Christina L Burnett

Cosmetic Ingredient Review, Washington, Washington, D.C., United States

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Publications (15)16.15 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of animal- and plant-derived amino acid mixtures, which function as skin and hair conditioning agents. The safety of α-amino acids as direct food additives has been well established, based on extensive research through acute and chronic dietary exposures and the Panel previously has reviewed the safety of individual α-amino acids in cosmetics. The Panel focused its review on dermal irritation and sensitization data relevant to the use of these ingredients in topical cosmetics. The Panel concluded that these 21 ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration as used in cosmetics.
    International journal of toxicology. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 6-hydroxyindole, which functions as an oxidative hair dye ingredient. The Panel considered relevant animal and human data provided in this safety assessment and concluded that 6-hydroxyindole is safe for use in oxidative hair dye formulations.
    International journal of toxicology. 09/2014; 33(3 Suppl):24S-35S.
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    ABSTRACT: PEGylated oil is a terminology used to describe cosmetic ingredients that are the etherification and esterification products of glycerides and fatty acids with ethylene oxide. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) considered the safety of PEGylated oils, which function primarily as surfactants in cosmetic products. The Panel reviewed relevant animal and human data provided in this safety assessment and concluded that the 130 chemically related PEGylated oils were safe as cosmetic ingredients in the present practices of use and concentration when formulated to be nonirritating.
    International journal of toxicology. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of α-amino acids, which function primarily as hair- and skin-conditioning agents in cosmetic products. The safety of α-amino acids as direct food additives has been well established based on extensive research through acute and chronic dietary exposures. The Panel focused its review on dermal irritation and sensitization data relevant to the use of these ingredients in topical cosmetics. The Panel concluded that α-amino acids were safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration of this safety assessment.
    International Journal of Toxicology 11/2013; 32(6 Suppl):41S-64S. · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 2-Amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole and its salt, 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate, are used as coupling agents in oxidative hair dyes. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel reviewed relevant animal and human data related to the ingredient. The Expert Panel concluded that 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole and 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate are safe for use in oxidative hair dye formulations. The Expert Panel cautioned that these ingredients should not be used in cosmetic products in which N-nitroso compounds may be formed.
    International Journal of Toxicology 05/2013; 32(3 Suppl):25S-35S. · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) and related amidopropyl betaines are zwitterions used mainly as surfactants in cosmetics. These cosmetic ingredients are similar in their chemistry, in particular with respect to the presence of 3,3-dimethylamino-propylamine (DMAPA) and fatty acid amidopropyl dimethylamine (amidoamine) impurities, which are known as sensitizers. The CIR Expert Panel concluded that because these ingredients present no other significant toxicity, when formulated to be nonsensitizing (which may be based on a quantitative risk assessment), these ingredients are safe for use as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration of this safety assessment.
    International Journal of Toxicology 08/2012; 31(4 Suppl):77S-111S. · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polyvinyl methyl ether/maleic acid (PVM/MA) copolymer, and its related salts and esters, are used in cosmetics, mainly as binders, film formers, and hair fixatives. Animal and human data relevant to the use of these ingredients in cosmetic products were reviewed by the CIR Expert Panel. The Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe for use in cosmetic products.
    International Journal of Toxicology 10/2011; 30(5 Suppl):128S-44S. · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cocos nucifera (coconut) oil, oil from the dried coconut fruit, is composed of 90% saturated triglycerides. It may function as a fragrance ingredient, hair conditioning agent, or skin-conditioning agent and is reported in 626 cosmetics at concentrations from 0.0001% to 70%. The related ingredients covered in this assessment are fatty acids, and their hydrogenated forms, corresponding fatty alcohols, simple esters, and inorganic and sulfated salts of coconut oil. The salts and esters are expected to have similar toxicological profiles as the oil, its hydrogenated forms, and its constituent fatty acids. Coconut oil and related ingredients are safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment.
    International Journal of Toxicology 05/2011; 30(3 Suppl):5S-16S. · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Methylisothiazolinone (MIT) is a heterocyclic organic compound used as a preservative in cosmetics and personal care products in concentrations up to 0.01%. MIT is a colorless, clear liquid with a mild odor that is completely soluble in water; mostly soluble in acetonitrile, methanol, and hexane; and slightly soluble in xylene. Consistent with its solubility, dermal penetration is low. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel noted the in vitro evidence of neurotoxicity but concluded that the absence of any neurotoxicity findings in the many in vivo studies, including subchronic, chronic, and reproductive and developmental animal studies, suggests that MIT would not be neurotoxic as used in cosmetics. Although recognizing that MIT was a sensitizer in both animal and human studies, the panel concluded that there is a threshold dose response and that cosmetic products formulated to contain concentrations of MIT at 100 ppm (0.01%) or less would not be expected to pose a sensitization risk. Accordingly, MIT may be safely used as a preservative in cosmetics up to that concentration.
