% and 0.3% of students were hospitalized for more investigation. This integrated school screening program revealed a considerably high prevalence of health disorders among school students. These results might help health policy makers to design future health promoting programs.
    Iranian Journal of Public Health 01/2010; 39(2):13-7. · 0.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Zinc, an essential trace element and a component of many enzymes, is involved in the synthesis, storage and release of insulin. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of zinc supplementation on insulin resistance and components of the metabolic syndrome in prepubertal obese children. This triple-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over trial was conducted among 60 obese Iranian children in 2008. Pertinent clinical findings, fasting serum glucose, insulin and lipid profile were assessed. Participants were randomly assigned to two groups of equal number; one group received 20mg elemental zinc and the other group received placebo on a regular daily basis for eight weeks. After a 4-week wash-out period, the groups were crossed over. The mean age of participants was 9.1 +/- 1.1 years. After receiving zinc, the mean fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin and HOMA-IR decreased significantly, while body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), LDL-C and triglycerides (TG) did not significantly change. After receiving placebo, the mean FPG, insulin and HOMA-IR increased significantly, while BMI, WC, LDL-C and TG showed a non-significant increase. Besides lifestyle modification, zinc supplementation might be considered as a useful and safe additional intervention treatment for improvement of cardiometabolic risk factors related to childhood obesity.
    Hormones (Athens, Greece) 01/2009; 8(4):279-85. · 2.01 Impact Factor
  • Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 28(2):279-282.