Pankaj Chaturvedi

Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer, Mumbai, Mahārāshtra, India

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Publications (126)245.02 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Cancer is one of the major non-communicable diseases posing a threat to world health. Unfortunately, improvements in socioeconomic conditions are usually associated with increased cancer incidence. In this Commission, we focus on China, India, and Russia, which share rapidly rising cancer incidence and have cancer mortality rates that are nearly twice as high as in the UK or the USA, vast geographies, growing economies, ageing populations, increasingly westernised lifestyles, relatively disenfranchised subpopulations, serious contamination of the environment, and uncontrolled cancer-causing communicable infections. We describe the overall state of health and cancer control in each country and additional specifi c issues for consideration: for China, access to care, contamination of the environment, and cancer fatalism and traditional medicine; for India, aff ordability of care, provision of adequate health personnel, and sociocultural barriers to cancer control; and for Russia, monitoring of the burden of cancer, societal attitudes towards cancer prevention, eff ects of inequitable treatment and access to medicine, and a need for improved international engagement.
    The Lancet Oncology 05/2014; 15(5):489-538. · 25.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background This study aimed to compare sentinel node biopsy (SNB) and Ultrasonography(US) guided fine needle aspiration cytology (USgFNAC) for preoperative evaluation of the N0 neck in T1-T2 oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC).MethodologyConsecutive 51 patients with T1-T2 N0 OCSCC were included. Pre-operative US was performed in all patients. USgFNAC was performed in patients where US was reported as indeterminate or positive. SNB was done in all patients followed by elective neck dissection (END). Histopathology of END was considered as gold standard for all statistical analysis.ResultsThe incidence of occult metastasis was 26.4%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were 71.4%, 100%, 100% and 90.2% for SNB and 14.3%, 100%, 100% and 76.5% for USgFNAC.ConclusionUSgFNAC lacked sufficient accuracy to detect occult metastases. SNB is a reliable method to detect occult metastasis which has potential to replace END. Head Neck, 2014
    Head & Neck 05/2014; · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer is one of the major non-communicable diseases posing a threat to world health. Unfortunately, improvements in socioeconomic conditions are usually associated with increased cancer incidence. In this Commission, we focus on China, India, and Russia, which share rapidly rising cancer incidence and have cancer mortality rates that are nearly twice as high as in the UK or the USA, vast geographies, growing economies, ageing populations, increasingly westernised lifestyles, relatively disenfranchised subpopulations, serious contamination of the environment, and uncontrolled cancer-causing communicable infections. We describe the overall state of health and cancer control in each country and additional specifi c issues for consideration: for China, access to care, contamination of the environment, and cancer fatalism and traditional medicine; for India, aff ordability of care, provision of adequate health personnel, and sociocultural barriers to cancer control; and for Russia, monitoring of the burden of cancer, societal attitudes towards cancer prevention, eff ects of inequitable treatment and access to medicine, and a need for improved international engagement.
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cancer is one of the major non-communicable diseases posing a threat to world health. Unfortunately, improvements in socioeconomic conditions are usually associated with increased cancer incidence. In this Commission, we focus on China, India, and Russia, which share rapidly rising cancer incidence and have cancer mortality rates that are nearly twice as high as in the UK or the USA, vast geographies, growing economies, ageing populations, increasingly westernised lifestyles, relatively disenfranchised subpopulations, serious contamination of the environment, and uncontrolled cancer-causing communicable infections. We describe the overall state of health and cancer control in each country and additional specific issues for consideration: for China, access to care, contamination of the environment, and cancer fatalism and traditional medicine; for India, affordability of care, provision of adequate health personnel, and sociocultural barriers to cancer control; and for Russia, monitoring of the burden of cancer, societal attitudes towards cancer prevention, effects of inequitable treatment and access to medicine, and a need for improved international engagement.