    International Journal of Toxicology 07/2010; 29(4 Suppl):187S-213S. · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Toluene-2,5-diamine, toluene-2,5-diamine sulfate, and toluene-3,4-diamine are diaminotoluenes used as colorants in permanent hair dyes and tints. Toluene-2,5-diamine is used in 79 products at concentrations up to 3%; toluene-2,5-diamine sulfate is used in 168 products at concentrations up to 4%. Toluene-3,4-diamine does not appear to be in current use. Previously, the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel determined that all 3 ingredients were safe for use as hair dyes. New data suggest that differences in toxicity, especially with respect to carcinogenicity, may exist as a function of placement of amine groups around the benzene ring. The Expert Panel concluded that toluene-2,5-diamine and toluene-2,5-diamine sulfate and are safe as hair dye ingredients in the present practices of use and concentrations but that there are insufficient data supporting the safety of toluene-3,4-diamine.
    International Journal of Toxicology 05/2010; 29(3 Suppl):61S-83S. · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Kojic acid functions as an antioxidant in cosmetic products. Kojic acid was not a toxicant in acute, chronic, reproductive, and genotoxicity studies. While some animal data suggested tumor promotion and weak carcinogenicity, kojic acid is slowly absorbed into the circulation from human skin and likely would not reach the threshold at which these effects were seen. The available human sensitization data supported the safety of kojic acid at a use concentration of 2% in leave-on cosmetics. Kojic acid depigmented black guinea pig skin at a concentration of 4%, but this effect was not seen at 1%. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that the 2 end points of concern, dermal sensitization and skin lightening, would not be seen at use concentrations below 1%; therefore, this ingredient is safe for use in cosmetic products up to that level.
    International Journal of Toxicology 01/2010; 29(6 Suppl):244S-73. · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This safety assessment includes Ammonium and Glyceryl Thioglycolate and Thioglycolic Acid Butyl, Calcium, Ethanolamine, Ethyl, Isooctyl, Isopropyl, Magnesium, Methyl, Potassium, and Sodium Thioglycolate, as used in cosmetics. Thioglycolates penetrate skin and distribute to the kidneys, lungs, small intestine, and spleen; excretion is primarily in urine. Thioglycolates were slightly toxic in rat acute oral toxicity studies. Thioglycolates are minimal to severe ocular irritants. Thioglycolates can be skin irritants in animal and in vitro tests, and can be sensitizers. A no-observable-adverse-effect level for reproductive and developmental toxicity of 100 mg/kg per day was determined using rats. Thioglycolates were not mutagenic, and there was no evidence of carcinogenicity. Thioglycolates were skin irritants in some clinical tests. Clinically significant adverse reactions to these ingredients used in depilatories are not commonly seen, suggesting current products are formulated to be practically nonirritating under conditions of recommended use. Formulators should take steps necessary to assure that current practices are followed.
    International Journal of Toxicology 01/2009; 28(4 Suppl):68-133. · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 2-Amino-3-nitrophenol, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, 4-amino-3-nitrophenol, 4-amino-2-nitrophenol, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol sulfate, 3-nitro-p-hydroxyethylaminophenol, and 4-hydroxypropylamino-3-nitrophenol are substituted aromatic compounds used as semipermanent (nonoxidative) hair colorants and as toners in permanent (oxidative) hair dye products. All ingredients in this group except 2-amino-4-nitrophenol sulfate, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, and 4-amino-2-nitrophenol have reported uses in cosmetics at use concentrations from 2% to 9%. The available toxicity studies for these amino nitrophenol hair dyes did not suggest safety concerns except for the potential carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of 4-amino-2-nitrophenol. 2-Amino-3-nitrophenol, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol sulfate, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, 4-amino-3-nitrophenol, 3-nitro-p-hydroxyethylaminophenol, and 4-hydroxypropylamino-3-nitrophenol are safe as hair dye ingredients in the practices of use and concentration as described in this safety assessment, but the data are insufficient to make a safety determination for 4-amino-2-nitrophenol.
