[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CERN makes extensive use of the WorldFIP fieldbus interface in the LHC and other accelerators in the preinjectors chain. Following the decision of the provider of the components to stop the developments in this field and foreseeing the potential problems in the subsequent support, CERN decided to purchase the design information of these components and in-source the future developments using this technology. The first in-house design concerns a replacement for the MicroFIP chip whose last version was manufactured in an IC feature size found to be more vulnerable to radiation of high energy particles than the previous versions. NanoFIP is a CERN design based on a Flash FPGA implementing a subset of the functionality allowed by the communication standard, fitting the requirements of the different users and including the robustness against radiation as a design constraint. The development presented involved several groups at CERN working together in the framework of the Open Hardware Repository collaboration, and aiming at maximizing the interoperability and reliability of the final product.
Journal of Instrumentation 03/2012; 7(03). · 1.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Large Hadron Collider makes extensive use of superconductors, in magnets for bending and focusing the particles, and in RF cavities for accelerating them, which are operated at 1.9 K and 4.5 K. The process automation for the cryogenic distribution around the accelerator circumference is based on 16 Programmable Logic Controllers, each running 250 control loops, 500 alarms and interlocks, and a phase sequencer. Spread along 27 km and under ionizing radiation, 15 000 cryogenic sensors and actuators are accessed through industrial field networks. We describe the main hardware and software components of the control system, their deployment and commissioning, together with the project organization, challenges faced, and solutions found.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was commissioned at CERN and started operation with beams in 2008. Several months of operation in nominal cryogenic conditions have triggered an optimisation of the process functional analysis. This lead to a few revisions of the control logic, which were realised on-the-fly. During the 2008-09 shut-down, and in order to enhance the safety, availability and operability of the LHC cryogenics, a major rebuild of the logic and several hardware modifications were implemented. The databases, containing instruments and controls in-formation, are being rationalized; the automatic tool, that extracts data for the control software, is being simplified. This paper describes the main improvements and sug-gests perspectives of further developments.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The LHC is the largest cryogenic installation ever built. For its operation more than 14 000 sensors and actuators are required. The 27 km circumference of the accelerator is divided into 8 sectors: like for the rest of the hardware and in particular the cryogenics, the commissioning of the cryogenics instrumentation has been performed sector by sector