[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG), urea, and calcium hydroxide as tannin-inactivating agents, on the chemical composition, polyphenolic compounds content, and rumen degradability of ensiled pomegranate seed pulp (PSP). The experimental treatments were as: (1) PSP ensiled without additive, (2) PSP ensiled with PEG, (3) PSP ensiled with urea, and (4) PSP ensiled with calcium hydroxide. The results indicated that urea and calcium hydroxide addition reduced (P < 0.001) the total polyphenolic compounds (TP) and total tannin (TT) contents of PSP, whereas the condensed tannin (CT) content was not affected by the additives. The hydrolyzable tannin (HT) content of PSP was reduced (P < 0.05) with calcium hydroxide addition, and the levels of punicallagin A and ellagic acid (EA), which are potent antioxidants, were decreased (P < 0.02). PEG and calcium hydroxide additives decreased the rumen and total tract digestibility of the DM of PSP (P < 0.006 and P < 0.02, respectively). Urea appeared to be the most suitable chemical agent for ensiling PSP because it decreased the TP and TT contents of PSP, did not affect punicallagin A and EA content, and improved rumen and total tract digestibility of the DM of PSP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of partial replacing of cereal grains of diet with pomegranate seed pulp (PSP) on performance, nutrient digestibility and antioxidant capacity of fattening Mahabadi goat kids. Thirty-two Mahabadi male goat kids, 4–5 months of age and 16.5 ± 2.8 kg body weight (BW) were assigned to four dietary treatments: (1) diet without PSP (control), (2) diet containing 5% of PSP (PSP5), (3) diet containing 10% of PSP (PSP10), and (4) diet containing 15% of PSP (PSP15) (DM basis). The kids were slaughtered after 84 d of feeding trial and antioxidant capacity was measured in the liver and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle samples. Dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were not affected by diets (P > 0.05). Feed cost per kg of hot and cold carcass weight decreased with increasing levels of PSP in diet (P < 0.05). Addition of PSP to diet decreased kidney fat (P < 0.05) and tended to increase ether extract (EE) apparent digestibility (P = 0.07). The LL muscle (P < 0.05), liver (P = 0.08) and plasma (P < 0.05) samples from kids fed PSP15 displayed a greater antioxidant capacity than kids fed control diet. No significant difference was found in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity among the groups (P > 0.05), but the malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the LL muscle, liver and plasma decreased (P < 0.05) in PSP15 group when compared with control group. The results of this study indicated that partial replacing of dietary cereal grains with PSP did not affect growth performance, carcass traits and nutrient digestibility, while decreased cost of meat production and improved the antioxidant capacity of kids.
Small Ruminant Research 12/2014; 123(2-3). DOI:10.1016/j.smallrumres.2014.12.001 · 1.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of adding different chemical agents including urea, calcium hydroxide and polyethylene glycol to ensiled pomegranate seed pulp (PSP). The PSP which is a by-product in the industrial decoction of pomegranate, contains large amounts of oil (with some varieties having total lipid contents on a dry matter basis ranging from 66 to 193 g/kg DM) and other nutrients which are valuable in meeting the nutritional requirements of ruminants, but it also contain some tannins that may have adverse effects on animal performance. There are several methods of tannins deactivation that ensiling of feeds along with different chemicals are among the most effective approaches. The PSP (containing 475g/kg DM) was ensiled within plastic buckets without any additive or along with urea, calcium hydroxide and polyethylene glycol at a rate of 20, 20 and 90 g/kg DM of PSP, respectively. Silos were opened after 60 days and total polyphenolics (TP), total tannins (TT) and condensed tannin (CT) concentrations were measured on dried samples. The data were analyzed as a completely randomized design with 4 treatments each by 4 replicates using SAS software. The results showed adding urea significantly (p<0.01) reduced the TP (22.9 vs 33.4 g/kg DM) and TT (7.3 vs 12.0 g/kg DM) content but had no effect on CT (0.97 vs 1.1) content. Calcium hydroxide also significantly (p<0.01) lowered the TP (8.2 vs 33.4 g/kg DM) and TT (1.0 vs 12.0 g/kg DM) content of PSP but polyethylene glycol was not affect the TP, TT and CT content of PSP and is most likely due to kind of tannin in PSP which is of hydrolizable kind.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of feeding pomegranate seed pulp (PSP) on milk yield, milk composition, fatty acid profiles of milk fat, and blood metabolites were examined in this study. During a pretrial period, 27 multiparous southern Khorasan (Iran) cross-bred goats were fed a similar diet and dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk composition were recorded. After adaptation and based on pretrial records, the goats were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 experimental diets and were housed in individual stalls. Experimental diets included 0, 6, or 12% of PSP (dry matter basis) and were fed as total mixed rations ad libitum for a 45-d period. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Supplementation of PSP did not affect dry matter intake or average daily gain of goats. Milk yield was not affected by inclusion of PSP in the diet. Milk fat concentration of goats fed diets with 6 and 12% PSP increased, but milk fat yield, milk protein concentration, and milk solids-not-fat concentration of goats were not affected by diets. Feeding PSP did not affect blood glucose, cholesterol, urea N, triglyceride, or lipoproteins. Feeding goats a diet containing 12% PSP modified the milk fatty acid profile, including conjugated linoleic, punicic, and vaccenic acids.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A mechanistic lactation model, based on a theory of mammary cell proliferation and cell death, was studied and compared to the equation of Wood (1967). Lactation curves of British Holstein Friesian cows (176 curves), Spanish Churra sheep (40 curves) and Spanish Murciano–Granadina goats (30 curves) were used for model evaluation. Both models were fitted in their original form using non-linear least squares estimation. The parameters were compared among species and among parity groups within species.
The Journal of Agricultural Science 05/2010; 148(03):249 - 262. DOI:10.1017/S0021859609990578 · 0.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Descriptions of entire lactations were investigated using six mathematical equations. comprising the differentials of four growth functions (logistic. Gompertz, Schumacher and Morgan) and two other equations (Wood and Dijkstra). The data contained monthly milk yield records from 70 first, 70 second and 75 third parity Iranian Holstein cows. Indicators of fit were model behavior, statistical evaluation and biologically meaningful parameter estimates and lactation features. Analysis of variance with equation, parity and their interaction as factors and with cows as replicates was performed to compare goodness of fit of the equations. The interaction of equation and parity was not significant for any statistics, which showed that there vas no tendency For one equation to fit a given parity better than other equations. Although model behaviour analysis showed better performance of growth functions than the Wood and Dijkstra equations in filling the individual lactation curves, statistical evaluation revealed that there was no significant difference between file goodness of fit of the different equations. Evaluation of lactation features showed that the Dijkstra equation was able to estimate the initial milk yield and peak yield more accurately than the other equations. Overall evaluation of the different equations demonstrated the potential of the differentials of simple empirical growth functions used in file Current study as equations for fitting monthly milk records of Holstein dairy cattle.
