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Publications (7)0 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: 国立情報学研究所で電子化 本研究の目的は, 中高年の保健行動の予測因子とされている身体自己効力(PSE)とHealth Locus of Control(HLC)について調査し, 我が国の基礎データを提供することにある。三原市在住の女性361名(平均年齢57.4±12.0歳)を対象に, Ryckmanらの身体自己効力尺度と渡辺のHealth Locus of Control尺度を用いて行った.その結果, (1)PSEおよびHLCスコアは年齢と相関しなかったが, 40・50歳代に高かった, (2)30歳代のPSEおよびHLCスコアは60・70歳代と差がなかった, (3)PSEスコアと健康度自己評価, ライフスタイルとの関連, HLCスコアと健康度自己評価との関連が認められた。今後, 性差についても検討が必要である。 The purpose of this survey is to present the basic data for the Perceived Physical Self-Efficacy (PSE) and Health Locus of Control (HLC) in the middle and old aged people in Japan. The subjects were 361 female residents (mean age 57.4 ± 12.0) in Mihara-city. Ryckman's Perceived Physical Self-Efficacy scale and Watanabe's Health Locus of Control scale were used. The results were summarized as follows : 1) PSE and HLC scores did not correlate with age, but those in their 40's and 50's had higher scores ; 2) there were no significant differences in PSE and HLC scores of those in their 30's versus those in their 60's and 70's ; 3) PSE scores were related to perceived self-rated health and lifestyle scores ; 4) HLC scores were related to self-rated health. A survey about sex difference for PSE and HLC will be necessary in the future.
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    ABSTRACT: 国立情報学研究所で電子化 腰椎の背面からの距離は, 体格によって大きく異なる。Hologic社製の骨密度測定装置QDR-4500では, ファンビーム・スキャニング方式が採用されており, そのため腰椎の位置によって投影像の拡大率が異なる。そこでQDR-4500を用いて, 腰椎の位置が骨密度測定値に及ぼす影響を検討した。海綿骨等価(密度 : 1.17g/cm^3)および皮質骨等価(密度 : 1.45g/cm^3)のファントムを加工して骨粗鬆症ファントムを作成した。これらのファントムを9cmのタフウォーターファントムで挟み, 自作ファントム位置を装置の寝台から1cm~9cmの高さまで変化させて測定を行った。その結果, 海綿骨, 皮質骨ともに寝台からの高さと骨密度値の間に有意な相関は見ず, 腰椎の位置の違いは骨密度値に影響を及ぼさないことが分かった。しかし, 海綿骨では変動係数が大きい値を示した。このことは密度の低い海綿骨では微少な変化を検出しにくいことを示唆している。 The distance from the back skin to the lumbar vertebrae varies remarkably with the physique of patients. The fan-beam scanning method is employed for QDR-4500 which is a bone mineral density (BMD) measurement instrument made by Hologic. Therefore, the magnification rate of the projected image varies with the position of lumbar vertebrae. The influence of the distance between the lumbar vertebrae and the examination table to the BMD value was investigated using a QDR-4500. Osteoporosis phantoms were prepared using spongeform and cortical bone equivalent phantoms which had densities of 1.17 and 1.45g/cm^3,respectively. The BMD value of these phantoms, held between 9cm-thick tough water phantoms, was measured varying the distance from the table from 1 to 9cm. Results indicate that the distance has no meaningful correlation with the BMD value, i.e. the lumbar vertebra position does not affect the BMD value. However, the spongeform equivalent phantom showed high coefficient of variation. This fact indicates that it is rather difficult to detect the slight difference in the BMD value of low-density spongeform bones.