    The Lancet Oncology 04/2014; 15(5):489-538. · 25.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A study was conducted to assess for prognostic heterogeneity within the N2b and N2c classifications for oral cancer based on the number of metastatic lymph nodes and to determine whether laterality of neck disease provides additional prognostic information. An international multicenter study of 3704 patients with oral cancer undergoing surgery with curative intent was performed. The endpoints of interest were disease-specific survival and overall survival. Model fit was assessed by the Akaike Information Criterion and comparison of models with and without the covariate of interest using a likelihood ratio test. The median number of metastatic lymph nodes was significantly higher in patients with N2c disease compared to those with N2b disease (P < .001). In multivariable analyses stratified by study center, the addition of the number of metastatic lymph nodes improved model fit beyond existing N classification. Next, the authors confirmed significant heterogeneity in prognosis based on the number of metastatic lymph nodes (≤ 2, 3-4, and ≥ 5) in patients with both N2b and N2c disease (P < .001). A proposed reclassification combining N2b and N2c disease based on the number of metastatic lymph nodes demonstrated significant improvement in prognostic accuracy compared with the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system, and no improvement was noted with the addition of a covariate for contralateral or bilateral neck disease (P = .472). The prognosis of patients with oral cancer with N2b and N2c disease appears to be similar after adequate adjustment for the burden of lymph node metastases, irrespective of laterality. Based on this finding, the authors propose a modified lymph node staging system that requires external validation before implementation in clinical practice. Cancer 2014. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 04/2014; · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    Poonam Joshi, Sourav Dutta, Pankaj Chaturvedi, Sudhir Nair
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    ABSTRACT: Head and neck cancers are the most common cancers in developing countries, especially in Southeast Asia. Head and neck cancers are more common in males compared to females. This is mainly attributed to tobacco, areca nut, alcohol, etc. Oral cancers are most common amongst all head and neck squamous cell cancers (HNSCC). HNSCC in the developing world differ from those in the Western world in terms of age, site of disease, etiology, and molecular biology. Poverty, illiteracy, advanced stage at presentation, lack of access to health care, and poor treatment infrastructure pose a major challenge in management of these cancers. The annual GDP (gross domestic product) spent on health care is very low in developing countries compared to the developed countries. Cancer treatment leads to a significant financial burden on the cancer patients and their families. Several health programs have been implemented to curb this rising burden of disease. The main aims of these health programs are to increase awareness among people regarding tobacco and to improve access to health care facilities, early diagnosis, treatment, and palliative care.
    Rambam Maimonides medical journal. 04/2014; 5(2):e0009.
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    ABSTRACT: The judiciousness of the use of clozapine in patients with schizophrenia in clinical practice is brought to an even sharper focus when it has to be used in combination with other agents that cause myelosuppression, for example, chemotherapy and radiation treatment. There are a few references till date illustrating the combination of clozapine and chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. To the best of our knowledge, such a case has not been reported from India. We report the case of a 39-year-old gentleman with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, remaining psychiatrically stable on clozapine, who underwent combination treatment of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for the treatment of cancer of the tongue in a tertiary care oncology centre in India.
    Indian journal of psychiatry. 04/2014; 56(2):191-3.
