[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The safety and toxicokinetics of SCH 721015, an adenovirus encoding the human interferon alpha-2b gene, and Syn3 (SCH 209702), a novel excipient, were assessed in cynomolgus monkeys administered intravesical doses of 2.5 × 10E11 or 1.25 × 10E13 particles SCH 721015 in 25 mg Syn3 or 25 mg Syn3 alone on study days 1 and 91. There was no systemic toxicity. Monkeys dosed with SCH 721015 in Syn3 were positive for SCH 721015-specific DNA in the urine for 2 to 3 days following each dose and had interferon alpha-2b protein in the urine for 1-3 days after a single dose and in fewer animals after a second dose. Intracystic administration was associated with inflammation and focal/multifocal ulceration in the urinary bladder and irritation in the ureters and urethra at necropsy. The physical trauma from catheterization and filling/emptying of the bladder was likely a contributing factor and Syn3 exacerbated the trauma. There was nearly complete resolution of these findings 2 months after the last dose. The trauma to the bladder likely contributed to low, transient systemic exposure to Syn3, SCH 721015 and human interferon protein. The results of this study support the clinical investigation of SCH 721015 in Syn3.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SCH 486757 is a nociceptin-1 receptor agonist that was in development as an antitussive. Studies were conducted to characterize its effects on female fertility and to examine its potential modes of action.
Female rats were administered up to 20 mg/kg SCH 486757 before/during mating through gestation day (GD) 7; female fertility and embryonic development were assessed on GD 14. In a subsequent study, pregnant rats were dosed up to 50 mg/kg SCH 486757 from GD 0 to 7. Reproductive hormones were assessed on GD 1, 3, 5, and 7, and embryonic development was assessed on GD 14. A subset of dosed dams were allowed to deliver, were subsequently re-mated, and reproductive hormones and fertility were assessed on GD 7 and 14, respectively. To determine the effects of SCH 486757 on nonpregnant rats, doses of up to 50 mg/kg SCH 486757 were administered for 4 days beginning on the day of estrus; reproductive hormones were assessed after the final dose.
Female rats administered ≥20 mg/kg SCH 486757 exhibited abnormal estrous cycles; decreased fertility, number of corpora lutea, and implantation sites; and increased pre- and postimplantation loss. In general, administration of SCH486757 was associated with lower luteinizing hormone (LH) progesterone (P4), and estradiol (E2) levels in pregnant rats. These effects on fertility/embryonic development and reproductive hormones exhibited reversibility post dosing. Nonpregnant rats in the 50-mg/kg group exhibited apparent decreases in P4 and E2 levels, with no apparent effects on LH values.
The SCH 486757-related effects on fertility and embryonic development were likely the result of decreases in P4, E2, and/or LH, rather than being due to decreased prolactin levels.
Birth Defects Research Part B Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology 01/2011; 95(1). DOI:10.1002/bdrb.20334 · 0.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of studies were conducted to assess Polysorbate 80 (PS80), Propylene Glycol (PG), and Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin (HPβCD), when compared with Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose (MC) in developmental and reproductive toxicology (DART) studies.
In the rat fertility study, 20 mg/kg MC, 10 mg/kg PS80, 1,000 mg/kg PG, 500 mg/kg HPβCD or 1,000 mg/kg HPβCD were administered orally before/during mating, and on gestation Day (GD) 0-7, followed by an assessment of embryonic development on GD 14. In the rat and rabbit teratology studies, the doses of MC, PS80, PG, and HPβCD were the same as those in the fertility study. In these teratology studies, pregnant females were dosed during the period of organogenesis, followed by an assessment of fetal external, visceral, and skeletal development.
In the rat fertility and rat teratology studies, PS80, PG, and HPβCD did not exhibit toxicity, when compared with MC. Similarly, in the rabbit teratology study, there was no PS80 or PG-related toxicity, when compared with MC. However, individual rabbits in the 500 and 1,000 mg/kg HPβCD groups exhibited maternal toxicity, which included stool findings, decreased food consumption, and body weight gain. Furthermore, one rabbit each in the 500 and 1,000 mg/kg HPβCD groups exhibited evidence of abortion, which was considered secondary to maternal toxicity.
Although HPβCD was not well tolerated in rabbits at doses of 500 and 1,000 mg/kg, PS80 and PG were comparable to MC and should be considered for use in developmental and reproductive toxicology studies.
Birth Defects Research Part B Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology 12/2010; 89(6):504-16. DOI:10.1002/bdrb.20273 · 0.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of histamine H1 antagonist chlorcyclizine on rat palate development were characterized following in utero exposure.
To identify the optimum dose for inducing cleft palate, pregnant rats were administered 30, 60, or 90 mg/kg chlorcyclizine on Gestation Days 11 to 14. Fetal palate gene expression was also assessed after 90 mg/kg chlorcyclizine at 8, 15 and 30 hours post-dose on Gestation Day 14 using microarray and qRT-PCR.