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    ABSTRACT: 本研究は, 看護学生の臨床実習におけるストレスとコーピングおよび性格との関連について検討した. 対象はA大学看護学科3年生の女性28名である. 方法は, ストレスの程度の評価には日本版State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)を, また, コーピングの測定にはコーピング特性簡易尺度(BSCP)を用い, それぞれ実習前と実習中の計2回実施した. 性格の評価は, 矢田部・ギルフォード検査(YG検査)を用いて, 臨床実習のない春期休暇中に実施した. その結果, STAIの状態不安は, 実習前に比べ実習中で高値を示し, 臨床実習で看護学生がストレスを感じていると考えられた. 特に「社会的不適応」, 「劣等感」, 「非協調的」などの性格傾向では, 実習中の状態不安の増強を認めた. また, それらの性格傾向では「他者を巻き込んだ情動発散」などの消極的コーピングスタイルを多用する特徴を認め, 実習ストレスの感じ方やコーピングには, 個々の性格が深く関与することが示唆された. We investigated the relationships among stress, coping, and personality in nursing students during clinical training in a hospital. The subjects were 28 female nursing school students. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) test was used for evaluation of the psychological response to the stress of clinical training. The Brief Scales for Coping Profile (BSCP) test was used for evaluation of coping. These two tests were given before and during clinical training. The Yatabe/Guilford (YG) test was given to students during the spring vacation for assessment of personality. The students experienced stress before and during clinical training, and the state-anxiety levels in the STAI were significantly higher during clinical training. Anxiety level was higher in students with personality traits of "social maladjustment", "feeling of inferiority" and "nonconformism". Furthermore, students with such personality traits tended to have a passive style of coping. The results suggest that there is a close relationship between personality and coping style for nursing students under the stressful conditions of clinical training.
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    ABSTRACT: 報告 Report 国立情報学研究所で電子化 【目的】看護学生の臨床実習におけるストレッサーとストレスの状況や性格との関連について検討した。【対象と方法】対象はK大学看護学科3年生の女性27名。方法は,ストレスの程度を評価するために状態-特性不安を日本版State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)を用いて測定し,臨床実習前と臨床実習中の計2回実施した。また,実習ストレッサー(鈴木ら)に対する調査も同様に行った。性格の評価は,矢田部・ギルフォード検査(YG)を用い,臨床実習に関係のない春期休暇中に実施した。【結果・結論】臨床実習前と実習中では,STAIの状態不安が高くなり,看護学生が臨床実習でストレスを感じていることがわかった。また,実習ストレッサーの得点の高い者は,YG検査で「気分の変化」,「非協調的」,「情緒不安定」,「社会的不適応」等の項目の得点も高く,ストレス反応と性格との関連性が高いことが示唆された。 We studied the relationship between the stressors and the reaction to stress induced by clinical practice in nursing students. Subjects were 27 female students of K University. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Test (STAI) was used for the evaluation of psychological response to stress. STAI and the items of stressors were studied pre-and during clinical practice in hospitals. In order to assess the student personalities, the Yatabe/Guilford (YG) test was conducted during the spring vacation. The students experienced stress pre-and during clinical training, and also the state-anxiety levels in the STAI were significantly high in those periods. Furthermore, it was shown that students who had higher scores of stressors showed unsocial character tendencies in the YG test, indicating a strong relationship between the reaction to stress and the features of the personalities of the nursing students.
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    ABSTRACT: 国立情報学研究所で電子化 Hologic社製の骨密度測定装置(QDR-1000,QDR-2000,QDR-4500)では, 検査の高速化にともない被曝線量が増加している。そこで, 被曝線量の増加に対し, 骨密度測定精度がどのような影響をおよぼしているか検討した。組織当量ファントム(固体)を用いて, 性能評価ファントムを作成した。通常の臨床で行う腰椎骨密度測定のモードでスキャンを行なった。骨密度測定は, 骨密度の経時的な変化をとらえることが重要であり, さらに, 骨検診では多人数の測定を行なわなければならない。また, 被検者の負担軽減も考慮しなければならない。これらから, BMD値の変動が小さく, それと同時に測定時間が最も短いQDR-4500が有用であると考えられた。しかし, 用いるX線の形状がファンビームであるため像が拡大し, 同じQDRでも型式間でのBMD値が異なるという問題点が生じる。今後, それをふまえ各型式ごとにBMD値の算出方法を検討する必要があると考えられる。 In dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) apparatus made by Hologic (QDR-1000,QDR-2000 and QDR-4500), examination time has become shorter with progress of equipment, but client's dose has increased. Influence of the client's dose increase on the performance of bone mineral density (BMD) measurement was examined. For the performance test, a phantom was prepared including spogform bone and cortical bone equivalent substance whose density were 1.17g/cm^3 and 1.45g/cm^3,respectively. The phantom was scanned in clinical lumber vertebral mode with a 10cm-thick tough water equivalent phantom (Kyoto Kagaku), so as to keep nearly the same height as lumber vertebrae. Evaluating temporal change in BMD is important in BMD measurement. In mass examination short measuring time is also important. Judging from these points of view, the most useful equipment was QDR-4500,which showed the least fluctuation in BMD value and shortest time in BMD measuring. However, lumbar vertebral image is enlarged with use of QDR-4500 because of the employment of fan beam x-rays, then BMD is different from the value with old type equipment such as QDR-1000 and QDR-2000. Therefore, calculation algorithm should be discussed with each type of equipment in the future.