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    ABSTRACT: Certain tumor-related factors like thickness increases the risk of nodal metastasis and may affect survival in patients with oral tongue cancers. The objective of this study is to identify those tumor-related prognostic predictors that can potentially influence decision for adjuvant radiotherapy. A retrospective review of all patients with oral tongue cancers treated primarily by surgery at Tata Memorial Hospital between January 2007 and June 2010. The demographic and commonly reported histopathological features were analyzed for their influence on disease free and overall survival. Five hundred eighty-six patients were eligible for the study, of which 416 were males and 117 were females. Follow-up details were available for 498 (85%) patients with a median follow-up of 18 months and mean follow-up of 22 months. There were 302 patients who were alive and disease free at the last follow-up. This group had a mean follow-up of 27 months and median follow-up of 27.5 months. Disease recurrences during follow-up were observed in 184 (31%) patients. Sixty-one patients died subsequently. Perineural invasion significantly affected disease free survival (DFS). A tumor thickness of more than 11 mm significantly affected the overall survival (OS). Other than nodal metastasis, tumor-related factors like thickness and perineural invasion are adverse prognostic factors and can influence survival. These patients, especially in case of early stage cancers, may potentially benefit from postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy. 2b. J. Surg. Oncol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Surgical Oncology 03/2014; · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The thyroid gland is removed en bloc during laryngectomy. There are no objective criteria for deciding the extent of thyroid gland resection in primary hypopharyngeal cancer cases. The present study aimed to determine the incidence of thyroid gland involvement in hypopharyngeal cancer and identify the various predictors of this involvement. Method: This paper reports a retrospective analysis of 358 patients with hypopharyngeal cancer, who underwent total laryngectomy with partial or total pharyngectomy at Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai between 2004 and 2010. Results: The mean age of this population was 61 years. The pyriform sinus was the most common hypopharyngeal subsite involved (in 89 per cent of cases). Most patients underwent hemi-thyroidectomy as part of their surgery. The thyroid gland was involved in only 13 per cent of cases. Conclusion: Thyroid gland involvement is not common in hypopharyngeal cancer. Cases that involved the post-cricoid area, subglottic extension, extralaryngeal spread or prior tracheostomy were associated with a higher risk of thyroid gland involvement. Ipsilateral thyroidectomy is sufficient in most patients undergoing surgery (laryngectomy with partial or total pharyngectomy) for hypopharyngeal cancers.
    The Journal of Laryngology & Otology 01/2014; · 0.68 Impact Factor
  • Yogesh More, Shilpi Sharma, Pankaj Chaturvedi, Anil K D'Cruz
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    ABSTRACT: Oral cancer is rapidly emerging as a major health problem across the globe. The Southeast Asian subcontinent has a high incidence of oral cancer and gingivobuccal complex forms the commonest subsite. The habit of chewing smokeless tobacco and areca nut are mainly responsible for this site predilection. The majority of literature and guidelines stem from the western world and there is ambiguity about tumor behavior among various continents. Thus, it is imperative to do this review for improving our understanding about this specific subsite, its behavior, treatment and outcomes. Gingivobuccal mucosal cancers (GBCs) usually present as large lesions with early mandibular involvement and cervical node metastasis. Level I nodes are often the first echelon. Surgical resection of the mandible is often en bloc with primary GBCs. A marginal or segmental mandibular resection is based on paramandibular soft tissue involvement. Microvascular free tissue reconstruction is ideal. Prognostic factors include tumor depth greater than 4 mm, skin involvement, nodal metastases and extra capsular spread. Early mandibular involvement and neck node metastases need to be considered in treatment planning. Appropriate reconstruction is key to early recovery and good quality of life.
    Current opinion in otolaryngology & head and neck surgery 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Mutational landscape of gingivo-buccal oral squamous cell carcinoma reveals new recurrently-mutated genes and molecular subgroups India Project Team of the International Cancer Genome Consortium 1 Gingivo-buccal oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC-GB), an anatomical and clinical subtype of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), is prevalent in regions where tobacco-chewing is common. Exome sequencing (n ¼ 50) and recurrence testing (n ¼ 60) reveals that some significantly and frequently altered genes are specific to OSCC-GB (USP9X, MLL4, ARID2, UNC13C and TRPM3), while some others are shared with HNSCC (for example, TP53, FAT1, CASP8, HRAS and NOTCH1). We also find new genes with recurrent amplifications (for example, DROSHA, YAP1) or homozygous deletions (for example, DDX3X) in OSCC-GB. We find a high proportion of C4G transversions among tobacco users with high numbers of mutations. Many pathways that are enriched for genomic alterations are specific to OSCC-GB. Our work reveals molecular subtypes with distinctive mutational profiles such as patients predominantly harbouring mutations in CASP8 with or without mutations in FAT1. Mean duration of disease-free survival is significantly elevated in some molecular subgroups. These findings open new avenues for biological characterization and exploration of therapies.
