ABSTRACT: Ventricular wall rupture and acute mitral regurgitation due to papillary muscle rupture post-acute myocardial infarction are rare and dramatic mechanical complications. The operative mortality of both complications remains extremely high but this is the only treatment which has greatly improved the prognosis.
We describe the course of a patient, who survived after left ventricular free wall rupture two days post-acute myocardial infarction. He underwent left ventricular rupture repair plus two coronary artery bypass grafting. On the fifth postoperative day he developed papillary muscle rupture and acute mitral valve regurgitation. He was reoperated as an emergency case for mitral valve replacement. The patient sustained numerous complications, such as renal failure, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and multiple organ failure. He was on continuous venous-venous hemofiltration for one week and underwent a tracheostomy on the ninth postoperative day. He remained on a ventilator for three weeks. The patient survived, was discharged home after six weeks, and remains in very good condition on follow-up so far.
The operative mortality of both complications remains high but this is the only treatment which improves the prognosis. Surviving both events is rare and few cases have been reported in the literature. This case highlights the necessity of careful echocardiographic examination in any patient presented with post-myocardial infarction new onset of hemodynamic instability. Identification of a single site of rupture does not eliminate the possibility of additional ruptures in the papillary muscle and intraventricular septum, and transesophageal echocardiography should be used to search for these entities. Although repair of each of these complications carries a high mortality, failure to address them will almost certainly result in death. Using standard surgical techniques, including preoperative intraaortic balloon pump insertion and careful postoperative management, successful outcome is possible.
Journal of Cardiac Surgery 23(4):381-4. · 0.87 Impact Factor