Rats in the 60- and 90-mg/kg groups exhibited adverse clinical signs and body weight loss. Rats in the 90-mg/kg group also demonstrated increases in late resorptions and decreases in fetal weight. Effects in the low-dose group were limited to decreases in body weight gain. Fetal assessment on Gestation Day 21 revealed that findings were limited to the 60- and 90-mg/kg groups, and included cleft palate (80% of litters for both groups), high arched palate, small nose, micrognathia, high domed head, digits shortened/absent and small limb. The fetal incidence of cleft palate was higher at 90 mg/kg, thus this dose was selected to assess palate gene expression. The altered genes associated with chlorcyclizine-induced cleft palate included Wnt5a, Bmp2, Bmp4, Fgf10, Fgfr2, Msx1, and Insig1 but the magnitude of the change was relatively small (1.5- to 2-fold).
Expression of several genes involved in palate, limb and digit development was altered in the fetal palate following in utero exposure to chlorcyclizine. The subtle perturbation and interplay of these genes may have profound effects on the dynamics of fetal palate development.
Birth Defects Research Part B Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology 12/2010; 89(6):474-84. DOI:10.1002/bdrb.20261 · 0.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monkey studies were conducted for the preclinical safety assessment of SCH 412499, an adenovirus encoding p21, administered by subconjunctival injection prior to trabeculectomy for postoperative maintenance of the surgical opening. Biodistribution of SCH 412499 was minimal and there was no systemic toxicity. Findings included swollen, partially closed or shut eye(s) and transient congestion in the conjunctiva. A mononuclear cell infiltrate was present in the conjunctiva, choroid and other ocular tissues, but completely or partially resolved over time. Electroretinograms and visual evoked potentials revealed no adverse findings. Thus, the findings are not expected to preclude the clinical investigation of SCH 412499.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spontaneous hypospadias is seldom observed in rats in contrast to its occurrence in 1 out of 250 human births. Ziracin, an antibacterial of the everninomycin class under development for serious enterococcal, staphylococcal, and streptococcal infections, caused anomalies of the external genitalia in F1 female rats and decreased reproductive performance. To characterize the urogenital malformations and determine the period of sensitivity to the effects of Ziracin during development, pregnant rats (F0) were administered 60 mg/kg IV of Ziracin from GD6 to LD21, GD6 to 13, GD14 to the last day of gestation or LD0 to 21. Controls received saline or placebo from GD6 to LD21. Ziracin-induced changes occurred in F1 rats exposed from GD6 to LD21 and GD14 to the last day of gestation, indicating that the period of sensitivity to Ziracin was from GD 14 to the last day of gestation. The urogenital abnormalities consisted of cranial displacement of the urethral opening within the vagina from its normal location at the tip of the genital tubercle. When the urethrovaginal junction occurred at the distal third of the vagina, it created an urogenital cloaca. As a result, ascending infections were seen in the urinary and genital tract. No differences in survivability, body weight, and date of vaginal opening were observed in F1 females. The estrous cycles were slightly prolonged. The mating and fertility indices were decreased as a result of the urogenital anomalies. The mammary glands of pregnant F1 females were underdeveloped, thus F2 pups from affected F1 females had a decreased survival rate. Although the cause of these effects is not known, the findings are consistent with a potential hormonal mechanism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Normal pre- and postnatal male reproductive development and function is dependent upon testicular androgen production and is sensitive to antiandrogenic perturbations. It was of interest to determine if the H(1) histamine antagonist loratadine had the potential to alter androgen-mediated reproductive development in the rat, a sensitive species for detecting antiandrogenic effects. Loratadine was administered orally by gavage to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at doses of 4, 12 or 24 mg/kg from gestation day 7 to postnatal day 4, encompassing the period of androgen-dependent male reproductive development. Vehicle control rats received 0.4% aqueous methylcellulose. Dams were allowed to deliver naturally and rear their offspring until postnatal day 21. On postnatal day 21 male offspring were retained for further evaluation of androgen-dependent endpoints and the female offspring were euthanized and their sex confirmed internally. Males were necropsied from postnatal day 72 to 85. Dams administered 24 mg/kg of loratadine exhibited a transient 45% decrement in maternal body weight gain at the initiation of dosing (gestation days 7-9). Mean pup body weight on postnatal days 1 and 4 were approximately 4% lower than controls. No other effects on offspring growth were observed. Anogenital distance on postnatal day 1 was unaffected by loratadine exposure. Loratadine exposure did not induce the retention of nipples in male rats, affect preputial separation, or induce external malformations, including hypospadias. Seminal vesicle and prostate weights were not decreased by loratadine exposure. These data clearly demonstrate that systemic loratadine exposure, in multiples up to 26 times clinical exposure levels, does not exhibit in vivo antiandrogen activity, as evidenced by the absence of alterations or malformations in androgen-dependent reproductive tissues in male rats exposed to loratadine during the critical period of androgen-dependent development.