    Nature Communications 12/2013; · 10.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Head and neck surgeries are complex. Wound complications are associated with considerable morbidity and can result in delay in the adjuvant treatment. Identification of factors will help in formulating preventive guidelines. The aim of this study is to identify perioperative factors responsible for wound complications. Prospective study of 186 head and neck patients. Pre-operative, intraoperative and post-operative factors were recorded. Each patient was evaluated for minor and major wound complications twice daily during the hospital stay. Chi-square test was used for univariate and log regression test was used for multivariate analysis. The overall wound complication rate was 29% with 7% major and 22% minor complications. On univariate analysis, laryngeal and hypopharyngeal location, advanced T stage, poor oral hygiene, clean-contaminated surgery, low Karnofsky performance status (KPS), flap reconstruction, blood loss more than 1000 ml, perioperative blood transfusion, duration of surgery greater than 4.3 h and post-operative hemoglobin lesser than 11 g%, post-operative tracheostomy and resection of mandible were statistical significant factors. On multivariate analysis, post-operative tracheostomy, low KPS, post-operative serum albumin less than 3.7 g/dl and duration of surgery greater than 4.3 h were significant factors. Apart from unavoidable factors, it is essential to take care of certain factors viz nutrition, haemoglobin, oral hygiene, asepsis and repeating antibiotics in prolonged surgery.
    Indian journal of medical and paediatric oncology 10/2013; 34(4):247-51.
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    ABSTRACT: Background:Lymph node density (LND) has previously been reported to reliably predict recurrence risk and survival in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). This multicenter international study was designed to validate the concept of LND in OSCC.Methods:The study included 4254 patients diagnosed as having OSCC. The median follow-up was 41 months. Five-year overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), disease-free survival (DFS), locoregional control and distant metastasis rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Lymph node density (number of positive lymph nodes/total number of excised lymph nodes) was subjected to multivariate analysis.Results:The OS was 49% for patients with LND0.07 compared with 35% for patients with LND>0.07 (P<0.001). Similarly, the DSS was 60% for patients with LND0.07 compared with 41% for those with LND>0.07 (P<0.001). Lymph node density reliably stratified patients according to their risk of failure within the individual N subgroups (P=0.03). A modified TNM staging system based on LND ratio was consistently superior to the traditional system in estimating survival measures.Conclusion:This multi-institutional study validates the reliability and applicability of LND as a predictor of outcomes in OSCC. Lymph node density can potentially assist in identifying patients with poor outcomes and therefore for whom more aggressive adjuvant treatment is needed.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 24 September 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.570 www.bjcancer.com.
    British Journal of Cancer 09/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An association between the survival of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) and advancements in diagnosis and therapy has not been established. This was a retrospective, longitudinal, international, population-based study of 2738 patients who underwent resection of OCSCC during 2 different decades. Characteristics of patients from 7 international cancer centers who received treatment between 1990 and 2000 (group A; n = 735) were compared with patients who received treatment between 2001 and 2011 (group B; n = 2003). Patients in group B had more advanced tumors and tended to develop distant metastases more frequently than patients in group A (P = .005). More group B patients underwent selective neck dissection and received adjuvant radiotherapy (P < .001). Outcome analysis revealed a significant improvement in 5-year overall survival, from 59% for group A to 70% for group B (P < .001). There was also a significant improvement in disease-specific survival associated with operations performed before and after 2000 (from 69% to 81%, respectively; P < .001). Surgery after 2000, negative margins, adjuvant treatment, and early stage disease were independent predictors of a better outcome in multivariate analysis. The decade of treatment was an independent prognostic factor for cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio, 0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.3-0.6). The survival rate of patients with OCSCC improved significantly during the past 2 decades despite older age, more advanced disease stage, and a higher rate of distant metastases. The current results suggest that the prognosis for patients with OCSCC has improved over time, presumably because of advances in imaging and therapy. Cancer 2013. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 09/2013; · 5.20 Impact Factor