    International Journal of Toxicology 01/2009; 28(6 Suppl 2):217S-51S. · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aminomethyl propanol and aminomethyl propanediol are substituted aliphatic alcohols that function as pH adjusters in cosmetic products at concentrations less than 10%; additionally, aminomethyl propanediol is a fragrance. Extensive oral toxicity data are reviewed, with fewer inhalation toxicity data. Dermal toxicity data are presented that demonstrate, for example, that a mascara with 1.92% aminomethyl propanediol does not cause dermal irritation or allergic contact sensitization, suggesting that the maximum reported use concentration of 2% in mascara would be safe. Although these ingredients are primary amines that are not substrates for N-nitrosation, they may contain secondary amines as impurities in finished products that may undergo N-nitrosation. These ingredients should not be included in cosmetic formulations containing N-nitrosating agents. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel concludes that aminomethyl propanol and aminomethyl propanediol are safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentrations as described in this safety assessment.
    International Journal of Toxicology 01/2009; 28(6 Suppl):141S-61S. · 1.35 Impact Factor
  • Dina M Benes, Christina L Burnett
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    ABSTRACT: Pentasodium Pentetate and Pentetic Acid function as chelating agents in cosmetics. Pentasodium Pentetate is readily soluble in water, but the corresponding free acid is not. Pentasodium Pentetate is used in almost 400 cosmetic products over a wide range of product categories, although it is mostly used in hair dyes and colors at use concentrations of 0.1% to 1.0%. Pentetic Acid is used in 150 cosmetic products, mostly in hair dyes and colors. Chelating agents are used in cosmetics to remove calcium and magnesium cations, which impede foaming and cleansing performance and which can cause a haze in clear liquids. The acute oral LD(50) of Pentasodium Pentetate in rats was > 5 g/kg. The acute dermal LD(50) of Pentapotassium Pentetate using rats was reported to be > 2 g/kg. The intraperitonal LD(50) of Pentetic Acid was reported to be 585 mg/kg. Short-term studies of the calcium and sodium salts of Pentetic Acid in male mice demonstrated no dose-related toxicity over the dose range of 10, 100, and 250 mg/kg. In a 4-week dermal toxicity study, daily topical application of 0.05% Pentasodium Pentetate to shaved and abraded rabbit skin produced moderate erythema after the first week and throughout the study, but no systemic toxicity. Pentasodium Pentetate or Pentapotassium Pentetate applied to intact albino rabbit skin were not irritating. A 40% solution of Pentapotassium Pentetate was not sensitizing in a guinea pig maximization test. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for rats given 40% Pentapotassium Pentetate by oral gavage was reported to be 83 mg/kg day(-1). Subchronic inhalation evaluation of a bath freshener containing 0.05% or 0.09% Pentasodium Pentetate using albino rats determined that there was no cumulative systemic toxicity attributable to the ingredient at either concentration. The no observed effect level (NOEL) for maternal toxicity in pregnant rats was 400 mg/kg body weight and for fetal toxicity was 100 mg/kg body weight. Another reproductive toxicity study evaluated Pentetic Acid-Zn with and without sodium chloride in pregnant C57/B1 Dougherty mice. No toxicity was found without added sodium chloride. Pentapotassium Pentetate was not mutagenic in an Ames test, with or without metabolic activation. The same material tested in Chinese hamster ovary cells was not clastogenic. Calcium Pentetate at 1.351 microg/ml produced a statistically significant increase in the number of sister-chromatid exchanges. Pentasodium Pentetate is nonirritating to moderately irritating, but not a sensitizer in clinical tests. A human comedogenicity (acne promotion) test using Pentasodium Pentetate found no effect. Although data are lacking on the dermal penetration of these two ingredients, other chelating agents such as EDTA do not penetrate the skin, so it is likely that Pentasodium Pentetate and Pentetic Acid also would not penetrate. The high water solubility of Pentasodium Pentetate and the low water solubility of Pentetic Acid also support that their dermal penetration will be low. Other chelating agents, including EDTA and its salts, have been determined to be safe in the current practices of use in cosmetics. Meta-, Tri-, and Hexametaphosphate salts are chelating agents determined to be safe in the current practices of use in cosmetics. Metasilicate salts were found to be safe as chelating agents in cosmetics when formulated to avoid irritation. Overall, these data were considered sufficient to support the safety of Pentesodium Pentetate and Pentetic Acid as used in cosmetics.
    International Journal of Toxicology 01/2008; 27 Suppl 2:71-92. · 1.35 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

19 Citations
16.15 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2014
    • Cosmetic Ingredient Review
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States