The Journal of Agricultural Science 12/2008; 146(06). DOI:10.1017/S0021859608008101 · 0.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of heat processing (roasting and steeping) on nitrogen (N) fractionations, ruminal degradation and intestinal digestibility of N and amino acids (AA) in two Iranian whole soybean cultivars (Sahar and Williams) were determined using two ruminally fistulated and two intestinally cannulated Holstein steers by nylon bag techniques. The seeds were roasted at 140 to 145 °C using a drum roaster. A fraction of the seeds were cooled immediately and the rest were held in isolated barrels for 45 min (steeping). The non-protein N (NPN) and buffer soluble N (BSN) fractions in heat processed soybeans were found to be reduced significantly (P
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current study evaluated responses of early lactation Iranian Holstein cows to feeding roasted whole soybeans (SB) plus cottonseed meal (CSM), raw SB plus CSM and soybean meal (SBM) plus cottonseed (CS) in diets with lucerne hay and maize silage as the primary forage source. Treatments consisted of a total mixed ration that included 387 g forage/kg, supplemented with: (1) 120 g roasted SB/kg and 82 g CSM/kg, (2) 120 g raw SB/kg and 82 g CSM/kg, or (3) 120 g SBM/kg and 82 g CS/kg on a dry matter (DM) basis. Diets were offered to 14 multiparous Holstein cows (body weight=617.0 kg, days in milk=16.9) that were assigned randomly to one of three experimental diets for a 45-day trial. Dry matter intake (DMI) was significantly higher for the roasted SB plus CSM diet than for the raw SB plus CSM diet but the difference between the SB plus CSM diets and SBM plus CS was not significant. Yields of milk and 35 g fat-corrected milk (FCM)/kg and milk fat were significantly higher for the roasted SB plus CSM diet than for raw SB plus CSM and also for the SB plus CSM diets than for SBM plus CS. Milk protein concentration was significantly increased by about 2.0 g/kg by the SBM plus CS diet, but milk protein yield was the same for cows fed SBM plus CS, roasted SB plus CSM and raw SB plus CSM diets. Rumen ammonia N, plasma urea N (PUN) and milk urea N (MUN) concentrations were lower when the roasted SB plus CSM diet was fed. Ruminal pH and plasma glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were not affected by dietary treatments. Plasma concentrations of essential amino acids (EAA), except Leu and Phe, were higher in cows fed the roasted SB plus CSM diet than in those fed raw SB plus CSM. The cows fed the SBM plus CS diet had the same concentrations of EAA, except Phe, as cows fed SB plus CSM diets. For diets based on lucerne hay and maize silage as the primary forage source, roasting of SB provides additional benefits over raw SB.
The Journal of Agricultural Science 09/2007; 145(05):529 - 537. DOI:10.1017/S0021859607007125 · 0.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of different Effective Rumen Degradable Protein (ERDP) to Fermentable Metabolizable Energy (FME) on early lactating cow responses was investigated. Total tract digestibility of organic matter of various feedstuffs including barely grain, corn grain, wheat bran, cottonseed meal, soybean meal, sugar beet pulp, alfalfa hay, cotton seeds, corn silage and fish meal was determined using in situ technique. These data were used to predict FME of the feedstuffs. Two diets were provided with different ERDP/FME ratio (9.7 and 10.7 g MJ -1). The diets fed to fourteen early lactating Holstein cows averaging 21?16 Days In Milk (DIM) and 32?9 Kg d -1 milk yield for seven weeks, using a completely randomized design. Dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition were measured weekly. Blood metabolites including glucose and urea nitrogen were measured in weeks 4 and 7. Rumen fluid NH3-N was recorded in the 3rd week of the experiment. Dry matter intake was significantly (p-1 than those fed ERDP/FME = 10.7 g MJ -1 (21 vs. 21.6, respectively). Milk yield was significantly (p-1 compared with those fed ERDP/FME = 10.7 g MJ -1 (35.2 vs. 32.3, respectively). Milk composition, blood metabolites and rumen fluid NH3-N were not significantly affected by the treatments (p>0.05).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Different mathematical models were evaluated as candidates to describe ruminal dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) degradation kinetics of raw and roasted whole soybeans from data obtained using the in situ polyester bag technique. Three models were used: segmented with up to 3 straight lines (model I), negative exponential (model II), and rational function or inverse polynomial (linear over linear; model III). A fourth, a generalized sigmoidal model, was also considered but the data did not exhibit sigmoidicity, so it was dropped from the analysis. Lagged and nonlagged versions of each model were fitted to the DM and CP disappearance curves of 6 different feeds (2 cultivars of raw or differently heat-processed whole soybean). The comparison between lagged and nonlagged versions of each model, based on statistical and behavior characteristics, showed for all models that the discrete lag parameter did not significantly improve the fit to ruminal DM and CP disappearance curves. The comparison between models (using nonlagged equations) showed that models I and II gave better goodness-of-fit than model III. Based on biological characteristics, models II and III underestimated the undegradable DM and CP fractions, but there was no significant difference between models for extent of degradation.