A M Basile

University of Florence, Florens, Tuscany, Italy

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Publications (18)87.79 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an inherited cerebral small vessel disease that may lead to disability and whose phenotype modulators are still unknown. In the MIcrovascular LEukoencephalopathy Study (MILES), we assessed the influence of vascular risk factors and the effect of different cognitive domains (memory, psychomotor speed and executive functions) performances on functional abilities in CADASIL in comparison with age-related leukoencephalopathy (ARL). We evaluated 51 CADASIL patients (mean age 50.3 ± 13.8 years, 47.1% males) and 68 ARL patients (70.6 ± 7.4 years, 58.8% males). Considering vascular risk factors, after adjustment for age, CADASIL patients had higher mean BMI values than ARL patients. Stroke history frequency was similar in the two groups. After adjustment for age, more CADASIL patients were disabled (impaired on ≥2 items of the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale) in comparison with ARL patients, and CADASIL patients had worse functional performances evaluated with the Disability Assessment for Dementia (DAD) scale. In CADASIL patients, hypertension was related to both DAD score and disability. The cognitive profile of CADASIL and ARL patients was similar, but on a stepwise linear regression analysis functional performances were mainly associated with the memory index (β = -0.418, P < 0.003) in CADASIL patients and the executive function index (β = -0.321, P = 0.028) in ARL. This study suggests that hypertension may contribute to functional impairment in CADASIL and that memory impairment has a large influence on functional decline in contrast with that observed in a sample of subjects with ARL.
    European Journal of Neurology 07/2013; 21(1). DOI:10.1111/ene.12241 · 4.06 Impact Factor

  • Journal of the Neurological Sciences 08/2009; 283(1):272-273. DOI:10.1016/j.jns.2009.02.128 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The corpus callosum (CC) is the most important structure involved in the transmission of interhemispheric information. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential correlation between regional age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) and atrophy of CC in elderly subjects. In 578 subjects with ARWMC from the Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) study, the cross-sectional area of the CC was automatically segmented on the normalized midsagittal MR imaging section and subdivided into 5 regions. The ARWMC volumes were measured quantitatively by using a semiautomated technique and segmented into 6 brain regions. Significant correlation between the area of the rostrum and splenium regions of the CC and the ARWMC load in most brain regions was identified. This correlation persisted after correction for global atrophy. Increasing loads of ARWMC volume were significantly correlated with atrophy of the CC and its subregions in nondisabled elderly subjects with leukoaraiosis. However, the pattern of correlation between CC subregions and ARWMC was not specifically related to the topographic location of ARWMC. The results suggest that ARWMC may lead to a gradual loss of CC tissue.
    American Journal of Neuroradiology 07/2008; 29(8):1498-504. DOI:10.3174/ajnr.A1169 · 3.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Corpus callosum (CC) is the main tract connecting the hemispheres, but the clinical significance of CC atrophy is poorly understood. The aim of this work was to investigate clinical and functional correlates of CC atrophy in subjects with age-related white matter changes (ARWMC). In 569 elderly subjects with ARWMC from the Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) study, the CC was segmented on the normalised mid-sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) slice and subdivided into five regions. Correlations between the CC areas and subjective memory complaints, mini mental state examination (MMSE) score, history of depression, geriatric depression scale (GDS) score, subjective gait difficulty, history of falls, walking speed, and total score on the short physical performance battery (SPPB) were analyzed. Significant correlations between CC atrophy and MMSE, SPPB, and walking speed were identified, and the CC areas were smaller in subjects with subjective gait difficulty. The correlations remained significant after correction for ARWMC grade. In conclusion, CC atrophy was independently associated with impaired global cognitive and motor function in subjects with ARWMC.
    Neurobiology of aging 07/2007; 28(6):955-63. DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2006.04.008 · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Based on recent findings on the association between vascular risk factors and hippocampal atrophy, we hypothesized that hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) are associated with medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) in subjects without disability, independent of the severity of white matter hyperintensities. In the Leukoaraiosis And DISability in the elderly (LADIS) study, we investigated the relationships between DM, hypertension, blood pressure and MTA in 582 subjects, stratified by white matter hyperintensity severity, using multinomial logistic regression. MTA was visually scored for the left and right medial temporal lobe (score 0-4), and meaned. Mean age was 73.5 years (sd 5.1), 54% was female. Of the subjects, 15% had DM, and 70% had a history of hypertension. The likelihood of having MTA score 3 was significantly higher in subjects with DM (OR 2.9; 95% CI: 1.1-7.8) compared with an MTA score of 0 (no atrophy). The odds ratio for MTA score 2 was not significantly increased (OR 1.8; CI: 0.9-4). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and a history of hypertension were not associated with MTA. There was no interaction between DM and hypertension. Stratification on white matter hyperintensities (WMH) did not alter the associations. Our study strengthens the observation that MTA is associated with DM, independently of the amount of small vessel disease as reflected by WMH.
    Diabetic Medicine 03/2007; 24(2):166-71. DOI:10.1111/j.1464-5491.2007.02049.x · 3.12 Impact Factor
  • Article: P2-295

