H Kadowaki

Tokyo Metropolitan University, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (91)348.53 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mycoplasma pneumonia of swine (MPS) is responsible for significant economic losses in the swine industry. We selected Landrace pigs for reduced MPS pulmonary lesions over five generations, and measured concentrations of the following cytokines: interleukin (IL)-10, IL-13, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ to estimate their correlation with MPS lesions. Sheep red blood cells (SRBC) were injected twice intramuscularly at 70 and 95 kg body weight. Blood serum samples were collected after 1 week of secondary SRBC inoculation and cytokine concentrations were analyzed by ELISA. Genetic parameters and breeding values were estimated. The heritability estimates of IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, TNF-α and IFN-γ were 0.20 ± 0.06, 0.12 ± 0.06, 0.27 ± 0.07, 0.20 ± 0.10 and 0.05 ± 0.03, respectively. Genetic correlations of IL-17 and TNF-α with pulmonary MPS lesions were high (-0.86 ± 0.13 and 0.69 ± 0.29, respectively) and those of IFN-γ and IL-13 with MPS lesions were moderately negative (-0.45). Through selection, the breeding values of IL-17 and IFN-γ increased substantially and those of TNF-α decreased. These results suggest that innate and cellular immunity are more important for the suppression of pulmonary lesions in MPS than humoral-mediated immunity, such as antibody response.
    Animal Science Journal 10/2015; DOI:10.1111/asj.12462 · 0.96 Impact Factor
  • M. Wakita · T. Taniguchi · H. Edamoto · H. Takatsu · H. Kadowaki ·
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    ABSTRACT: The ground states of the frustrated pyrochlore oxide Tb$_{2+x}$Ti$_{2-x}$O$_{7+y}$, sensitively depending on the small off-stoichiometry parameter $x$, have been studied by specific heat measurements using well characterized single crystalline samples. Single crystal Tb$_{2+x}$Ti$_{2-x}$O$_{7+y}$ boules grown by the standard floating zone technique exhibit concentration ($x$) gradient. Values of $x$ of small crystal samples cut from a boule are estimated by precisely measuring the lattice constant. The ordered phase of electric quadrupole moments shows a dome structure in the $x-T$ phase diagram with the highest $T_{\text{c}} \simeq 0.5$ K at $x \simeq 0.01$. This phase diagram suggests that the putative U(1) quantum spin liquid state of Tb$_{2+x}$Ti$_{2-x}$O$_{7+y}$ exists in the range $x<x_{\text{c}} \simeq -0.0025 $ being separated from the quadrupolar state via a vertical line, $x=x_{\text{c}}$, of a first-order phase transition.

  • Physical Review B 07/2015; 92(1). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.92.019903 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A hidden order that emerges in the frustrated pyrochlore Tb$_{2+x}$Ti$_{2-x}$O$_{7+y}$ with $x = 0.005> x_{\text{c}}$ is studied from specific heat and magnetization experiments on a high-quality single crystal, as well as neutron scattering. Semi-quantitative analyses based on a pseudospin-1/2 pyrochlore Hamiltonian for ionic non-Kramers magnetic doublets indicate that it is a long-range order of an electric quadrupole. These results suggest the existence for a Higgs phase located close to a U(1) quantum spin-liquid phase of the non-Kramers pyrochlore model.
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    H. Kadowaki · H. Takatsu · T. Taniguchi · B. Fåk · J. Ollivier ·
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    ABSTRACT: The hidden ordered state of the frustrated pyrochlore oxide Tb$_{2+x}$Ti$_{2-x}$O$_{7+y}$ is possibly one of the two electric multipole, or quadrupole, states of the effective pseudospin-1/2 Hamiltonian derived from crystal-field ground state doublets of non-Kramers Tb$^{3+}$ ions. These long-range orders are antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic states of quadrupolar components of the pseudospins, which cannot be observed as neutron Bragg scattering. However pseudospin waves of these states are composite waves of the magnetic and quadrupole degrees of freedom, and can be partly observed by inelastic magnetic neutron scattering. We calculate these spin-quadrupole waves using linear spin-wave theory and discuss previously observed low-energy magnetic excitation spectra of a polycrystalline sample with $x = 0.005$ ($T_{\text{c}} = 0.5 $ K).
    05/2015; DOI:10.1142/S2010324715400032
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    ABSTRACT: The thoracic vertebral number is associated with body length and carcass traits, and represents one of the most important traits in the pig industry. Recent studies have shown that vertnin (VRTN) gene is associated with variations in the vertebral number in commercial European pigs. However, the genetic relationships and effect of this VRTN gene in pig production and carcass traits remain uncertain. Therefore, we investigated the genetic relationships among traits such as vertebral numbers, carcass weight and length-related traits, and meat production traits, and the effect of VRTN gene polymorphisms on these traits in a Duroc purebred population selected for its meat production traits. Highly positive genetic correlations were obtained between the thoracic vertebral numbers and length-related traits (0.56 to 0.84), whereas low correlations were obtained with production traits and carcass weight (−0.16 to 0.05). VRTN gene polymorphisms indicated that the number of thoracic vertebrae and length-related traits were significantly associated with the VRTN genotype, but had no significant effect on production traits and carcass weight. The results indicate that VRTN gene may be used as an effective selection marker to obtain pigs with high thoracic vertebral numbers and length-related traits, without adversely affecting meat production traits.
    Animal Science Journal 09/2014; 86(2). DOI:10.1111/asj.12260 · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Low-temperature states of polycrystalline samples of a frustrated pyrochlore oxide Tb$_{2+x}$Ti$_{2-x}$O$_{7+y}$ have been investigated by specific heat, magnetic susceptibility, and neutron scattering experiments. We have found that this system can be tuned by a minute change of $x$ from a spin-liquid state ($x < x_{\text{c}}$) to a partly ordered state with a small antiferromagnetic ordering of the order of $0.1 \mu_{\text{B}}$. Specific heat shows a sharp peak at a phase transition at $T_{\text{c}}= 0.5$ K for $x=0.005$. Magnetic excitation spectra for this sample change from a quasielastic to a gapped type through $T_{\text{c}}$. The possibility of a Jahn-Teller transition is discussed.
    Physical review. B, Condensed matter 02/2013; 87(6). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.87.060408 · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the selection of a pig line with improved resistance to swine mycoplasmal pneumonia and meat production in Landrace pigs. The selection was conducted over 5 generations using estimated breeding values of daily gain (DG), backfat thickness (BF), and mycoplasmal pneumonia scores (MPS). In order to evaluate various lung lesions, we established two different rearing environments (regularly cleaned vs. not cleaned) for the pigs. The heritability estimates for DG, BF, and MPS were found to be 0.65, 0.60, and 0.07, respectively. To compensate for the low heritability of MPS we examined the genetic correlation of immunity traits with MPS to determine their usefulness in a selection index. Cortisol (COR) plasma levels at 105 kg body weight had a high positive genetic correlation (0.65) with MPS, and therefore used as an immunity trait. The average breeding values in the fifth generation, as expressed in standard deviation units, were 1.32 for DG, −0.70 for MPS, and −0.04 for BF and COR. The selection traits showed good genetic progress in 5 generations demonstrating the possibility of selecting for both disease resistance and high meat production in animals.
    Livestock Science 08/2012; 147(s 1–3):20–26. DOI:10.1016/j.livsci.2012.03.014 · 1.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The leptin receptor (LEPR) gene is considered a candidate gene for fatness traits. It is located on SSC 6 in a region in which quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for backfat thickness (BF), fat area ratios, and serum leptin concentration (LEPC) have previously been detected in a Duroc purebred population. The objectives of the present study were to identify porcine LEPR polymorphisms and examine the effects of LEPR polymorphisms on fatness traits in this same population. The Duroc pigs (226 to 953 pigs) were evaluated for BF, fat area ratios using image analysis, and LEPC. A total of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the full-length LEPR coding region were identified in pigs from the base population. Four non-synonymous SNPs of the LEPR gene and 15 microsatellite markers on SSC 6 were then genotyped in all pigs. During candidate gene analysis, we detected significant effects of the non-synonymous SNP c.2002C>T in exon 14 on all traits. In fine mapping analysis, significant QTLs for BF, fat area ratios, and LEPC were detected near the LEPR gene in the same region. These results indicated that the c.2002C>T SNP of LEPR has a strong effect on BF, fat area ratios and LEPC.
    Animal Science Journal 05/2012; 83(5):375-85. DOI:10.1111/j.1740-0929.2011.00963.x · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Respiratory disease is the most important health concern for the swine industry. Genetic improvement for disease resistance is challenging because of the difficulty in obtaining good phenotypes related with disease resistance; however, identification of genes or markers associated with disease resistance can help in the genetic improvement of pig health. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with disease resistance were segregated in a purebred population of Landrace pigs that had been selected for meat production traits and mycoplasmal pneumonia of swine (MPS) scores over five generations. We analysed 1395 pigs from the base to the fifth generation of this population. Two respiratory disease traits [MPS scores and atrophic rhinitis (AR) scores] and 11 immune-capacity traits were measured in 630-1332 animals at 7 weeks of age and when the animal's body weight reached 105 kg. Each of the pigs, except sires in the base population, was genotyped using 109 microsatellite markers, and then, QTL analysis of the full-sib family population with a multi-generational pedigree structure was performed. Variance component analysis was used to detect QTL associated with MPS or AR scores, and the logarithm of odds (LOD) score and genotypic heritability of the QTL were estimated. Five significant (LOD > 2.51) and 18 suggestive (LOD > 1.35) QTL for respiratory disease traits and immune-capacity traits were detected. The significant QTL for Log-MPS score, located on S. scrofa chromosome 2, could explain 87% of the genetic variance of this score in this analysis. This is the first report of QTL associated with respiratory disease lesions.
    Animal Genetics 04/2012; 43(6):721-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2052.2012.02359.x · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • Y Uemoto · H Nakano · T Kikuchi · S Sato · M Ishida · T Shibata · H Kadowaki · E Kobayashi · K Suzuki ·
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    ABSTRACT: The stearoyl-CoA desaturase (delta-9-desaturase; SCD) gene is a candidate gene for fatty acid composition. It is located on pig SSC14 in a region where quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fatty acid composition were previously detected in a Duroc purebred population. The objective of the present study was to fine map the QTL, to identify polymorphisms of the pig SCD gene and to examine the effects of SCD polymorphisms on fatty acid composition and melting point of fat in the population. The pigs were examined for fatty acid composition and melting point of inner and outer subcutaneous fat and inter- and intramuscular fat; the number of pigs examined was 479-521. Two SNPs (g.-353C>T and g.-233T>C) were identified in the promoter region of the SCD gene and were completely linked in the pigs from the base generation. In all pigs, 19 microsatellite markers and SCD haplotypes were then genotyped. Different statistical models were applied to evaluate the effects of QTL and the possible causality of the SCD gene variants with respect to the QTL. The results show that all significant QTL for C14:0, C18:0, C18:1 and melting point of fat were detected in the same region, located near the SCD gene. The results also show a significant association between SCD haplotypes and fatty acid composition and fat melting point in this population. These results indicate that the haplotype of the SCD gene has a strong effect on fatty acid composition and melting point of fat.
    Animal Genetics 04/2012; 43(2):225-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2052.2011.02236.x · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The reduction of extra subcutaneous, intermuscular and abdominal fat is important to increase the carcass lean percentage of pigs. Image analyses of fat area ratios were effective for estimation of separated fat in pig carcasses. Serum concentrations of leptin are useful as physiological predictors of fat accumulation in pigs. The objectives of the present study were to perform a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for fat area ratios and serum leptin concentrations in a Duroc purebred population. Pigs (n = 226 to 538) were measured for fat area ratios of carcass cross-sections at the fifth to sixth thoracic vertebrae, half body length and last thoracic vertebra using an image analysis system, and serum leptin concentration. In total, animals were genotyped for 129 markers and used for QTL analysis. For fat area ratios, four significant and 12 suggestive QTLs were detected on chromosomes 1, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12 and 13. Significant QTLs were detected on the same region of chromosome 6, which was located near a leptin receptor gene. For serum leptin concentrations, two significant and two suggestive QTLs were detected on chromosomes 6, 9, and 16, and the QTLs on chromosome 6 were also in the same region for fat area ratios.
    Animal Science Journal 03/2012; 83(3):187-93. DOI:10.1111/j.1740-0929.2011.00951.x · 0.96 Impact Factor
  • Y Uemoto · Y Soma · S Sato · M Ishida · T Shibata · H Kadowaki · E Kobayashi · K Suzuki ·
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    ABSTRACT: The fatty acid composition and melting point of fatty tissue are among the most important economic traits in pig breeding because of their influence on the eating quality of meat. Identifying the quantitative trait locus (QTL) of these traits may help reveal the genetic structure of fatty acid composition and the melting point of fatty tissue and improve meat-quality traits by marker-assisted selection. We conducted whole-genome QTL analysis for fatty acid composition and melting point of inner and outer subcutaneous fat and inter- and intramuscular fat in a purebred Duroc population. A total of 129 markers were genotyped and used for QTL analysis. For fatty acid compositions of inner and outer subcutaneous fat, three significant QTL and 17 suggestive QTL were detected on SSC2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14 and 18. For the melting point of inner and outer subcutaneous fat, two significant QTL were detected on the same region of SSC14. For fatty acid compositions of inter- and intramuscular fat, five significant QTL and 13 suggestive QTL were detected on SSC2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 14 and 15. On SSC14, significant QTL for C18:0 and C18:1 of outer subcutaneous fat and intramuscular fat, and melting point of subcutaneous fat, which had high likelihood of odds (LOD) scores (2.67-5.78), were detected in the same region. This study determined QTL affecting fatty acid composition and melting point of different fat tissues in purebred Duroc pigs.
    Animal Genetics 02/2012; 43(1):27-34. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2052.2011.02218.x · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • Y Soma · Y Uemoto · S Sato · T Shibata · H Kadowaki · E Kobayashi · K Suzuki ·
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    ABSTRACT: Most QTL detection studies in pigs have been carried out in experimental F(2) populations. However, segregation of a QTL must be confirmed within a purebred population for successful implementation of marker-assisted selection. Previously, QTL for meat quality and carcass traits were detected on SSC 7 in a Duroc purebred population. The objectives of the present study were to carry out a whole-genome QTL analysis (except for SSC 7) for meat production, meat quality, and carcass traits and to confirm the presence of segregating QTL in a Duroc purebred population. One thousand and four Duroc pigs were studied from base to seventh generation; the pigs comprised 1 closed population of a complex multigenerational pedigree such that all individuals were related. The pigs were evaluated for 6 growth traits, 7 body size traits, 8 carcass traits, 2 physiological traits, and 11 meat quality traits, and the number of pigs with phenotypes ranged from 421 to 953. A total of 119 markers were genotyped and then used for QTL analysis. We utilized a pedigree-based, multipoint variance components approach to test for linkage between QTL and the phenotypic values using a maximum likelihood method; the logarithm of odds score and QTL genotypic heritability were estimated. A total of 42 QTL with suggestive linkages and 3 QTL with significant linkages for 26 traits were detected. These included selection traits such as daily BW gain, backfat thickness, loin eye muscle area, and intramuscular fat content as well as correlated traits such as body size and meat quality traits. The present study disclosed QTL affecting growth, body size, and carcass, physiological, and meat quality traits in a Duroc purebred population.
    Journal of Animal Science 11/2010; 89(3):601-8. DOI:10.2527/jas.2010-3119 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) is a cytosolic pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that responds to muramyldipeptide (MDP), a component of peptidoglycans of gram positive and negative bacteria. NOD2 is involved in the modulation of signaling pathways for other PRRs, such as Toll-like receptors. Polymorphisms in NOD2 may evoke bowel disorders, and human Crohn's disease is significantly correlated with mis-sense insertion of the NOD2 gene. Such polymorphisms affecting ligand recognition in the NOD2 gene may also influence bowel flora in livestock, which is compromised by bowel diseases such as diarrhea. We investigated the functional variance of mis-sense polymorphisms in ligand recognition by porcine NOD2. The 1949T>C polymorphism, located in the region encoding the hinge domain of the molecule, notably diminished the functional response of porcine NOD2 to MDP. By comparison, the 2197A>C polymorphism, localized in the region corresponding to leucine-rich repeats, significantly augmented the response of porcine NOD2 to the ligand. The 1949C allele was rare among pig breeds, suggesting that this mutation is a disadvantage to pigs in their immune response to microbes. The 2197C allele, in contrast, was widely distributed among Western breeds and is most likely to be derived from wild boars in Asia. This is the first report of a causal relationship between molecular function and polymorphisms in PRRs in non-primate, non-rodent mammals. These findings suggest that the 2197C allele might confer an immune response advantage in modern pig breeds and may be a useful marker for breeding aimed at disease resistance in pigs.
    Molecular Immunology 10/2009; 47(2-3):247-52. DOI:10.1016/j.molimm.2009.09.030 · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    K Suzuki · K Inomata · K Katoh · H Kadowaki · T Shibata ·
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    ABSTRACT: Animals accumulate fat in tissues as subcutaneous, intermuscular, intramuscular, and abdominal fat. Genetic interrelationships of respective fat depositions, however, have not been examined in depth. This study estimated genetic parameters for subcutaneous, intermuscular, and abdominal fat areas of 545 Duroc purebred pigs slaughtered at 105 kg of BW. Measurements were obtained using an image analysis system for positions between the 5th and the 6th thoracic vertebra (56TV), at half body length (HBL), and at the last thoracic vertebra (LTV) of the carcass. Moreover, serum leptin, which is a hormone product that is synthesized and predominantly expressed by adipocytes, was measured to determine if serum concentrations of leptin are useful as physiological predictors of fat accumulation in pigs. The heritability estimate of all fat area percentage at the HBL (0.70 +/- 0.03) was significantly greater than at the 56TV (0.53 +/- 0.03) or the LTV (0.55 +/- 0.04). Furthermore, the heritability estimate of subcutaneous fat areas at the HBL (0.71 +/- 0.04) was greater than at the 56TV (0.56 +/- 0.04) or LTV (0.60 +/- 0.03). Moreover, high heritabilities were estimated for ultrasound backfat thickness (BF; 0.72 +/- 0.03) on the left side at the position of HBL, intramuscular fat content of the loin (0.51 +/- 0.03), the seam fat score (SFS; 0.49 +/- 0.04), and the serum leptin concentration (0.62 +/- 0.05). Increased genetic correlations of BF with the fat area percentage of subcutaneous fat and all fat at 56TV (0.90 +/- 0.03 and 0.91 +/- 0.03), at HBL (0.88 +/- 0.03 and 0.94 +/- 0.01), and at LTV (0.88 +/- 0.03 and 0.90 +/- 0.02) were estimated. The genetic correlations of serum leptin concentration with the percentage of subcutaneous fat area and all fat areas at each position were also high (0.72 to 0.82 and 0.83 to 0.84, respectively). These results suggest that BF and leptin are good indicators of selection for decreasing fat deposition. Increased genetic correlation of the SFS with intermuscular fat area at 56TV (0.74) suggests that SFS is an effective indicator for decreasing intermuscular fat. The genetic correlation between the leptin concentration and feed conversion ratio was high (0.75 +/- 0.04). Results of this study indicate that the combination of BF and serum leptin concentration is a valuable indicator that can be incorporated into selection programs to improve carcass quality and feed efficiency in pigs.
    Journal of Animal Science 04/2009; 87(7):2209-15. DOI:10.2527/jas.2008-0866 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    M. A. Hoque · H. Kadowaki · T. Shibata · T. Oikawa · K. Suzuki ·
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    ABSTRACT: Residual feed intake (RFI) represents the deviation of the actual feed consumption of an animal from that predicted from combination of growth traits. Data on 1642 Duroc (380 boars, 868 gilts, and 394 barrows) pigs in seven generations were used to estimate genetic parameters for measures of RFI, daily feed intake (FI), average daily gain (ADG), backfat (BF), and loin eye area (LEA). Four measures of RFI were estimated from models that included initial test age and weight, and ADG (RFI1); initial test age and weight, ADG, and BF (RFI2); initial test age and weight, ADG and LEA (RFI3); and initial test age and weight, ADG, BF, and LEA (RFI4). Genetic parameters were estimated using an animal model by the REML method. Heritability estimates for measures of RFI were moderate (ranged from 0.22 to 0.38). The corresponding estimates for FI, ADG, and LEA were also moderate (ranging from 0.45 to 0.49), while the estimate for BF was high (0.72). Genetic correlations of FI with ADG (0.84) and BF (0.67) were high. LEA negatively correlated with FI (−0.42), ADG (−0.11) and BF (−0.44). Genetic correlations of BF with measures of RFI were higher when BF was not included in the estimation of RFI (0.77 with RFI1 and 0.76 with RFI3 vs. 0.11 with RFI2 and 0.07 with RFI4). Genetic correlations of LEA with measures of RFI were all negative (ranged from −0.30 to −0.60). Selection for ADG, LEA, BF, and intramuscular fat has resulted in small but favourable genetic changes in measures of RFI. Phenotypic correlations between measures of RFI were zero, and genetic correlations between them were low (0.17 to 0.23). FI was strongly correlated with all the measures of RFI, both genetically (ranged from 0.56 to 0.77) and phenotypically (ranged from 0.56 to 0.66). The results suggested that selection against RFI may cause a reduction in FI. BF should also decrease, and LEA should increase. The amount of change in BF or LEA would vary depending on whether RFI was adjusted for BF.
    Livestock Science 03/2009; 121(1):45-49. DOI:10.1016/j.livsci.2008.05.016 · 1.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pathogens localized extracellularly or incorporated into endosomes are recognized mainly by Toll-like receptors, whereas pathogens and pathogen-derived molecules that invade into the cytoplasm of host cells typically are recognized by intracellular pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG)-like helicases (RLHs) and nucleotide-binding oligmerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs). RIG-I and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5), which belong to the RLH family, recognize viral genomic RNA, whereas NOD2, a member of the NLR family, responds to microbial peptidoglycans. These receptors may play an important role in pig opportunistic infectious diseases, such as pneumonia and diarrhea, which markedly impair livestock productivity, such that polymorphisms of these receptor genes are potential targets of pig breeding to increase disease resistance. Here, we report single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in porcine DDX58, IFIH1, and NOD2, which encode RIG-I, MDA5, and NOD2, respectively. Interestingly, compared with DDX58 and IFIH1, NOD2 abounded in nonsynonymous SNPs both throughout the coding sequence and in sequences encoding domains important for ligand recognition, such as helicase domains for RIG-I and MDA5 and leucine-rich repeats in NOD2. These differences in the distribution of SNPs in intracellular PRRs may parallel the diversity of their ligands, which include nucleic acids and peptidoglycans.
    Immunogenetics 02/2009; 61(2):153-60. DOI:10.1007/s00251-008-0350-y · 2.23 Impact Factor
  • M. A. Hoque · H. Kadowaki · T. Shibata · K. Suzuki ·
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    ABSTRACT: Direct and maternal genetic parameters for production traits in 1,642 pigs and maternal genetic correlations among production (1,642 pigs) and feed efficiency (380 boars) traits were estimated in 7 generations of a Duroc population. Traits studied were daily gain (DG), intramuscular fat (IMF), loineye area (LEA), backfat thickness (BF), daily feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and residual feed intake (RFI). The RFI was calculated as the difference between actual and predicted feed intake. The predicted feed intake was estimated by adjusting the initial test weight, DG and BF. Data for production traits were analyzed using four alternative animal models (including direct, direct+maternal permanent environmental, or direct+maternal genetic+maternal permanent environmental effects). Direct heritability estimates from the model including direct and all maternal effects were 0.41?0.04 for DG, 0.27?0.04 for IMF, 0.52?0.06 for LEA and 0.64?0.04 for BF. Estimated maternal heritabilities ranged from 0.04?0.04 to 0.15?0.05 for production traits. Antagonistic relationships were observed between direct and maternal genetic effects (ram) for LEA (-0.21). Maternal genetic correlations of feed efficiency traits with FI (rg of FI with FCR and RFI were 0.73?0.06 and 0.90?0.05, respectively) and LEA (rg of LEA with FCR and RFI were -0.48?0.05 to -0.61?0.05, respectively) were favorable. The estimated moderate genetic correlations between direct and maternal genetic effects for IMF and LEA indicated that maternal effects has an important role in these traits, and should be accounted for in the genetic evaluation system.
    Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 07/2008; 21(7). DOI:10.5713/ajas.2008.70641 · 0.54 Impact Factor
  • M A Hoque · H Kadowaki · T Shibata · T Oikawa · K Suzuki ·
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic parameters for the efficiency of gain traits on 380 boars and the genetic relationships with component traits were estimated in 1,642 pigs (380 boars, 868 gilts, and 394 barrows) in 7 generations of a Duroc population. The efficiency of gain traits included the feed conversion ratio (FCR) and residual feed intake (RFI) and their component traits, ADG, metabolic BW (MWT), and daily feed intake (FI). The RFI was calculated as the difference between the actual and expected FI. The expected FI was predicted by the nutritional requirement and by the residual of phenotypic (RFI(phe)) and genetic (RFI(gen)) regressions from the multivariate analysis for FI on MWT and ADG. The means for RFI(phe) and RFI(gen) were close to zero, and the mean for nutritional RFI was negative (-0.11 kg/d). The traits studied were moderately heritable (ranging from 0.27 to 0.53). The genetic and phenotypic correlations between ADG and FI were moderate to high, whereas the genetic correlation between MWT and FI was moderate, and the phenotypic correlation between them was low. The corresponding correlations between RFI(phe) and RFI(gen) were > 0.95, implying that they can be regarded as the same trait. The genetic and phenotypic correlations of FCR with measures of RFI were high but lower than unity. The RFI(phe) was phenotypically independent of its component traits, MWT (r(p) = 0.01) and ADG (r(p) = 0.03). The RFI(gen) was genetically independent of MWT (r(g) = -0.04), whereas there was a weak genetic relationship (r(g) = 0.15) between RFI(gen) and ADG. Residual FI was more heritable than FCR, and the genetic and phenotypic correlations of RFI(phe) and RFI(gen) with FI were positive and stronger than that of FCR with FI. These results provide evidence that RFI(phe) or RFI(gen) should be included in breeding programs for Duroc pigs to make genetic improvement in the efficiency of gain.
    Journal of Animal Science 08/2007; 85(8):1873-9. DOI:10.2527/jas.2006-730 · 2.11 Impact Factor

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  • 1997-2013
    • Tokyo Metropolitan University
      • Department of Physics
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1998
    • Chiba University
      • Department of Physics
      Chiba-shi, Chiba-ken, Japan
  • 1995-1998
    • The University of Tokyo
      • • Institute for Solid State Physics
      • • Division of Internal Medicine
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 1988-1992
    • National Institutes of Health
      • National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 1990
    • The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
      Maryland, United States