[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Measurement of serum-free thyroxine (fT4) concentration provides a more accurate assessment of thyroid gland function than serum thyroxine (T4) or 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3). Techniques for measuring serum fT4 concentration include standard equilibrium dialysis (SED), radioimmunoassay (RIA), and a combination of both (modified equilibrium dialysis [MED]). This study compared results of serum fT4 measurements by means of SED, MED, and 5 RIAs in 30 healthy dogs, 10 dogs with hypothyroidism, and 31 euthyroid dogs with concurrent illness for which hypothyroidism was a diagnostic consideration. Serum fT4 concentrations were comparable when determined by the SED and MED techniques, and mean serum fT4 concentrations were significantly (P < .01) lower in dogs with hypothyroidism than in healthy dogs and euthyroid dogs with concurrent illness. Significant (P < .05) differences in fT4 concentrations were identified among the 5 RIAs and among the RIAs and MED and SED. Serum fT4 concentrations were consistently lower when fT4 was determined by the RIAs, compared with either equilibrium dialysis technique. Serum fT4 concentrations were significantly lower (P < .01) in dogs with hypothyroidism than in healthy dogs for all RIAs; were significantly lower (P < .05) in dogs with hypothyroidism than in euthyroid dogs with concurrent illness for 4 RIAs; and were significantly lower (P < .01) in euthyroid dogs with concurrent illness than in healthy dogs for 4 RIAs. RIAs had the highest number of low serum fT4 concentrations in euthyroid dogs with concurrent illness. This study documented differences in test results among fT4 assays, emphasizing the importance of maintaining consistency in the assay used to measure serum fT4 concentrations in the clinical or research setting.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 05/2004; 18(3):259-64. DOI:10.1111/j.1939-1676.2004.tb02543.x · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chromium is an essential dietary trace mineral involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Chromium is required for cellular uptake of glucose, and chromium deficiency causes insulin resistance. Chromium supplementation may improve insulin sensitivity and has been used as adjunct treatment of diabetes mellitus in humans. In this study, 13 dogs with naturally acquired diabetes mellitus were treated with insulin for 3 months, then with insulin and chromium picolinate for 3 months. Dogs weighing <15 kg (33 lb: n = 9) were administered 200 microg of chromium picolinate PO once daily for I month, then 200 microg of chromium picolinate twice daily for 2 months. Dogs weighing >15 kg (n = 4) received 200 microg of chromium picolinate once daily for 2 weeks, then 200 microg twice daily for 2 weeks, then 400 microg twice daily for 2 months. Type of insulin, frequency of insulin administration, and diet were kept constant, and insulin dosage was adjusted, as needed, to maintain optimal control of glycemia. Mean body weight, daily insulin dosage, daily caloric intake, 10-hour mean blood glucose concentration, blood glycated hemoglobin concentration, and serum fructosamine concentration were not markedly different when dogs were treated with insulin and chromium picolinate, compared with insulin alone. Adverse effects were not identified with chromium picolinate administration. Results of this study suggest that, at a dosage range of 20-60 microg/kg/d, chromium picolinate caused no beneficial or harmful effects in insulin-treated diabetic dogs.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 07/2001; 15(4):379-84. DOI:10.1111/j.1939-1676.2001.tb02333.x · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine clinical signs, physical examination findings, radiographic features, and concurrent diseases in cats with laryngeal paralysis, as well as evaluate the outcome of medical or surgical management.
Medical records from January 1990 to April 1999 were examined for cats with laryngeal paralysis. Signalment, clinical signs, physical examination findings, cervical and thoracic radiographic findings, laryngeal examination results, and clinical outcome were reviewed.
No breed or sex predilection was identified in 16 cats with laryngeal paralysis. The most common clinical signs included tachypnea or dyspnea, dysphagia, weight loss, change in vocalization, coughing, and lethargy. Clinical signs were evident for a median of 245 days. Airway obstruction was apparent on cervical and thoracic radiographic views in 9 cats. Examination of the larynx revealed bilateral laryngeal paralysis in 12 cats and unilateral laryngeal paralysis in 4 cats. The 4 cats with unilateral disease were managed with medical treatment, and 3 of these had acceptable long-term outcomes. Seven of 12 cats with bilateral paralysis underwent surgery; procedures performed included left arytenoid tie back, bilateral arytenoid tie back and ventriculo-cordectomy, and partial left arytenoidectomy. One cat was euthanatized as a result of complications from surgery.
Laryngeal paralysis is an uncommon cause of airway obstruction in cats. Cats with less severe clinical signs (often with unilateral paralysis) may be successfully managed with medical treatment, whereas cats with severe airway obstruction (often with bilateral paralysis) may benefit from surgical intervention.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 05/2000; 216(7):1100-3. DOI:10.2460/javma.2000.216.1100 · 1.56 Impact Factor