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    ABSTRACT: 国立情報学研究所で電子化 骨密度測定から受ける患者の被曝線量を人体ファントムを使った方法で測定を行った。今回は腰椎骨密度測定で行われる2種類の方法(DEXA法, 腰椎一般撮影)で熱ルミネセンス線量計(TLD)を用いて, 臓器の吸収線量を測定し, 以前の研究から導かれた近似式と比較検討した。腰椎骨密度測定の照射野内において, 臓器の線量は実測値と計算値との差が10%未満の誤差であった。これは, 個々のTLDのばらつき±20%以内から考えて大きな誤差ではないと考えられる。骨密度測定方法および装置から受ける臓器の被曝線量は計算によっても求めることが出来るといえる。計算値の比較では, X線が背側から入射する装置よりも腹側から入射する装置および検査法の方が臓器の吸収線量が大きかった。その結果, 骨密度測定は骨折の危険性の高い閉経後の女性への適応があると考えられる。しかし, 若年者の骨密度のスクリーニング検査としては, 注意深く考えなければならない。骨密度測定方法の利点と被曝線量を被検者の年齢を加味した上で, どの方法および装置を用いるか選択する必要がある。 Patient dose in bone mineral density examinations was measured using a body phantom. In this study, the organ absorbed dose from two different methods of lumbar bone mineral densitometory, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and lumbar vertebral radiography, was measured using a thermo-luminescence dosimeter (TLD). Measured values were compared with the approximations derived from our previous study. Differences between the measured and calculated values was less than 10% in the estimated field area. This error seems adequately small, considering that fluctuation of measured values with TLD is within ± 20%. Consequently, the organ absorbed dose can be obtained with calculation, even if the method or device is different. In the comparison of calculated values, the organ absorbed dose for the method or device in which x-rays enter the human body in the dorso-ventral projection was greater than in the ventro-dorsal projection. Bone mineral density measurement is generally applied to females after menopause, who are in risk of bone fracture. However, application to young generation screening should be considered carefully. The method and the device must be carefully chosen, considering each merit, patient dose and patient age.
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    ABSTRACT: 報告 Reports 本研究では柑橘類農家中高年女性の生活習慣病に関連する身体的・代謝的特徴を知るため,瀬戸内海島嶼部の健康な女性107名(平均年齢59.9±8.3歳,S・Y町グループ)について骨密度と生活習慣病関連指標を調べ,地方都市居住の女性86名(平均年齢60.2±7.4歳,M市グループ)の結果と比較した。二重X線吸収法(DXA)で測定したS・Y町グループ女性の骨密度はM市グループ女性の測定値よりも高かった。一方,S・Y町グループ女性の生活習慣病関連指標(中性脂肪,HDLコレステロール,LDLコレステロール,HbA1cなどの血中濃度,血圧および上腕―足首間脈波伝播速度)はM市グループ女性よりもリスクが高い値を示した。しかし,S・Y町グループ女性の本研究での測定値はいずれも健常の範囲内であった。S・Y町グループ女性の生活習慣病予防のためには,食生活改善や身体活動推進など,地域の実情に応じた健康のためのライフスタイル改善の推進策が必要と考えられる。 To determine the physical and metabolic features related to metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly women in the citrus fruit farmers, we examined the bone mineral density and risk factors for metabolic syndrome in 107 healthy women (mean age 59.9 ± 8.3) living on a Japan Inland Sea island (S ・Y town group) and compared them with 86 healthy women (mean age 60.2 ± 7.4) living in a local city (M city group) . Bone mineral density in the women of the S ・ Y town group was higher than that of the M city group. On the contrary, the women in the S ・Y town group were at a higher risk for a metabolic syndrome (values of serum lipid, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and HbA1c, blood pressure and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity) . These risk factors for metabolic syndrome in the S ・Y town group were still within normal limits for healthy adults. In order to prevent metabolic syndrome in the S ・Y town group, a health policy based on a community-based strategy should be implemented to encourage the people to change over to a healthy lifestyle, including good eating habits and physical activity.