Expedito José de Albuquerque Luna

University of São Paulo, San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Publications (22)46.32 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Endothelial cell dysfunction is believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of plasma leakage in patients with acute dengue virus (DENV) infection. Several factors, produced by activated endothelial cells, have been associated with plasma leakage or severe disease in patients with infectious diseases.
    Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 05/2014; · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The purpose of this case-control study was to evaluate risk factors associated with death in children with severe dengue. Methods: The clinical condition of hospitalized patients with severe dengue who died (cases, n = 18) was compared with that of hospitalized patients with severe dengue who survived (controls, n = 77). The inclusion criteria for this study were age under 13 years; hospital admission in São Luis, northeastern Brazil; and laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of dengue. Results: Severe bleeding (hemoptysis), a defining criterion for dengue severity, was the factor most strongly associated with death in our study. We also found that epistaxis and persistent vomiting, both included as warning signs in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of dengue, were strongly associated with death. No significant association was observed between any of the laboratory findings and death. Conclusions: The finding that epistaxis and persistent vomiting were also associated with death in children with severe dengue was unexpected and deserves to be explored in future studies. Because intensive care units are often limited in resource-poor settings, any information that can help to distinguish patients with severe dengue with a higher risk to progress to death may be crucial.
    Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil) 01/2014; 69(1):55-60. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate the prevalence and describe the distribution of trachoma among schoolchildren in Brazilian municipalities. Cross-sectional study, using cluster sampling, of the schoolchildren population of the Brazilian municipalities with Human Development Index - Municipal lower than the national average. This trachoma prevalence survey was conducted by the Ministry of Health, in the period 2002-2007. There were 119,531 schoolchildren selected from 2,270 schools located in 1,156 municipalities. The selected schoolchildren underwent an external ocular examination, with a magnifying glass (2.5X), to detect clinical signs of trachoma according to the WHO criteria. The prevalence of trachoma, by state and national level, and their respective 95% confidence intervals were estimated. Chi-square and Chi-square for trends tests were used to compare categorical variables. There were 6,030 cases of trachoma detected, resulting in a prevalence of 5.0% (95%CI 4.5;5.4). There was no significant difference between the sexes. The prevalence of trachoma was 8.2% among children under 5 years of age, decreasing among higher age groups (p < 0.01). There was a significant difference in prevalence between urban and rural areas, 4.3% versus 6.2% respectively (p < 0.01). Cases were detected in 901 municipalities (77.7% of the sample), in all regions of the country. In 36.8% of the selected municipalities, the prevalence was higher than 5%. The study shows that trachoma is a significant public health problem in Brazil, contradicting the belief that the disease had been controlled in the country. The survey provides a baseline for evaluating planned interventions aimed at achieving the goal of global certification of elimination of trachoma as a cause of blindness in Brazil by 2020.
    Revista de saude publica 06/2013; 47(3):451-459. · 1.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Severe dengue virus (DENV) disease is associated with extensive immune activation, characterized by a cytokine storm. Previously, elevated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels in dengue were found to correlate with clinical disease severity. In the present cross-sectional study we identified markers of microbial translocation and immune activation, which are associated with severe manifestations of DENV infection. Serum samples from DENV-infected patients were collected during the outbreak in 2010 in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Levels of LPS, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), soluble CD14 (sCD14) and IgM and IgG endotoxin core antibodies were determined by ELISA. Thirty cytokines were quantified using a multiplex luminex system. Patients were classified according to the 2009 WHO classification and the occurrence of plasma leakage/shock and hemorrhage. Moreover, a (non-supervised) cluster analysis based on the expression of the quantified cytokines was applied to identify groups of patients with similar cytokine profiles. Markers of microbial translocation were linked to groups with similar clinical disease severity and clusters with similar cytokine profiles. Cluster analysis indicated that LPS levels were significantly increased in patients with a profound pro-inflammatory cytokine profile. LBP and sCD14 showed significantly increased levels in patients with severe disease in the clinical classification and in patients with severe inflammation in the cluster analysis. With both the clinical classification and the cluster analysis, levels of IL-6, IL-8, sIL-2R, MCP-1, RANTES, HGF, G-CSF and EGF were associated with severe disease. The present study provides evidence that both microbial translocation and extensive immune activation occur during severe DENV infection and may play an important role in the pathogenesis.
    PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 05/2013; 7(5):e2236. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Health safety during trips is based on previous counseling, vaccination and prevention of infections, previous diseases or specific problems related to the destination. Our aim was to assess two aspects, incidence of health problems related to travel and the traveler's awareness of health safety. To this end we phone-interviewed faculty members of a large public University, randomly selected from humanities, engineering and health schools. Out of 520 attempts, we were able to contact 67 (12.9%) and 46 (68.6%) agreed to participate in the study. There was a large male proportion (37/44, 84.1%), mature adults mostly in their forties and fifties (32/44, 72.7%), all of them with higher education, as you would expect of faculty members. Most described themselves as being sedentary or as taking occasional exercise, with only 15.9% (7/44) taking regular exercise. Preexisting diseases were reported by 15 travelers. Most trips lasted usually one week or less. Duration of the travel was related to the destination, with (12h) or longer trips being taken by 68.2% (30/44) of travelers, and the others taking shorter (3h) domestic trips. Most travelling was made by air (41/44) and only 31.8% (14/44) of the trips were motivated by leisure. Field research trips were not reported. Specific health counseling previous to travel was reported only by two (4.5%). Twenty seven of them (61.4%) reported updated immunization, but 11/30 reported unchecked immunizations. 30% (9/30) reported travel without any health insurance coverage. As a whole group, 6 (13.6%) travelers reported at least one health problem attributed to the trip. All of them were males travelling abroad. Five presented respiratory infections, such as influenza and common cold, one neurological, one orthopedic, one social and one hypertension. There were no gender differences regarding age groups, destination, type of transport, previous health counseling, leisure travel motivation or pre-existing diseases. Interestingly, the two cases of previous health counseling were made by domestic travelers. Our data clearly shows that despite a significant number of travel related health problems, these highly educated faculty members, had a low awareness of those risks, and a significant number of travels are made without prior counseling or health insurance. A counseling program conducted by a tourism and health professional must be implemented for faculty members in order to increase the awareness of travel related health problems.
    Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo 02/2013; 55(1):55-59. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PurposeTo describe an extremely uncommon outbreak of eye lesions in a specific area of the Brazilian Amazonia.Methods Prospective noncomparative case series. Fifty-nine patients who developed eye lesions after swimming in the Araguaia river of Tocantins state in Brazil were examined. A team of ophthalmologists equipped with a slit-lamp, gonioscopic lenses, and indirect ophthalmoscopy performed full eye examination. Analysis of the flora and fauna of the river water was undertaken by a group of experts.Results and Conclusions Eighty-three eyes were affected. The most common lesions were corneal opacities seen in 34 eyes and conjunctival nodules diagnosed in 12 eyes. Severe visual acuity loss was detected in seven children with unilateral anterior chamber lesions. Spicules of the sponge species Drulia uruguayensis and Drulia ctenosclera were found inside three blind eyes that have been enucleated for diagnostic purposes. All eye lesions could be attributed to an outbreak of foreign bodies from fresh water sponges. Organic enrichment of the water resulting from the absence of sanitation probably was the key factor, which initiated a cycle of ecological imbalance that provoked human disease.Eye advance online publication, 11 January 2013; doi:10.1038/eye.2012.290.
    Eye (London, England) 01/2013; · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a phase I, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate a new 5-valent oral rotavirus vaccine's safety and immunogenicity profiles. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive 3 orally administered doses of a live-attenuated human-bovine (UK) reassortant rotavirus vaccine, containing five viral antigens (G1, G2, G3, G4 and G9), or a placebo. The frequency and severity of adverse events were assessed. Immunogenicity was evaluated by the titers of anti-rotavirus IgA and the presence of neutralizing antibodies anti-rotavirus. No severe adverse events were observed. There was no difference in the frequency of mild adverse events between experimental and control groups. The proportion of seroconversion was consistently higher in the vaccine group, for all serotypes, after each one of the doses. The 5-valent vaccine has shown a good profile of safety and immunogenicity in this small sample of adult volunteers.
