Deborah L. Rugg

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Michigan, United States

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Publications (7)22.36 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This controlled prospective study assessed the effectiveness of a sexual health approach to HIV prevention for men who have sex with men (MSM). Participants (N = 422 Midwestern MSM) were randomly assigned to the intervention group, who participated in a 2-day comprehensive human sexuality seminar designed to contextually address long-term risk factors and cofactors, or to the control group, who watched 3 hours of HIV prevention videos. Risk behavior during the preceding 3 months was measured at baseline, 3-month follow-up, and 12-month follow-up. Any unprotected anal intercourse outside a long-term seroconcordant relationship was the dependent variable. Of the total, 14%-24% of the participants were considered at risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV. At the 12-month follow-up, the control reported a 29% decrease in the use of condoms during anal intercourse; the intervention group reported an 8% increase (t = 2.546; p = .015). The sexual health seminars appear a promising new intervention at significantly reducing unprotected anal intercourse between men.
    AIDS Education and Prevention 07/2002; 14(3 Suppl A):59-71. DOI:10.1521/aeap. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This article describes practical lessons learned from an evaluation of a continuum of HIV prevention efforts and is intended to assist other states in strengthening their own HIV prevention evaluation activities. In 1996 Minnesota launched several evaluation activities and began to examine how they could be linked across the HIV prevention continuum. Although each evaluation activity generated its own findings, this article examines the challenges faced and the solutions created when integrating these findings into the original steps of the HIV prevention continuum. Key points are highlighted to guide HIV professionals in their endeavors to develop an integrated approach to evaluation and to establish clear and logical linkages across the HIV prevention continuum.
    AIDS Education and Prevention 03/2001; 13(1):29-41. DOI:10.1521/aeap. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous research has identified alcohol and drug use as predictive of unsafe sexual behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM). The purpose of this study was to assess whether substances associated with the greatest alteration in consciousness are associated with increased risk behavior, and to explore any relationship between internalized homonegativity and alcohol and other drug use. Participants in the study were 422 Midwestern MSM who volunteered to evaluate a seminar on sexuality and intimacy between men. Alcohol, chemical use, and dependency during the last 2 weeks were assessed using standardized questions and CAGE screening questions. Internalized homonegativity was assessed using the 26-item Reactions to Homosexuality scale. Components of unsafe sexual behavior during the preceding 3 months was assessed using dichotomous variables and collapsed into an overall measure of contextualized risk. Consistent and strong associations (ORs between 2.32 and 4.57) were found between unsafe sexual behavior and alcohol and other drug use. The greater the alcohol problem and the harder the drugs and the more they may impact consciousness or disinhibition, the greater the apparent association with unsafe sex. Degree of alteration of consciousness and disinhibition appear to be the common underlying dimensions of risk, although dose-level data were not available. The data did not support any consistent association between internalized homonegativity and use of drugs and alcohol.
    AIDS and Behavior 02/2001; · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Part of the responsibilities of researchers, evaluators, and program planners is ensuring that the results of their studies are disseminated promptly and efficiently. Yet, many, if not most, projects, particularly those involving senior staff, suffer from time constraints and competing demands placed on investigators. In this article, writing retreats are discussed as an innovative strategy for prioritizing research and evaluation, planning publications, and ensuring prompt analysis of data and efficient writing of results. Ten tips are offered for a successful and productive writing retreat: (a) get the buy-in of all investigators, (b) be goal oriented, (c) set tasks to be completed before the retreat, (d) select an environment conducive to writing, (e) prioritize writing, (f) create opportunities for midcourse correction and the mentoring of junior researchers and evaluators, (g) protect the principal investigator’s time for writing, (h) ensure adequate and compatible technology, (i) ensure the writers’ comfort, and (j) focus on success.
    Health Promotion Practice 01/2001; 2(1):9-13. DOI:10.1177/152483990100200103 · 0.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To field-test the availability, interpretability, and programmatic usefulness of 37 proposed national HIV prevention indicators (HPI) intended to evaluate community-level impact of HIV prevention efforts in San Francisco. HPI were defined for four populations (high risk heterosexuals, injecting drug users, men who have sex with men, and childbearing women) and for four domains (biological, behavioral, service, and socio-political). HPI were obtained from existing data sources only. Trends in HPI were examined from 1990 to 1997. Existing data provided 29 (78%) of the 37 proposed HPI; eight HPI were not available because California does not have HIV case reporting. Interpretation was limited for several HPI due to small sample size, inconsistencies in data collection, or lack of contextual information. Data providing behavioral HPI were scarce. HPI were consistent with historical patterns of HIV transmission in San Francisco but also highlighted new and worrisome trends. Notably, HPI identified recent increases in risk for HIV transmission among men who have sex with men. Despite limitations, the proposed national HPI provided evidence of the aggregate effectiveness of prevention efforts in San Francisco. Supplemental or local HPI are needed to fill data gaps, add context, and increase the scope and programmatic usefulness of the national HPI.
    AIDS 10/2000; 14(13):2015-26. DOI:10.1097/00002030-200009080-00018 · 6.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study selected and field tested indicators to track changes in HIV prevention effectiveness in the USA. During 1996-1999, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention held two 2 day expert consultations with more than 80 national, state and local experts. A consensus-driven, evidence-based approach was used to select 70 indicators, which had to be derived from existing data, available in more than 25 states, and meaningful to state health officials in monitoring HIV. A literature review was performed for each indicator to determine general relevance, validity, and reliability. Two field tests in five US sites determined accessibility, feasibility, and usefulness. The final 37 core indicators represent four categories: biological, behavioral, services, and socio-political. Specific indicators reflect the epidemic and associated risk factors for men who have sex with men, injection drug users, heterosexuals at high risk, and childbearing women. Despite limitations, the indicators sparked the regular, proactive integration and review of monitoring data, facilitating a more effective use of data in HIV prevention community planning.
    AIDS 10/2000; 14(13):2003-13. DOI:10.1097/00002030-200009080-00017 · 6.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 21st century brings with it the 20th year of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in the United States. HIV prevention programs have matured; however, evaluations of those programs have lagged behind. Nationwide, the need for such evaluation has never been greater. It is time to comprehensively assess the status of HIV prevention and control. We must build on previous studies to create a comprehensive, integrated national picture that includes evaluations at national, state, and local levels of the quality, costs, and short- and long-term effectiveness of various HIV prevention programs and policies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) encourages a phased approach to implementing a comprehensive evaluation strategy. This paper, which describes the 1995-1997 evaluation framework and activities of the Program Evaluation Research Branch, National Center for HIV, Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD), and Tuberculosis (TB) Prevention, is offered as a platform on which future efforts in determining the most effective means to prevent HIV can be built. Lessons learned in developing this comprehensive evaluation framework have advanced HIV prevention. This framework and lessons learned may also, in this era of performance measurement and public accountability, be generalizable beyond HIV prevention to the comprehensive and strategic evaluation of other politically complex, publically-funded disease prevention and health promotion programs.
    American Journal of Evaluation 12/1999; 20(1):35-56. DOI:10.1177/109821409902000104 · 2.02 Impact Factor