[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
This study examines the effect of exclusive versus non-exclusive breastfeeding on specific infant morbidities from birth to nine months, in Conakry (Guinea).
A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,167 mother-infant pairs who visited one of 20 immunization centres in Conakry for vaccination between the 45th and 270th days of the child’s life. Two data sources were used: the infant health book and an orally administered questionnaire completed with the mother. Data analyses included univariate cross-tabulations and multivariate logistic regression models to estimate the effect of breastfeeding on infant morbidity.
Exclusive breastfeeding decreased with the infant’s age. At six months of age, the proportion of infants who were exclusively breastfed was only 15.5%. After adjusting for the infant’s age, and the interaction between the type of breastfeeding and the infant’s age, exclusive breastfeeding significantly protected the infants against many of the studied morbidities (OR: 0.28, CI: 0.15–0.51) and specifically against diarrhoea (OR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.17 – 0.86), respiratory infections (OR: 0.27; 95% CI: 0.14 – 0.50), and low growth rate (OR: 0.11; 95% CI: 0.02 – 0.46), but not for otitis, urinary infection, or meningitis.
This investigation confirmed the protective effects of exclusive breastfeeding on some specific infant’s morbidities during the first nine months of life. The results of this study are of great importance for the development of an information program designed to encourage the exclusive breastfeeding among the mothers of Conakry, Guinea.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Based on promising results from laboratory studies, we hypothesized that pneumococcal vaccination would protect patients from myocardial infarction.
We conducted a hospital-based case-control study that included patients considered to be at risk of myocardial infarction. We used health databases to obtain hospital diagnoses and vaccination status. We compared patients who had been admitted for treatment of myocardial infarction with patients admitted to a surgical department in the same hospital for a reason other than myocardial infarction between 1997 and 2003.
We found a total of 43 209 patients who were at risk; of these, we matched 999 cases and 3996 controls according to age, sex and year of hospital admission. Cases were less likely than controls to have been vaccinated (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40-0.70). This putative protective role of the vaccine was not observed for patients who had received the vaccine up to 1 year before myocardial infarction (adjusted OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.54-1.33). In contrast, if vaccination had occurred 2 years or more before the hospital admission, the association was stronger (adjusted OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.20-0.46).
Pneumococcal vaccination was associated with a decrease of more than 50% in the rate myocardial infarction 2 years after exposure. If confirmed, this association should generate interest in exploring the putative mechanisms and may offer another reason to promote pneumococcal vaccination.
Canadian Medical Association Journal 11/2008; 179(8):773-7. DOI:10.1503/cmaj.070221 · 5.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To document breastfeeding rates from birth to six months as well as the factors facilitating and constraining the continuation of breastfeeding in women in the Eastern Townships of Quebec and to compare these to the results obtained in 1999.
Postal questionnaire sent to 374 mothers who had breastfed and analysis of archival data.
Breastfeeding rates were 86.3% at birth and 75% at discharge from hospital in all mothers who gave birth to a child in 2004-2005. Breastfeeding rates in the 272 mothers who answered the questionnaire were reported to be 67.3% and 47.4% at three and six months respectively. Results indicate that 8.9% of infants were still receiving breast milk exclusively after the third month. However, 27.9% of the mothers had stopped breastfeeding during the infant's first week. Support from the nurses was the primary factor facilitating breastfeeding. The main reasons the mothers gave for stopping breastfeeding were problems with breastfeeding and fatigue.
Breastfeeding rates in this area of Quebec have increased significantly in the past five years and are comparable with those in the rest of Canada. Breastfeeding exclusively up to six months is rare, and initiatives to support breastfeeding mothers in the hospital and in the community are having success.
Canadian journal of public health. Revue canadienne de santé publique 01/2008; 99(3):212-5. · 1.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of measures were implemented, in a secondary/tertiary-care hospital in Quebec, to control an epidemic of nosocomial Clostridium difficile-associated disease (n-CDAD) caused by a virulent strain; these measures included the development of a nonrestrictive antimicrobial stewardship program. Interrupted time-series analysis was used to evaluate the impact of these measures on n-CDAD incidence. From 2003-2004 to 2005-2006, total and targeted antibiotic consumption, respectively, decreased by 23% and 54%, and the incidence of n-CDAD decreased by 60%. No change in n-CDAD incidence was noted after strengthening of infection control procedures (P=.63), but implementation of the antimicrobial stewardship program was followed by a marked reduction in incidence (P=.007). This suggests that nonrestrictive measures to optimize antibiotic usage can yield exceptional results when physicians are motivated and that such measures should be a mandatory component of n-CDAD control. The inefficacy of infection control measures targeting transmission through hospital personnel might be a result of their implementation late in the epidemic, when the environment was heavily contaminated with spores.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cerebral metastases are clinically significant in 10% to 30% of patients with neoplasia. Multiple cerebral metastases are typically treated with palliative radiotherapy. There is no consensus on the role of enhanced chemotherapy delivery as an adjuvant treatment modality in this disease. In this report, the authors detailed their experience with intraarterial (IA) chemotherapy infusion with and without blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD) in patients with multiple cerebral metastases.