  • Indian Journal of Cancer 08/2013; · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the prognostic role of the lymph node ratio (LNR; ratio of total positive nodes to total dissected nodes) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) as compared to pN staging with an aim to provide an optimal cut-off value. 1,408 OSCC previously untreated patients who underwent treatment (surgery + neck dissection + adjuvant treatment). LNR sensitivity with respect to survival was calculated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and Cox regression method. LNR and TNM staging variables were subjected to multivariate analysis. LNR (0.088) showed significant association with survival outcomes. For patients with LNR ≤0.088, the OS, DFS, local control, regional control and distant metastasis rates were 64%, 70%, and 89%; for LNR >0.088 it was 22%, 19%, and 52%, respectively (P < 0.001). On multivariate analysis LNR of 0.088 was seen to be an independent prognostic factor for 5-year regional control (p, hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]; 0.044, 2.016 (1.019-3.990), DFS, 0.032, 1.858 (1.054-3.276), and OS, 0.040, 1.195 (1.033-1.144). On multivariate analysis LNR categorization showed a statistically significant [0.032, 1.858, (1.054-3.276)] advantage over pN staging [0.527, 1.208 (1.054-3.276)] in predicting survival. LNR is a better prognostic marker than the current N staging of TNM classification. J. Surg. Oncol. 2013 9999:1-8. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Surgical Oncology 07/2013; · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Keratins play a major role in several cellular functions. Each tissue type expresses a specific set of keratins. The immense potential of keratins as diagnostic and prognostic markers for different cancers is emerging. Oral cancer is the fifteenth most common cancer worldwide. However, comprehensive information on the profile of keratins in the oral cavity is not available. Several independent reports have identified keratins using antibody based techniques which have pitfalls due to the cross reactivity of the antibodies to this set of very homologous proteins. A few recent proteomic studies have reported the identification of keratins in head and neck cancer. Majority of the studies have used tissues from the head and neck region without specifying subsites. This study reports the analysis of enriched preparations of keratins from cancer of the gingivo buccal complex (GBC) using MS, 2DE, WB, silver staining of 2DE gels and IHC. Our study reveals the absence of K4 and K13 and presence of K14, K16, and K17, in cancers of the GBC and combination of these expression patterns in the cut margins. This report also shows that K13 is glycosylated. This well characterized profile of keratins may have potential to be used in clinics. In recent years the immense potential of keratins as diagnostic and prognostic markers for different cancers is emerging. However, comprehensive information on the profile of keratins in the oral cavity is not available. Several independent reports have identified keratins using only antibody based techniques which have pitfalls due to the cross reactivity of the antibodies to this set of very homologous proteins. This study reports the analysis of enriched preparations of keratins from a subsite of the oral cavity, the gingivo buccal complex (GBC) using mass spectrometry, 2DE, western blotting, silver staining of 2DE gels and IHC. The proteomic analysis shows the absence of K4 and K13 and presence of K14, K16, and K17 in cancers of the GBC and combination of these expression patterns in the cut margins. This well characterized profile of keratins from the gingivo buccal complex provides defined markers which may have potential to be used in the clinics.
    Journal of proteomics 07/2013; · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a pilot study carried out to evaluate the applicability of in vivo Raman spectroscopy for differential diagnosis of malignant and potentially malignant lesions of human oral cavity in a clinical setting. The study involved 28 healthy volunteers and 171 patients having various lesions of oral cavity. The Raman spectra, measured from multiple sites of normal oral mucosa and of lesions belonging to three histopathological categories, viz. oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and leukoplakia (OLK), were subjected to a probability based multivariate statistical algorithm capable of direct multi-class classification. With respect to histology as the gold standard, the diagnostic algorithm was found to provide an accuracy of 85%, 89%, 85% and 82% in classifying the oral tissue spectra into the four tissue categories based on leave-one-subject-out cross validation. When employed for binary classification, the algorithm resulted in a sensitivity and specificity of 94% in discriminating normal from the rest of the abnormal spectra of OSCC, OSMF and OLK tissue sites pooled together. (© 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).
    Journal of Biophotonics 07/2013; · 3.10 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

327 Citations
245.02 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer
      Mumbai, Mahārāshtra, India
  • 2003–2013
    • Tata Memorial Centre
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Mumbai, Mahārāshtra, India
  • 2012
    • Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC)
      Mumbai, Mahārāshtra, India
  • 2010
    • Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans
      • Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
      Shreveport, LA, United States
    • Rice University
      • Department of Bioengineering
      Houston, TX, United States