    Vaccine 12/2012; · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Foodborne diseases represent operational risks in industrial restaurants. We described an outbreak of nine clustered cases of acute illness resembling acute toxoplasmosis in an industrial plant with 2300 employees. These patients and another 36 similar asymptomatic employees were diagnosed with anti-T. gondii IgG titer and avidity by ELISA. We excluded 14 patients based on high IgG avidity and chronic toxoplasmosis: 13 from controls and one from acute disease other than T. gondii infection. We also identified another three asymptomatic employees with T.gondii acute infection and also anti-T. gondii IgM positive as remaining acute cases. Case control study was conducted by interview in 11 acute infections and 20 negative controls. The ingestion of green vegetables, but not meat or water, was observed to be associated with the incidence of acute disease. These data reinforce the importance of sanitation control in industrial restaurants and also demonstrate the need for improvement in quality control regarding vegetables at risk for T. gondii oocyst contamination. We emphasized the accurate diagnosis of indexed cases and the detection of asymptomatic infections to determine the extent of the toxoplasmosis outbreak.
    Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo 10/2012; 54(5):239-44. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a phase I, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-arm (10) parallel study involving healthy adults to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 non-adjuvanted and adjuvanted candidate vaccines. Subjects received two intramuscular injections of one of the candidate vaccines administered 21 days apart. Antibody responses were measured by means of hemagglutination-inhibition assay before and 21 days after each vaccination. The three co-primary immunogenicity end points were the proportion of seroprotection >70%, seroconversion >40%, and the factor increase in the geometric mean titer >2.5. A total of 266 participants were enrolled into the study. No deaths or serious adverse events were reported. The most commonly solicited local and systemic adverse events were injection-site pain and headache, respectively. Only three subjects (1.1%) reported severe injection-site pain. Four 2009 influenza A (H1N1) inactivated monovalent candidate vaccines that met the three requirements to evaluate influenza protection, after a single dose, were identified: 15 μg of hemagglutinin antigen without adjuvant; 7.5 μg of hemagglutinin antigen with aluminum hydroxide, MPL and squalene; 3.75 μg of hemagglutinin antigen with aluminum hydroxide and MPL; and 3.75 μg of hemagglutinin antigen with aluminum hydroxide and squalene. Adjuvant systems can be safely used in influenza vaccines, including the adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) derived from Bordetella pertussis with squalene and aluminum hydroxide, MPL with aluminum hydroxide, and squalene and aluminum hydroxide.
    Vaccine 09/2011; 29(48):8974-81. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Trachoma, a blinding conjunctivitis, is the result of repeated infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. There are no recent data for the state of Roraima, Brazil, where it was thought that trachoma no longer existed. These data are derived from school children sampled in this state, with additional data collected from the contacts of children with trachoma. A population-based cross-sectional study with random sampling of students in grades 1 through 4 of all public schools within municipalities where the human development index was less than the national average in 2003. The sample was stratified according to population size. A sample size of 7200 was determined and a total of 6986 (93%) students were examined, along with an additional 2152 contacts. All students were examined for trachoma according to World Health Organization criteria. Demographic data and contact information also was collected. The family and school contacts of students with trachoma then were located and examined. Prevalence and grade of trachoma, age, gender, race, and municipality location. The overall prevalence of trachoma was 4.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.7%-5.3%), but there were municipalities within the state where the prevalence of inflammatory trachoma was more than 10%. The prevalence was greater in rural areas (4.9%; 95% CI, 3.7%-6.0%) compared with urban areas (3.9%; 95% CI, 2.9%-4.9%). Living in indigenous communities was associated with trachoma (odds ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.9-2.6). An additional 2152 contacts were examined, and the overall trachoma prevalence was 9.3% (95% CI, 8.1-10.5). Trachoma continues to exist in Roraima, Brazil, where there are municipalities with a significant prevalence of disease. The indigenous population is highly mobile, crossing state and international borders, raising the possibility of trachoma in neighboring countries. Trachoma prevalence among the contacts of students with trachoma was higher than the school population, highlighting the importance of contact tracing. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.
    Ophthalmology 06/2011; 118(10):1938-43. · 5.56 Impact Factor
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    Arquivos brasileiros de oftalmologia 06/2011; 74(3):228; author reply 229.
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    João Carlos Pinto Dias, Vicente Amato Neto, Expedito José de Albuquerque Luna
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    ABSTRACT: Following advances in the control of vector and blood transfusion transmission of Chagas disease, alternative mechanisms of transmission have become more relevant. This article discusses the importance of each one of these alternative mechanisms and the measures to prevent them. A review was conducted of the scientific literature concerning alternative transmission mechanisms of Trypanosoma cruzi occurring in Brazil and the measures to prevent them. PubMed and BVS databases were consulted. Twenty-five publications describing alternative mechanisms of transmission of Chagas disease were identified. Oral transmission, through ingestion of contaminated food items has been the most frequent mode of transmission in Brazil in recent years. Other alternative mechanisms of transmission occur less frequently. It is important to understand these occurrences, especially now that vector transmission of the parasite is under control. Preventive measures have been presented, according to each of the situations considered, in line with current knowledge.
    Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 05/2011; 44(3):375-9. · 0.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immunosuppressed individuals present serious morbidity and mortality from influenza, therefore it is important to understand the safety and immunogenicity of influenza vaccination among them. This multicenter cohort study evaluated the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of an inactivated, monovalent, non-adjuvanted pandemic (H1N1) 2009 vaccine among the elderly, HIV-infected, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), cancer, kidney transplant, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients. Participants were included during routine clinical visits, and vaccinated according to conventional influenza vaccination schedules. Antibody response was measured by the hemagglutination-inhibition assay, before and 21 days after vaccination. 319 patients with cancer, 260 with RA, 256 HIV-infected, 149 elderly individuals, 85 kidney transplant recipients, and 83 with JIA were included. The proportions of seroprotection, seroconversion, and the geometric mean titer ratios postvaccination were, respectively: 37.6%, 31.8%, and 3.2 among kidney transplant recipients, 61.5%, 53.1%, and 7.5 among RA patients, 63.1%, 55.7%, and 5.7 among the elderly, 59.0%, 54.7%, and 5.9 among HIV-infected patients, 52.4%, 49.2%, and 5.3 among cancer patients, 85.5%, 78.3%, and 16.5 among JIA patients. The vaccine was well tolerated, with no reported severe adverse events. The vaccine was safe among all groups, with an acceptable immunogenicity among the elderly and JIA patients, however new vaccination strategies should be explored to improve the immune response of immunocompromised adult patients. (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01218685).
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(11):e27214. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Brazil recommends universal yellow fever (YF) vaccination for children who reside in or travel to endemic areas. We conducted a household survey to calculate YF vaccine coverage among children 18-30 months of age in 27 capital cities. A total of 9285 children were surveyed in the 15 cities with YF fever universal vaccination; 7290 (79%) had documented evidence of YF vaccination by 12 months of age, 7996 (86%) by 18 months of age, and 8479 (91%) prior to the survey. In 12 cities with selective YF vaccination coverage was only 1% by 18 months of age. YF fever vaccination can be improved to reach all children where vaccine is recommended.
    Vaccine 09/2010; 28(39):6478-82. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    Expedito J A Luna, Vera L Gattás
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    ABSTRACT: Since 1999, Brazil has undertaken annual influenza vaccine campaigns, free of charge, targeting the elderly population, health professionals, and immune-deficient patients. We conducted a systematic review of literature in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the initiative. We used the keywords influenza, vaccine, Brazil and effectiveness to search the main databases. Thirty-one studies matched our inclusion and exclusion criteria. Influenza vaccine coverage among the elderly is high, though not as high as suggested by the official figures. Estimates on effectiveness are scarce. The majority come from ecological studies that show a modest reduction in mortality and hospital admissions due to influenza-related causes. Such reduction is not evident in the North and Northeastern states of Brazil, a finding that is probably related to the different seasonal pattern of influenza in equatorial and tropical regions. Brazilian epidemiologists still owe society better-designed studies addressing the effectiveness of influenza vaccine campaigns.
    Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo 08/2010; 52(4):175-81. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    José Cássio de Moraes, Expedito José de Albuquerque Luna, Rosária Amélia Grimaldi
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a novel hepatitis B vaccine, after increasing antigen concentration to 25 mug, in comparison to the reference vaccine. Single-blinded randomized trial comparing VrHB-IB (Instituto Butantan) and the reference vaccine (Engerix B(R), Glaxo Smith Kline). Volunteers aged 31 to 40 years were randomized to either experimental (n=216) or control (n=203) groups, and were given three doses of vaccine. The first dose was administered upon recruitment, and the second and third doses 30 and 180 days later, respectively, between 2004 and 2005. Blood samples were collected for analysis before randomization and after the second and third doses. Active search for adverse effects was perforned in the first five days after vaccination. Differences were evaluated using chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, with a 5% significance level. No severe adverse effects were observed. Seroprotection was confirmed in 98.6% (213/216) of volunteers in the experimental group and 95.6% (194/203) of those in the control group. Geometric mean titers were 12,557 and 11,673, respectively. The Brazilian vaccine was considered to be equivalent to the reference vaccine and its use is recommended for adults.
