Elias H Touma

Saint Joseph University, Lebanon, Beyrouth, Beyrouth, Lebanon

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Publications (4)39.62 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, we determined the frequency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in Cyprus using two different procedures in two separate adult population groups: a semiquantitative fluorescence test on blood spotted on filter paper and a quantitative spectrophotometric test on liquid blood. The frequency of G6PD deficiency among healthy adult males was found to be 5.1% using the semiquantitative procedure and 6.4% using the quantitative procedure. Neither method was able to detect all the expected female heterozygotes (5.3% and 47.1% of the expected number, respectively). A total of 21 male hemizygotes, 1 female homozygote and 9 female heterozygotes that tested positive for G6PD deficiency were studied at the molecular level. All 32 chromosomes were genotyped and five different mutations were identified. The Mediterranean mutation in exon 6 (563C-->T) (Ser188Phe) was found to be the most common variant in the Cypriot population, accounting for 52.6% of the deficient alleles. In the remaining chromosomes, four different mutations were identified: three known mutations, Kaiping 1388G-->A (Arg463His), Chatham 1003G-->A (Ala335Thr) and Acrokorinthos 463C-->G (His155Asp), and one previously undescribed mutation in exon 3, 148C-->T (Pro50Ser), which we called G6PD Kambos. We conclude that the frequency of G6PD deficiency in Cypriot males is 6.4%, and that this deficiency is the result of several different mutations. Although all the individuals carrying the Mediterranean variant can be detected using a semiquantitative screening method, a quantitative enzyme measurement is required to detect the G6PD variants with less severe enzyme deficiencies, while the most appropriate method for heterozygote detection is DNA analysis.
    Blood Cells Molecules and Diseases 07/2004; 33(1):25-30. DOI:10.1016/j.bcmd.2004.03.004 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The frequencies of low-activity alleles of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in humans are highly correlated with the prevalence of malaria. These "deficiency" alleles are thought to provide reduced risk from infection by the Plasmodium parasite and are maintained at high frequency despite the hemopathologies that they cause. Haplotype analysis of "A-" and "Med" mutations at this locus indicates that they have evolved independently and have increased in frequency at a rate that is too rapid to be explained by random genetic drift. Statistical modeling indicates that the A- allele arose within the past 3840 to 11,760 years and the Med allele arose within the past 1600 to 6640 years. These results support the hypothesis that malaria has had a major impact on humans only since the introduction of agriculture within the past 10,000 years and provide a striking example of the signature of selection on the human genome.
    Science 08/2001; 293(5529):455-62. DOI:10.1126/science.1061573 · 33.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A case of holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS) deficiency of late-infantile onset is presented and compared with the common manifestations in previously reported patients. Our patient had her first episode at 20 months followed by recurrent episodes of metabolic acidosis with ketolactic acidosis responding dramatically to a short trial of biotin and thiamin. The main clinical findings were metabolic acidosis with alteration in consciousness and respiration, which are in accordance with findings in earlier reported patients with both neonatal-onset and infantile-onset forms of HCS deficiency. The diagnosis of HCS deficiency was made only at the age of 5.5 years during a metabolic work-up when organic acid analysis was performed. This revealed elevated urinary excretion of the characteristics metabolites, 3-hydroxypropionate, 3-hydroxyisovalerate and methylcitrate, suggesting multiple carboxylase deficiency (MCD). MCD was demonstrated in fibroblasts of our patient, but only when the cells were grown in a medium with a very low biotin concentration of 10(-10) mol/L. Kinetics studies of reactivation of deficient propionyl-CoA carboxylase activity with biotin in intact fibroblasts revealed a midly decreased reactivation rate and only a 3-5 times higher biotin requirement as compared with controls. These findings are in accordance with a mild form of HCS deficiency. This child responded to 10 mg/day of biotin with normal lymphocyte carboxylase activities and adequate school performance at 10 years of age.
    Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 05/1999; 22(2):115-22. DOI:10.1023/A:1005485500096 · 3.37 Impact Factor