ABSTRACT: Voiding urosonography (VUS) is established as a technique for detecting vesicoureteral reflux in children.
To evaluate the quality of images of the entire urinary tract when using a second-generation US contrast agent and a modified VUS technique.
We evaluated 307 VUS examinations performed using SonoVue® in 591 pelvi-ureter units in 295 children of mean age, 27.1 (S.D., 42.5) months, with 154 (50.2%) of the examinations performed in boys; 58 children also underwent VUS using Levovist®. Three criteria were used for quality assessment of the bladder image: (1) progressive incorporation of contrast material in the bladder, (2) homogeneous bladder-filling to maximum capacity, and (3) visualisation of the posterior bladder wall.
Criterion 1 was fulfilled in 305 (99.3%), criterion 2 in 304 (99%) and criterion 3 in 304 (99%) studies. In children who underwent VUS with both contrast agents, the concordance between the two techniques was moderate for findings in the bladder (Cohen K = 0.487; P < 0001) and perfect for findings in the male urethra.
By a modified technique we obtained high-quality images of the bladder with the second-generation contrast agent.
Pediatric Radiology 05/2012; 42(6):660-7. · 1.67 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Voiding urosonography (VUS) has proved to be a reliable method for the study of vesicoureteric reflux (VUR). Early reports considered it inadequate for imaging the male urethra.
To determine the usefulness of contrast-enhanced VUS for the study of the urethra.
A total of 208 children aged 2 days to 10 years underwent VUS to confirm or exclude VUR for different reasons (n = 150) or for follow-up (n = 58). Patients with unconfirmed suspicion of VUR (99 boys and 51 girls) also underwent VUS for the study of the urethra. Examinations were performed using a harmonic imaging mode specific for contrast (Levovist) enhancement. We used a 6-4-MHz convex probe and a transperineal and/or a transpelvic approach.
The neck of the bladder and the entire urethra were visualized in all patients (n = 150). The male urethra was considered normal in 95 boys (95.95%). We diagnosed posterior urethral valves in two patients, diverticulum of the prostatic utricle in one, and diverticulum of the anterior urethra in one. All abnormal cases were confirmed using conventional voiding cystourethrography.
VUS can replace voiding cystourethrography as the method of choice for the initial study of suspected VUR in children.
Pediatric Radiology 12/2008; 39(2):124-31. · 1.67 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Various congenital and acquired anomalies may affect the pulmonary arteries in adult patients. Congenital anomalies (proximal interruption, anomalous origin of the left pulmonary artery [pulmonary artery sling], and idiopathic dilatation of the pulmonary trunk) are usually found incidentally at chest radiography or computed tomography (CT). Acquired anomalies include diffuse or focal enlargement of the arteries because of pulmonary hypertension, aneurysm, and intravascular pulmonary metastasis; decreased arterial diameter because of bronchial carcinoma, mediastinal fibrosis, and Takayasu arteritis; and intraluminal filling defects due to pulmonary thromboembolism and pulmonary artery sarcoma. An awareness of the radiologic manifestations of the disease entities and potential pulmonary artery complications secondary to infection or vasculitis may enable an early diagnosis. CT angiography is becoming the standard method for evaluating patients in whom the presence of pulmonary embolism is suspected. CT assessment of the extent of heart effects in patients with pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary embolism is particularly important because such effects largely determine the prognosis.
Radiographics 26(2):349-71. · 2.85 Impact Factor