[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: [Purpose] The study analyzed the electroencephalographic (EEG) data of the central cortical areas, during execution of the motor gestures of feeding, activation of the system of mirror neurons, and imagery between a right hemiparetic volunteer (RHV) and a healthy volunteer (HV). [Subjects and Methods] The volunteers' EEG data were recorded with their eyes open for 4 minutes while they performed five experimental tasks. [Results] The alpha band, absolute power value of HV was lower than that of RHV. In the beta band, during the practice condition, there was an increase in the magnitude of the absolute power value of HV at T3, possibly because T3 is representative of secondary motor areas that work with cortical neurons related to planning and organizing sequence of movements performed by the hands. The gamma band is related to the state of preparation for movement and memory. The results of this study indicate that there was increased activation of the gamma frequency band of HV. [Conclusion] The findings of this study have revealed the changes in pattern characteristics of each band which may be associated with the brain injury of the hemiparetic patient.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been suggested as an effective therapeutics in inflammatory processes modulation and tissue repairing. However, there is a lack of studies that analyze the antiinflamma tory effects of the infrared lasers in muscular skeletal injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lowlevel laser therapy 904 nm in the repair process of skeletal muscle tissue. Swiss mice were submitted to cryoinjury and divided in test (LLLTtreated) and control groups. Histological sections were stained with hematoxylineosin to assess general morphology and inflammatory influx, and Picrossirus to quantify col lagen fibers deposition. Our results showed significant reduction in inflammatory infiltrated in irradiated mice after 4 days of treatment compared to control (p = 0.01). After 8 days, the irradiated group showed high levels at regenerating myofibers with significant statistically differences in relation at control group (p < 0.01). Collagen deposition was significantly increased in the final stages of regeneration at test group, when com pared with control group (p = 0.05). Our data suggests that LLLT reduces the inflammatory response in the initial stages of injury and accelerates the process of muscular tissue repair.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: [Purpose] Among the physical therapeutic procedures to decrease pain, there is transcutaneous electrical neural stimulation (TENS). There is no consensus about its efficacy for oncological patients, especially for post-mastectomy pain and eletrocortical changes in somatosensory areas. The aim of this study was to analyze acute electrocortical changes after TENS treatment of patients with intercostobrachial post mastectomy pain. [Subjects] Eighteen patients were divided into acupuncture (A) and burst (B) group. [Methods] In this pre and post-intervention study each group was measured for EEG analysis in absulte power in alpha band (8-14 Hz). Outcomes variables were the alpha waveband in the sensorymotor cortex and pain pre-and-post TENS intervention. Data were analyzed using ANOVA to compare times (rest, 10 and 15 min), group and electrodes. Pain was analyzed using percentual pain evaluation (PPE) in both groups. [Results] Outcomes indicate main effects of time and electrodes because of slow (8-10 Hz) and fast alpha (10-12 Hz) wavebands decreased. PPE reduced 88.4% in A and 66.3% in G. [Conclusion] TENS promoted electrical modification in the parietal region and a decrease in pain. Future studies should investigate other wave must be proposed for other bands and use different methods of EEG analysis to elucidate the actual mechanisms behind the efficacy of TENS treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of the Nintendo Wii has been considered a good alternative in the motor rehabilitation of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD), requiring simultaneous interaction to develop strategies for physical, visual, auditory, cognitive, psychological and social activities in the performing of virtual activities, resulting in improvement in functional performance and gait. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of virtual sensorimotor activity on gait disorders in people with PD. Fifteen subjects with a clinical diagnosis of PD were submitted to the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS III), Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living Scale (SE), Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and biomechanical gait analysis using digital images taken with a video camera before and after the treatment program. The activities with the Nintendo Wii virtual platform were standardized into three categories: aerobics, balance and Wii plus exercises. Participants carried out separate virtual exercises for 40 min, twice a week, for a total of 14 sessions. The program improved sensorimotor performance in PD gait, with an increase in stride length and gait speed, in addition to a reduction in motor impairment, especially in items of rigidity and flexibility of the lower limbs evaluated by UPDRS III, and greater functional independence, as evidenced in the SE and FIM scales. Improvements in items related to locomotion and stair climbing were also observed. The training was effective in motor recovery in chronic neurodegenerative diseases, showing improvement in motor performance and functional independence in individuals with PD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aims to compare the topographic distribution of cortical activation between real and imagined movement through event-related potential (ERP). We are specifically interested in identifying, the topographic distribution of activated areas, the intensity of activated areas, and the temporal occurrence of these activations on preparation and motor response phases. Twelve healthy and right handed subjects were instructed to perform a task under real and imagery conditions. The task was performed simultaneously to electroencephalographic (EEG) recording. When compared the conditions, we found a statistically significant difference in favor of real condition revealed by performing an unpaired t-test with multiple corrections of Bonferroni, demonstrating negative activity on electrode C3 and positive activity on the electrode C4 only in motor response phase. These findings revealed similar functional connections estab-lished during real and imagery conditions, suggesting that there are common neural substrate and similar properties of functional integration shared by conditions.
Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health 11/2013; 9:196-201.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is not easy to differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from subjective memory complainers (SMC). Assessments with screening cognitive tools are essential, particularly in primary care where most patients are seen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of screening cognitive tests and to propose a score derived from screening tests. Elderly subjects with memory complaints were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB). We added two delayed recalls in the MMSE (a delayed recall and a late-delayed recall, LDR), and also a phonemic fluency test of letter P fluency (LPF). A score was created based on these tests. The diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical consensus and neuropsychological testing. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine area under the curve (AUC), the sensitivity and specificity for each test separately and for the final proposed score. MMSE, LDR, LPF and delayed recall of BCB scores reach statistically significant differences between groups (P=0.000, 0.03, 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Sensitivity, specificity and AUC were MMSE: 64%, 79% and 0.75 (cut off <29); LDR: 56%, 62% and 0.62 (cut off <3); LPF: 71%, 71% and 0.71 (cut off <14); delayed recall of BCB: 56%, 82% and 0.68 (cut off <9). The proposed score reached a sensitivity of 88% and 76% and specificity of 62% and 75% for cut off over 1 and over 2, respectively. AUC were 0.81. In conclusion, a score created from screening tests is capable of discriminating MCI from SMC with moderate to good accurancy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this article is to evaluate if body awareness is important to improve the writing ability before using the splints. Twelve patients with writer's cramp were evaluated by a specialist in movement disorders. The Burke-Fahn-Marsden Scale (BFM), the Jedynak Protocol and the Analog Pain Scale were used. The rehabilitation training was administered over an eight-week period, in two phases of four weeks each, twice a week. Each session would last 60 minutes. A significant improvement was shown, not only in the motor, but also in the pain perception, through the BFM scale, the Jedynak Protocol and the Analog Pain Scale. Therefore, we conclude that the motor training, thanks to the body awareness and immobilization by splints of the affected dystonic musculature, led to an important improvement in the writer's cramp writing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurological disorder that causes loss of functional abilities and independence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a physical therapist-supervised home-based exercise program in patients with PD using the UPDRS scale. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-three PD patients in the 1.5 to 3 Hoehn and Yahr stages participated in the trial. The patients and their relatives received a booklet with a 12-week home program, with a series of strengthening, stretching and flexibility exercises. The patients were trained by a physical therapist, and each session took 60 minutes, three times a week. RESULTS: We classified our patients in four groups: Group 1 - patients under 60 years of age and less than five years of PD; Group 2 - patients under 60 years of age and more than five years of PD; Group 3 - patients over 60 years of age and less than five years of the disease; and Group 4 - patients over 60 years of age and more than five years of PD. Significant improvement was found in group 1 in mentation, activities of daily living and motor function (p > 0.05). Group 3 presented statistically significant differences in motor function subscale (p > 0.05) and Group 4 showed no worsening in mentation subscale (p > 0.05). Group 2, however, presented no difference in all subscales (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Although not all patients improved their UPDRS scores, our data support the use of a home program as an alternative method of physical therapy treatment for PD patients.
