[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)1/2 and p38 MAPK, is known to be activated by ultraviolet (UV) radiation in melanocytes to regulate melanin production. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in the pathway of ERK and JNK activation. It has been established that the essential oil of Achillea millefolium L. (AM-EO) has activities that suppress the oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Thus, we analyzed the effects of AM-EO on melanogenesis in melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) treated melanoma cells. The results demonstrated that AM-EO suppresses melanin production by decreasing tyrosinase activity through the regulation of the JNK and ERK signaling pathways. This effect might be associated with the AM-EO activity leading to the suppression of ROS, and linalyl acetate is its major functional component. Therefore, we propose that AM-EO has the potential to treat hyperpigmentation in the future.
PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e95186. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The major objective of this study was to estimate the hypopigmentation function of the essential oil from Vetiveria zizanioides (VZ-EO). Our results indicated that VZ-EO exhibits potent lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity to moderate the bleaching of β -carotene and to maintain the cellular glutathione (GSH) levels. VZ-EO can markedly decrease melanin production and tyrosinase activity in α -melanin-stimulating-hormone- ( α -MSH-) stimulated B16 cells. The effect of VZ-EO on melanogenesis is achieved by the suppression of cellular tyrosinase expression. The results demonstrated that the activity of VZ-EO on melanogenesis might be the result of its potent antioxidative ability, which was reflected in the decreased cellular oxidant and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and the recovered activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT) in α -MSH-stimulated B16 cells. The most abundant compound in VZ-EO is cedr-8-en-13-ol (12.4%), which has a strong capability to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Therefore, VZ-EO has the potential to become an ingredient in future hypopigmentation drugs, foods, and cosmetics.
The Scientific World Journal 01/2014; 2014:213013. · 1.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Achillea millefolium L. is a member of the Asteraceae family and has been used in folk medicine in many countries. In this study, 19 compounds in A. millefolium essential oil (AM-EO) have been identified; the major components are artemisia ketone (14.92%), camphor (11.64%), linalyl acetate (11.51%) and 1,8-cineole (10.15%). AM-EO can suppress the inflammatory responses of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, including decreased levels of cellular nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion production, lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) concentration. This antioxidant activity is not a result of increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, but rather occurs as a result of the down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, thus reducing the inflammatory response. Therefore, AM-EO can be utilized in many applications, including the treatment of inflammatory diseases in the future.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 07/2013; 14(7):12978-12993. · 2.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of 80% ethanolic extract derived from commercial granule chlorella (GPE) on cell viability, invasion capacity and apoptosis in human hepatoma cell line (Hep G2 cells) were investigated. The results demonstrated that GPE decreased cell viability, induced apoptosis and showed invasion inhibitory effects in the Hep G2 cells. GPE-triggered apoptosis was confirmed by 4′-6-diamidino-2-phenyindole (DAPI) staining and comet assay. GPE promoted an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca2+, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) accompanied by cytochrome c release that was due to the decrease of Bcl-2 in the Hep G2 cells. GPE also induced the protein levels of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), increased the levels of caspase-3, -8 and -9, and stimulated the levels of fatty acid synthase (Fas) and Fas ligand (FasL) in the Hep G2 cells. Additionally GPE inhibited invasion of Hep G2 cells by down-regulation of the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9. Furthermore, cellular glutathione content and superoxide dismutases (SOD) activities were significantly reduced and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) levels were significantly increased after GPE treatment. These results suggest that GPE can induce cytotoxicity on Hep G2 cells and inhibit the invasive capacity of malignant cells.
Journal of Functional Foods 01/2012; 4(1):302–310. · 4.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of 50% ethanolic stem extracts of Zanthoxylum ailanthoides Sieb and Zucc. (ZASZ) on the cell viability, cell cycle and apoptosis were investigated in a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (colo 205). The results demonstrated that ZASZ induced morphological changes and decreased the cell viability. ZASZ promoted Wee1, checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2), p21 and p53 levels, decreased cyclin B and cdc25c associated with that led to G(2)/M phase arrest. ZASZ-triggered apoptosis was confirmed by 4' -6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and DNA gel electrophoresis. ZASZ increased the levels of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and growth arrest and DNA damage inducible gene 153 (GADD153), and promoted an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+) release, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ(m)) accompanied by cytochrome c release that was due to the decrease of Bcl-2 and increase of Bax levels in the colo 205 cells. ZASZ also induced the protein levels of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and endonuclease G (Endo G), increased the levels of caspase-3, -7 and -9, and stimulated the levels of fatty acid synthase (Fas) and Fas ligand in the colo 205 cells. ZASZ contains phenolic compounds, including flavone, chlorogenic acid and isofraxidin, among which, flavone was found to be the most effective in reducing cell viability and proliferative responses in the colo 205 cells. ZASZ induces cytotoxicity and apoptosis in colo 205 cells which provides the rationale for studies in animal models on the utilization of ZASZ as a potential cancer therapeutic compound.
Anticancer research 05/2011; 31(5):1667-76. · 1.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extraction of the leaves of Zanthoxylum ailanthoides Sieb. & Zucc. affords extracts and four isolated compounds which exhibit activities against leukemia cells. The chloroform-soluble fraction (ZAC) of the crude extract of this plant showed cytotoxic activity against human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) and myelomonocytic leukemia (WEHI-3) cells with IC(50) values of 73.06 and 42.22 μg/mL, respectively. The active ZAC was further separated to yield pheophorbide-a methyl ester (1), pheophorbide-b methyl ester (2), 13(2)-hydroxyl (13(2)-S) pheophorbide-a methyl ester (3) and 13(2)-hydroxyl (13(2)-R) pheophorbide-b methyl ester (4) whose structures were confirmed by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 2-4 showed cytotoxic activities against both leukemia cells with IC(50) value in the range of 46.76-79.43 nM, whereas compound 1 exhibited only weak cytotoxic activity. The extracts and compounds 1-4 also induced apoptosis and DNA damage in leukemia cells after treatment. The results suggested that the Z. ailanthoides is biologically active against leukemia cells.
Phytomedicine: international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology 10/2010; 18(5):344-8. · 2.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of 80% ethanolic chlorella extracts (GPE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatic damage were investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were orally treated with GPE (0.5 g/kg body weight) or silymarin (0.2 g/kg body weight) over four consecutive weeks with administration of CCl(4) (20% CCl(4), 0.5 ml/rat twice a week). The GPE had a significant protective effect against liver injuries, as well as oxidative stress induced by CCl(4), resulting in reduced lipid peroxidation and improved serum biochemical parameters such as aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. The reduced levels of glutathione, vitamin C, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in the CCl(4)-treated rats were significantly increased by treatment with GPE. Furthermore, the activity of GPE was comparable to the standard drug silymarin. In conclusion, chlorella may be useful as a hepatoprotective agent against chemical-induced liver damage in vivo.
In vivo (Athens, Greece) 23(5):747-54. · 1.15 Impact Factor