    Revista de saude publica 04/2010; 44(2):353-9. · 1.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: JC virus (JCV), the causative agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), is classified in 8 different genotypes. Previous reports have suggested a positive association between specific genotypes and PML. To compare genotypes and adaptive mutations of JCV strains from Brazilian AIDS patients with and without PML. The VP1 region of JCV was amplified by polymerase chain reaction from cerebrospinal fluid samples from 51 patients with PML and from urine samples of 47 patients with AIDS without central nervous system disease. Genotyping was done by phylogenetic analysis. Amino acid replacement and selection pressures were also investigated. JCV genotype frequency distributions showed that genotypes 2 (32.7%), 1 (26.5%) and 3 (23.5%) were the most prevalent. Genotype 1 had a positive association (p<0.0001) and genotype 3 showed an inverse association (p<0.001) with PML. A previously undescribed point mutation at residue 91 (L/I or L/V) and (L/P), non-genotype-associated, was found in 5/49 (10.2%) and 2/47 (4.3%) JCV sequences from PML and non-PML patients, respectively. This mutation was under positive selection only in PML patients. A previously described substitution of T-A in position 128 showed a significant difference between PML and non-PML cases (70% versus 16%, respectively, p<0.0005). In Brazilian patients with AIDS, JCV genotype 1 showed a strong association with PML (p<0.0001) and JCV genotype 3 showed an inverse association with PML. The possible association of aminoacids substitution in residues 91 and 128 with PML in patients with AIDS must be further investigated.
    Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 03/2010; 48(1):6-10. · 3.12 Impact Factor
  • José Cássio de Moraes, Expedito José de Albuquerque Luna, Rosária Amélia Grimaldi
    Revista De Psiquiatria Clinica - REV PSIQUIATR CLIN. 01/2010; 44(2).
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    Expedito José de Albuquerque Luna, José Cássio de Moraes, Lygia Silveira, Hilda Souza Neves Salinas
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    ABSTRACT: To analyze the efficacy and safety of a recombinant Hepatitis B vaccine in newborns. The study was carried out in a general hospital in the city of Guarulhos, Southeastern Brazil, between 2002 and 2005. The recombinant Hepatitis B vaccine from Instituto Butantan (VrHB-IB) was tested in two clinical trials. In both trials, newborns were randomly allocated to the experimental or control (reference vaccine) groups. Newborns were given three doses of vaccine, one up to 24 hours after birth and the other two 30 and 180 days later. In the first trial, 538 newborns completed the immunization protocol, and 486 in the second. Vaccines were considered equivalent when seroprotection difference was below 5%. Seroprotection in the first trial (anti-HBs > or = 10mUI/ml) was 92.5% (247/267) in the experimental group, compared to 98.5% (267/271) in the control (p = 0.001). With this result, VrHB-IB did not fulfill the pre-established criterion for equivalence. After increasing the concentration of antigen in the vaccine to 25 microg, seroprotection reached 100% in the experimental group and 99.2% in the control. No severe adverse effects were recorded. The reformulated VrHB-IB is considered equivalent to the reference vaccine, and its use is recommended in newborns.
    Revista de saude publica 12/2009; 43(6):1014-20. · 1.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a multi-stage household cluster survey to calculate hepatitis B vaccine coverage among children 18-30 months of age in 27 Brazilian cities. Hepatitis B vaccine is administered at birth, 1 month and 6 months of age by Brazil's national immunization program. Among 17,749 children surveyed, 40.2% received a birth dose within one day of birth, 94.8% received at least one dose of hepatitis B vaccine, and 86.7% completed the three-dose series by 12 months of age. Increased coverage with the birth dose and administration of hepatitis B in combination with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-Haemophilus influenzae type b antigens could improve protection against hepatitis B.
    Vaccine 08/2009; 27(39):5326-31. · 3.77 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

61 Citations
46.32 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2014
    • University of São Paulo
      • • Departamento de Moléstias Infecciosas e Parasitárias (FM) (São Paulo)
      • • Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto (FMRP)
      San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2013
    • Instituto Geológico de São Paulo
      San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2011
    • Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre
      Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
    • Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
      • Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou - Fiocruz Minas
      Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    • Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo
      San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil