[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The EtOAc soluble constituents of the unripe fruits of Ginkgo biloba showed motility inhibition followed by lysis of zoospores of the phytopathogenic Aphanomyces cochlioides. We purified 22:1-omega7-anacardic acid (1), 24:1-omega9-anacardic acid (2) and 22:0-anacardic acid (3), together with other related compounds, 21:1-omega7-cardol (4) and 21:1-omega7-cardanol (5) from the crude extracts of Ginkgo fruits. Amongst them, compound 1 was a major active agent in quality and quantity, and showed potent motility inhibition (98% in 30 min) followed by lysis (55% in 3 h) of the zoospores at 1 x 10(-7) M. The 2-O-methyl derivative (1-c) of 1 displayed antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, but practically inactive to Escherichia coli. A brief study on structure-activity relationships revealed that a carboxyl group on the aromatic ring and an unsaturated side chain in the anacardic acid derivative are important for strong motility inhibitory and lytic activities against the zoospore.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A bioassay-guided survey of spinach leaf constituents resulted in 5,4'-dihydroxy-3,3'-dimethoxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavone being identified as the third naturally-occurring attractant in the host plant toward the zoospores of its pathogen, Aphanomyces cochlioides. The isolate showed attracting activity around Chromosorb W AW particles (60-80 mesh) coated with a 10(-5) M solution in a zoospore suspension. However, this activity was 1/100-1/1000 less than that of cochliophilin A, an attractant in the roots of spinach. Bioassays with the present isolate and related compounds revealed that 5,3',4'-trihydroxy-3-methoxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavone did not possess attractant activity, but rather weak antagonistic activity toward the former two attractants from spinach.