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    ABSTRACT: To assess the associations of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) with cognitive function in a large group of independently functioning elderly people. Data were drawn from the multicentre, multinational leukoaraiosis and disability (LADIS) project which is studying prospectively the role of WMH as an independent predictor of the transition to disability in non-disabled elderly people. In all, 639 participants were enrolled in the LADIS study. For the present analysis, data on 581 subjects were available. Cognitive function was assessed by the mini-mental state examination (MMSE). Visual ratings of WMH and MTA were undertaken on magnetic resonance images (MRI). The presence of either severe WMH or MTA was associated with a modest but non-significant increase in frequency of mild cognitive deficits (severe WMH: odds ratio (OR) = 1.9 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0 to 3.7); MTA present: OR = 1.5 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8)). However, subjects with the combination of MTA and severe WMH had a more than fourfold increase in frequency of mild cognitive deficits (OR = 4.1 (95% CI, 2.3 to 7.4)). Analysis of variance with post hoc Bonferroni t tests showed that subjects with both MTA and severe WMH performed worse on MMSE than those with either no MRI abnormality or a single MRI abnormality (p<0.05). These results provide further evidence for the combined involvement of both Alzheimer type pathology and vascular pathology in the earliest stages of cognitive decline and suggest an additive effect of WMH and MTA.
    Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 12/2005; 76(11):1497-500. DOI:10.1136/jnnp.2005.064998 · 6.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a genetically transmitted cerebrovascular disease. Typically, the first clinical manifestation is migraine and the full clinical spectrum of the disease with recurrent strokes of the subcortical type, cognitive, and mood disorders is seen during the fourth and fifth decades of life. Vascular risk factors are usually absent in CADASIL patients and the diagnosis of the disease is particularly suspected in young adults with cerebrovascular events of unknown cause, diffuse leukoencephalopathy on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, and a history of cerebrovascular diseases or dementia in many family members. We describe three Italian CADASIL patients who presented to medical attention for cerebrovascular events occurred after the age of 55 and had, in addition to hypertension and hyperlipidemia, thrombophilic risk factors such as hyperhomocysteinemia, elevated levels of lipoprotein(a), and antiphospholipid antibodies. Symptoms possibly related to cortical involvement, such as dysphasia and visual field deficits, were reported by two of these patients. We conclude that a diagnosis of CADASIL should not be disregarded in patients with vascular risk factors and presenting with symptoms not immediately referable to subcortical damage at ages more advanced than commonly reported.
    European Journal of Neurology 12/2004; 11(11):782-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-1331.2004.00915.x · 4.06 Impact Factor
  • D Inzitari · M Lamassa · L Pantoni · A.M. BASILE ·
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular dementia (VD) has not to be considered anymore as a univocal nosologic entity. Based on different types of lesions, distinct subtypes of vascular dementia may be identified, each caused by diverse pathophysiological mechanisms. Among these subtypes subcortical vascular dementia (SVD) may represent a well-defined entity in terms of pathophysiology, clinical features and neuroradiological aspects. The picture is characterized by history of arterial hypertension and other vascular risk factors, clinical symptoms and signs including, besides dementia, dysfunctions related to subcortical-frontal circuit damages, and extensive confluent or diffuse abnormalities in the subcortical brain white matter, small deep infarcts as revealed by computed tomographic (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. The homogeneity of this clinical-pathological picture is essential for the success of controlled clinical trials in the field of vascular dementia.
    Archives of gerontology and geriatrics. Supplement 02/2004; 9(9):229-34. DOI:10.1016/j.archger.2004.04.032

  • 29th International Stroke Conference; 01/2004
  • L Pantoni · A M Basile · M Romanelli · C Piccini · C Sarti · P Nencini · D Inzitari ·
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    ABSTRACT: An internal capsule genu infarct has been rarely reported to cause cognitive impairment and behavioral changes. This clinical picture can be explained on anatomical and functional basis because important subcortical-cortical pathways traverse the internal capsule genu. We report 2 previously non-demented patients who developed acute confusional state, abulia, and moderate cognitive decline after the occurrence of an infarct in the capsular genu. Clinical, neuropsychological, and MRI evaluation at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Abulia and cognitive impairment were still present 1 year after stroke. In 1 patient there were associated multiple lacunar infarcts and leukoaraiosis. In the other an old small left frontal infarct was also present. In both moderate cortical atrophy co-existed. We hypothesize that co-existing lesions, possibly associated with a sub-clinical reduction of cognitive functions, facilitate the development of a persistent clinically evident mental deficit after the occurrence of an infarct in the capsular genu.
    Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 10/2001; 104(3):185-90. DOI:10.1034/j.1600-0404.2001.00370.x · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The majority of studies on neuropsychological complications after cardiac surgery used the raw variation of selective tests scores to define the occurrence of cognitive decline. We prospectively estimated the frequency of cognitive impairment after cardiac surgery, with a particular emphasis on persistent and clinically relevant cognitive decline. Possible baseline and operative predictors were also evaluated. An extensive neuropsychological battery was administered to 110 patients (mean age 64.1+/-9.4 years; 70.9% males) undergoing cardiac surgery before and 6 months after the operation. After evaluating the variations in the cognitive performances, two independent neuropsychologists ranked the patients as unchanged-improved, mildly-moderately deteriorated, or severely deteriorated, using a global and functionally oriented judgement. The degree of the impairment was determined in relation to its impact on everyday life activities. Ten patients (9.1%) were ranked as severely deteriorated, 22 (20%) as mildly-moderately deteriorated, and 78 (70.9%) as unchanged-improved. Cognitively impaired patients were older (p=0.031), more often females (p=0.005), with a low education level (p=0.013). At multivariate analysis, female gender (odds ratio (OR) 6.14, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.16-17.50), baseline use of beta-blockers (OR 4.55, 95% CI 1.30-15.92), and PaO2 at arrival in intensive care unit (OR for 1 mm Hg increment 1.012, 95% CI 1.004-1.020) were significant predictors of cognitive impairment of any degree. Positive predictors of severe cognitive impairment were history of hypertension (OR 5.33, 95% CI 1.03-27.64) and PaO2 at arrival intensive care unit (OR for 1 mm Hg increment 1.020, 95% CI 1.006-1.035), while education was protective (OR per year of increment 0.53, 95% CI 0.31-0.90). A considerable proportion of cardiac surgery patients may undergo clinically relevant cognitive impairment. The knowledge of variables influencing cognitive outcome is essential for the adoption of preventive measures.
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences 08/2001; 188(1-2):85-93. DOI:10.1016/S0022-510X(01)00554-8 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of atrial fibrillation (AF) as a determinant of stroke outcome is not well established. Studies focusing on this topic relied on relatively small samples of patients, scarcely representative of the older age groups. We aimed at evaluating clinical characteristics, care, and outcome of stroke associated with AF in a large European sample. In a European Concerted Action involving 7 countries, 4462 patients hospitalized for first-in-a-lifetime stroke were evaluated for demographics, risk factors, clinical presentation, resource use, and 3-month survival, disability (Barthel Index), and handicap (Rankin scale). AF was present in 803 patients (18.0%). AF patients, compared with those without AF, were older, were more frequently female, and more often had experienced a previous myocardial infarction; they were less often diabetics, alcohol consumers, and smokers (all P:<0.001). At 3 months, 32.8% of the AF patients were dead compared with 19.9% of the non-AF patients (P:<0.001). With control for baseline variables, AF increased by almost 50% the probability of remaining disabled (multivariate odds ratio 1.43, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.80) or handicapped (multivariate odds ratio 1.51, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.02). Before stroke, only 8.4% of AF patients were on anticoagulants. The chance of being anticoagulated was reduced by 4% per year of increasing age. AF patients underwent CT scan and other diagnostic procedures less frequently and received less physiotherapy or occupational therapy. Stroke associated with AF has a poor prognosis in terms of death and function. Prevention and care of stroke with AF is a major challenge for European health systems.
    Stroke 02/2001; 32(2):392-8. DOI:10.1161/01.STR.32.2.392 · 5.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral damage remains one of the hazards related to cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. The use of biochemical markers of cerebral injury may be of practical value. We investigated the plasma release patterns of S-100 protein and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) during the intervention and their relationship with the development of neuropsychological deficits assessed 6 months after the intervention in 16 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Both S-100 and NSE significantly increased peri- and postoperatively. Significant correlations were found between values measured at several time points and impaired performance in a few tests at the 6-month follow-up. A stratification into two age subgroups led to the hypothesis that age might have a confounding or a modifying effect on the association between S-100 and NSE levels, and cognitive impairment.
    European Neurology 02/2001; 45(3):151-9. DOI:10.1159/000052114 · 1.36 Impact Factor
  • P Nencini · A M Basile · C Sarti · D Inzitari ·