From November 1999 to May 2005, 38 patients with multiple cerebral metastases were enrolled in a prospective study. Patients were treated with IA carboplatin, except for those with cerebral metastases of systemic lymphoma, who were administered IA methotrexate. Osmotic BBBD was offered to patients without the presence of a significant mass effect. These regimens were coupled with intravenous etoposide and cyclophosphamide. Cycles were repeated every 4 weeks.
Survival was calculated from study entry and radiologic response was based on MacDonald criteria. Kaplan-Meier estimates were generated for all subgroups. Mean and median survival obtained was as follows: 34 and 29.6 months for the whole group; 33.6 and 42.3 months for ovarian carcinoma; 15.3 and 13.5 months for lung adenocarcinomas; 8.3 and 8.8 months for small cell lung carcinoma; 8.9 and 8.1 months for breast carcinoma; and 24.8 and 16.3 months, respectively, for cerebral metastasis from systemic lymphoma.
Even with a small number of patients in each subgroup, the results obtained seem promising for multiple brain metastasis of ovarian carcinoma, adenocarcinoma of lung, small cell lung carcinoma, and systemic lymphoma.
Cancer 02/2007; 109(4):751-60. DOI:10.1002/cncr.22450 · 4.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the factors that are commonly associated with both the dietary habits of older adults living in the community and depressive symptoms in this group.
Secondary analysis of data on Mexico City obtained by means of the multicenter study on Health, Well-being, and Aging (Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento, SABE) that was carried out in 1999 and 2000. The following variables were examined: presence or absence of depressive symptoms, according to Yesavage's Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS); mental status, as reflected by the score obtained on a modified, shortened version of Folstein's Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE); and functional capacity, as measured by Katz' Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living. Those whose score on the shortened MMSE was 12 points or less were asked to respond to the Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire, which was used to assess their ability to perform the basic activities of daily living. Information was obtained through self-report on the material, physical, psychological, and social aspects of purchasing, preparing, and consuming food products and of oral health status during the most recent 12-month period. Variables that were significantly associated with the results obtained on the GDS were included in a multivariate regression analysis; several statistical models were created, and variables that were shown to be statistically significant in the stepwise multivariate linear regression were used to determine the best-fitting explanatory model for the results obtained on the GDS.
The average age of study participants was 64.4 +/- 8.6 years, and the prevalence of depressive symptoms was 66%. The score obtained on the GDS showed a significant association with the presence of arterial hypertension (P < 0.01), but not with the self-reported presence of diabetes, neoplasia, stroke, lung disease or heart disease. However, the use of dental prostheses (P < 0.01), urinary incontinence (P < 0.01), and falls (P < 0.01) were significantly associated with the results on the GDS. The intake of milk products, meat, fish, fowl, fruit, and vegetables was significantly lower in the group that had depressive symptoms. An inverse correlation was detected between the score obtained on the GDS on the one hand, and the number of complete meals consumed during the day (P < 0.01) and total fluid intake (P < 0.01) on the other. The determining factors that were most closely associated with these results were, in addition to the presence of arterial hypertension, the presence of cognitive impairment (P < 0.01), difficulty performing the basic activities of daily living (P = 0.03) and the instrumental activities of daily living (P < 0.01), poor mobility (P < 0.01), difficulty using the telephone (P < 0.01), and the self-perception of having poor memory (P < 0.01), of having insufficient resources with which to live (P < 0.01), and of having poor oral health (P < 0.01). These variables explained 31% of the variance seen in the R2 values linked to the SDG variables that were incorporated into the final explanatory model.
A number of determining factors for depressive symptoms and the results obtained on the GDS resemble the factors that determine poor dietary habits among older adults. The potential existence of common causative mechanisms calls attention to the need for designing interventions aimed at preventing both types of problems and their negative consequences. These results confirm the need to take dietary habits and other parameters into account when studying depression in older adults.
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública 06/2006; 19(5):321-30. · 0.85 Impact Factor