Fisioterapia em Movimento. 12/2012; 25(4):709-715.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the most common hereditary peripheral neuropathy in humans, presenting incidence of 1:2.500 people. The distal crural weakness of the CMT causes numerous gait impairment changes, for example, velocity, length, width and cadence of the steps. Several rehabilitation resources have been proposed to manage the walking problems, among them, the use of orthoses is highlighted. The objective of this study was to present and discuss the results of studies on the effects of orthotic uses in CMT gait patterns. In this study it was used to literature update through major national/international databases (SciELO, LILACS and MEDLINE), published between the years 20062012. The CMT treatment consisted of physical therapy and using of assistive equipment, since there are no drugs or gene therapy able to attenuate the clinical and functional damages. This association seeks to maximize the function and improve life quality of these patients in an attempt to prevent additional injuries related to physical disability. From literature update it is possible to conclude that there is a consensus on the use of lower limb orthoses to promote the stabilization of the ankle articulation and a more functional pattern of walking, avoiding inadequate synergy of movement and reducing the risk of falls.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The brain is capable of elaborating and executing different stages of information processing. However, exactly how these stages are processed in the brain remains largely unknown. This study aimed to analyze the possible correlation between early and late stages of information processing by assessing the latency to, and amplitude of, early and late event-related potential (ERP) components, including P200, N200, premotor potential (PMP) and P300, in healthy participants in the context of a visual oddball paradigm. We found a moderate positive correlation among the latency of P200 (electrode O2), N200 (electrode O2), PMP (electrode C3), P300 (electrode PZ) and the reaction time (RT). In addition, moderate negative correlation between the amplitude of P200 and the latencies of N200 (electrode O2), PMP (electrode C3), P300 (electrode PZ) was found. Therefore, we propose that if the secondary processing of visual input (P200 latency) occurs faster, the following will also happen sooner: discrimination and classification process of this input (N200 latency), motor response processing (PMP latency), reorganization of attention and working memory update (P300 latency), and RT. N200, PMP, and P300 latencies are also anticipated when higher activation level of occipital areas involved in the secondary processing of visual input rise (P200 amplitude).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to review the epidemiology, clinical profile and discuss the etiology, prognosis and treatment options in patients aged 60 years or older presenting with status epilepticus. We performed a systematic review involving studies published from 1996 to 2010, in Medline/PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library on line (Scielo), Latin-American and Caribbean Center of Health Sciences Information (Lilacs) databases and textbooks. Related articles published before 1996, when relevant for discussing epilepsy in older people, were also included. Several population studies had shown an increased incidence of status epilepticus after the age of 60 years. Status epilepticus is a medical and neurological emergency that is associated with high morbidity and mortality, and is a major concern in the elderly compared to the general population. Prompt diagnosis and effective treatment of convulsive status epilepticus are crucial to avoid brain injury and reduce the fatality rate in this age group.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Problem statement: Ramsay Hunt syndrome is characterized by peripheral facial palsy and eruptions in external ear reportedly due to the reactivation of latent varicela zoster virus in the sensory ganglia of facial nerve. Our purpose is to describe a case of this syndrome accompanied by the Neurology Service of Nova Iguacu General Hospital. Approach: A 60-year old female patient sought the emergency room due to a complaint because she was not able to close her left eye, followed by a drift of the labial fold to the right as well as a sensation of "burning eyes" for the last three days. She also referred vertigo and bilateral hypoacusis, more intensely felt on the left side. Results: Physical examination showed a left facial palsy with a vesicular eruption in the left external auditory canal, ear lobe and neck on that side. Her taste sensation was decreased on the anterior 2/3 of the tongue, a negative rinne test, a positive weber test indicating a neurossensorial hearing loss, ataxia in walking, a Romberg sign and an abnormal fukuda pace test, however the CT scan was normal. Conclusion: The diagnosis is basically clinical, in turn, treatment is controversial. In addition to clinical findings, the diagnosis is confirmed by the presence of viral DNA in the involved tissue and vesicular exudate, as assessed by polymerase chain reaction. Ramsay Hunt syndrome involves severe dysfunction, with poorer facial nerve prognosis than in Bell's palsy. Some studies suggest that treatment with prednisone and acyclovir may improve outcome, although a prospective randomised treatment trial remains to be undertaken.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alexia with agraphia is defined as an acquired impairment affecting reading and writing ability. It can be associated with aphasia, but can also occur as an isolated entity. This impairment has classically been associated with a left angular gyrus lesion In the present study, we describe a case involving a patient who developed alexia with agraphia and other cognitive deficits after a thalamic hemorrhage. In addition, we discuss potential mechanisms of this cortical dysfunction syndrome caused by subcortical injury. We examined a patient who presented with alexia with agraphia and other cognitive deficits due to a hemorrhage in the left thalamus. Neuropsychological evaluation showed attention, executive function, arithmetic and memory impairments. In addition, language tests revealed severe alexia with agraphia in the absence of aphasia. Imaging studies disclosed an old thalamic hemorrhage involving the anterior, dorsomedial and pulvinar nuclei. Tractography revealed asymmetric thalamocortical radiations in the parietal region (left <right), and single photon emission computed tomography demonstrated hypoperfusion in the left thalamus that extended to the frontal and parietal cortices. Cortical cognitive deficits, including alexia with agraphia, may occur as the result of thalamic lesions. The probable mechanism is a diaschisis phenomenon involving thalamic tract disconnections.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, degenerative disease that leads to the motor neurons depletion in the spinal cord anterior horn and pyramidal tract. Several evaluations have been proposed in order to provide a better follow-up and management of secondary complications. However, the biggest difficulty is to select a single instrument to objectively assess the neurological deficit, the functional independence level and, above all, one which will include such subjects in specific severity stages. OBJECTIVE: To present a new tool for clinical and functional evaluation for ALS patients, the Severity and functional ability scale (SFAS), and discuss the clinical and functional profile of 98 patients between March 2007 and December 2009 at Antonio Pedro University Hospital (UFF) and the Deolindo Couto Institute of Neurology (UFRJ). METHOD: We used the SFAS as clinical and functional indicator. The modified El Escorial criteria were used to establish the diagnosis. The participants underwent a number of five quarterly assessments during the study period of one year. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The average age of the study group was 52.67 years±12.043 years. The average time between the onset of first symptoms and seeking care services was 11.57±12.391 months. The average time between first symptoms and the diagnosis was 20.54±8.413 months. Of the 98 subjects tested, only 24 have completed all phases of the study. Muscle weakness was identified as the initial symptom in most cases. The patients showed progressive impairment of muscle strength, speech, swallowing, breathing and the severity stages. The disease was marked by different forms of initial presentation (speech, limbs, breathing, swallowing), progression speed and diverse clinical characteristics in our population. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of the clinical and functional ALS peculiarities, obtained by applying the SFAS, serves as a guide for proper monitoring of patients during the development stages and encourages the formulation of a theoretical-conceptual framework, aiming at solving problems in clinical practice.
Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria 01/2012; 70(1):79-80. · 0.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Post-polio Syndrome (PPS) is characterized by a new episode of muscular weakness and/or abnormal muscular fatigue in subjects that presented acute previous polio (APP) years ago. There still are few studies about the pain management at PPS. The aim of this study is to analyze pain´s management in PPS by a case report. A men with PPS, 57 years, was submitted to 24 sessions of physical therapy for pain´s control in PPS, based at electro-thermo physical therapy features and therapeutics exercises. For pain´s analysis, pre and post physical therapy interventions were applied two instruments: the Analogic Visual Scale (AVS) and Present Pain Intensity (PPI). The pain in right knee was reduced from grade 8 to 4 on AVS, grade 5 to 2 on PPI, while the pain in his right ankle decreased from grade 2 on AVS and 1 on PPI to zero in both scales. The pain is the predominant symptom for many patients with PPS. This relate, the patient after program of treatment presented an improvement of pain. However, because of there are few studies in the literature about the pain management, especially in physical therapy, new studies must be proposed to generate more theorical at Physical therapy intervention in PSS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fasciculations are characterized by visible subtle and fast contractions of muscle, even wormlike in movement, by the contraction of a fascicle of muscle fibers. The authors present the case study of a 28-year-old patient with the appearance of migratory and diffuse fasciculations with an onset after partial tapering off of oral corticosteroides (60 mg total dose) indicated for treatment of Minimal change Glomerulopathy. Clinical Neurological physical exam allied with an ENMG, besides other complementary laboratory exams were used for screening the above-mentioned patient. Afterwards, current research relating to the topic at hand was made in order to update the data available in the Bireme, Scielo and PubMed Data Banks using the following key words: Fasciculation's, motor neuron disease, and benign fasciculations in the Portuguese, English as well as Spanish language. Although fasciculation's are most commonly associated with Motor neuron disease as well as with certain metabolic disorders, they may also be present in individuals with absolutely no underlying pathological disorders. In our case, fasciculation potentials that have been present for six months, with no other signs of a neurogenic disorder as well as absence of laboratory findings, the patient received a diagnosis of Benign Fasciculation Syndrome (BFS).We believe that the use of corticosteroides in high doses with subsequent tapering contributed to the fasciculation's, especially due to the changes that this causes on the ionic channels. Fasciculation's are symptoms seen in a large range of conditions, and also being the main symptom of the so-called Benign Fasciculation Syndrome. We have presented an example of this clinical syndrome in a patient whose complaint was fasciculation's, with complete clinical remission of symptoms following complete tapering off of corticosteroid six months previously.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common form of motor neuron disease in the adulthood, and it is characterized by rapid and progressive compromise of the upper and lower motor neurons. The majority of the cases of ALS are classified as sporadic and, until now, a specific cause for these cases still is unknown. To present the different hypotheses on the etiology of ALS. It was carried out a search in the databases: Bireme, Scielo and Pubmed, in the period of 1987 to 2011, using the following keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, motor neuron disease, etiology, causes and epidemiology and its similar in Portuguese and Spanish. It did not have consensus as regards the etiology of ALS. Researches demonstrates evidences as regards intoxication by heavy metals, environmental and occupational causes, genetic mutations (superoxide dismutase 1), certain viral infections and the accomplishment of vigorous physical activity for the development of the disease. There is still no consensus regarding the involved factors in the etiology of ALS. In this way, new research about these etiologies are necessary, for a better approach of the patients, promoting preventive programs for the disease and improving the quality of life of the patients.