    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 09/2000; 284(7):832-3. DOI:10.1001/jama.284.7.832 · 35.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The oldest old represent the fastest-growing segment of the elderly population in developed countries. Knowledge of age-specific aspects of stroke is essential to establish diagnostic and therapeutic pathways and to set up prevention and rehabilitation programs. We sought to evaluate stroke features and functional outcome in patients aged >/=80 years compared with the younger age groups. In a European Union Concerted Action involving 7 countries, 4499 patients hospitalized for first-in-a-lifetime stroke were evaluated for demographics, risk factors, clinical presentation, resource use, and 3-month disability (Barthel Index) and handicap (Rankin Scale). Overall, 3141 patients (69.8%) were aged <80 years, and 1358 (30.2%) were aged >/=80 years. At baseline, female sex, prestroke institutionalization, and a worse prestroke Rankin score were significantly more frequent in the older patients, as were coma, paralysis, swallowing problems, and urinary incontinence in the acute phase (all P values <0.001). Brain imaging and other diagnostic tools were significantly less used in the older patients. Paralysis, swallowing problems, and incontinence during hospitalization independently predicted 3-month disability or handicap in both groups. For the older patients, prestroke institutionalization proved a further strong and independent determinant of 3-month disability (odds ratio, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.22 to 4.45) and handicap (odds ratio, 7.04; 95% CI, 1.62 to 30. 69). In the very old, both medical and sociodemographic factors may significantly influence stroke outcome, showing peculiar characteristics. Knowledge of these determinants may reduce the burden on health systems, improving quality of care.
    Stroke 11/1999; 30(11):2313-9. DOI:10.1161/01.STR.30.11.2313 · 5.72 Impact Factor
  • A M Basile · P Nencini · D Inzitari ·
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    ABSTRACT: Therapeutic interventions for acute ischemic stroke have not yet been established in clinical practice. The recognition of an area of reduced blood flow in which neuronal death may be prevented has focused attention on treatments aiming at minimizing ischemic brain damage, if they are initiated within short time after occlusion. The combination of restoring blood flow and providing neuroprotection may be the most productive approach in human acute ischemic stroke, but this combined therapy requires testing through clinical trials. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of cerebral ischemia, this review examines the excito-toxic cascade, synthesis and role of nitric oxide and oxidants, gene regulation and possible neuroprotective therapeutic targets. As neuroprotectants, glutamate-antagonists, calcium-antagonists and free radical scavengers have been investigated. The role of nitric oxide is very complex, as it can be cytotoxic or cytoprotective in relation to sources, time of synthesis, and medium redox state. Animal gene studies suggest that nitric oxide produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase may be advantageous, while nitric oxide produced by neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase disadvantageous. A treatment strategy could involve the use of selective inhibitors of different types of nitric oxide synthase. Cell death after cerebral ischemia occurs through the dual pathway of ischemic necrosis and apoptosis. Novel therapies may be directed at genes mediating either recovery or apoptosis. There are, as yet, no conclusive data concerning the safety and efficacy of neuroprotectants in humans. Differences between animal models and clinical conditions may justify the discrepancy between experimental data and clinical practice.
    Annali italiani di medicina interna: organo ufficiale della Societa italiana di medicina interna 01/1999; 14(2):94-105.

Publication Stats

576 Citations
87.79 Total Impact Points


  • 1999-2009
    • University of Florence
      • Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Psicologia, Area del Farmaco e Salute del Bambino
      Florens, Tuscany, Italy
    • Italian National Research Council
      • Institute of Neuroscience IN
      Oristany, Sardinia, Italy