Anita Novak

University of Split, Spalato, Splitsko-Dalmatinska, Croatia

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Publications (11)15.95 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Trichosporon asahii is a rare but emerging fungal pathogen that causes severe and life-threatening infections with high mortality rate, mostly in immunocompromised patients. It could be easily misdiagnosed due to lack of awareness, especially when invasive or deep-seated infections occur in non-immunocompromised patients, and inadequately treated since the clinical failures and high minimum inhibitory concentrations to some antifungal agents have been described. We present a case of T. asahii catheter-related infection in 66-year-old comatose patient with polytrauma, who was not immunodeficient, but was receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics for a long period. Due to prompt diagnosis and treatment which included catheter replacement and voriconazole, the patient successfully recovered from this infection. The aims of this case report were to highlight the importance of recognizing this otherwise colonizing yeast as potentially dangerous pathogen in non-immunocompromised patients with a long-term antibiotic therapy, and to emphasize the importance of the right therapeutic choice due to its resistance to certain antifungal agents.
    Mycopathologia. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical background and molecular epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in the University Hospital Centre Split were investigated from January 2010 to December 2011. In total, 54 patients with first episode of CDI were consecutively included in the study based on the positive EIA test specific for A and B toxins. Demographic and clinical data were prospectively analyzed from medical records. CDI incidence rate was 0.6 per 10 000 patient-days. Thirty six cases (70.6%) were healthcare-associated, twelve cases (23.5%) were community-associated and three (5.9%) were indeterminate. Six patients (11.7%) had suffered one or more recurrences and 37 patients (72.5%) showed severe CDI. Prior therapy with third generation cephalosporin was significantly associated with severe CDI (P<0.021). Fifty four toxigenic C. difficile strains were isolated and 50 of them were available for PCR-ribotyping. Sixteen different PCR-ribotypes were identified. The most prevalent were PCR-ribotype 001 (27.8%) and 014/020 (24.1%). Twenty three strains were resistant to at least one of the antibiotics tested. Among resistant strains, three (13.0%) - all PCR-ribotype 001- were multi-resistant. Resistance to fluoroquinolones was significantly higher in strains that caused infection after previous use of fluoroquinolones (P=0.04).
    Anaerobe 07/2014; · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae has become a substantial global health problem. The aim of this study was to analyze carbapenem-resistant isolates of Enterobacter cloacae that have emerged for the first time in the intensive care unit (ICU) at the University Hospital Centre Split, Croatia. The strains were selected in the period between June and August 2012, according to their susceptibility patterns to carbapenems. Resistant isolates were screened for metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) production with the use of the imipenem-EDTA disk synergy test, and positive findings were confirmed by PCR. The type of VIM β-lactamase gene was determined by sequencing of PCR products. The genetic relatedness was evaluated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. The demographic and clinical data were retrospectively analyzed from medical records. Five patients were infected and one patient was colonized with a single clone of multidrug-resistant VIM-1-producing E. cloacae susceptible only to colistin. Three cases of lower respiratory tract infections, one case of bacteremia, and one case of intra-abdominal infection were identified. All cases were hospital-acquired after prolonged stay in ICU. All patients had serious underlying diseases and received a broad-spectrum antibiotic. Four patients died and two had unimprovable medical condition at the time of discharge from the hospital. MBL-producing E. cloacae can cause fatal infection in severely ill patients. Monoclonal outbreak highlights the need for continuous surveillance and good infection control practices to prevent further spread since the antibiotic therapy options for infections caused by such strains are strongly limited.
    Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.) 04/2014; · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of the study was to characterize ESBL-producing uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains isolated in children. That included the investigation of virulence factors and the analysis of the types of β-lactamases at the molecular genetic level. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During the 2-year study period, 77 ESBL-producing E. coli strains were recovered from urine samples of febrile children with significant bacteriuria hospitalized at one Croatian hospital. Susceptibility of isolates to bactericidal serum activity was tested by Shiller and Hatch method, while adhesin expression was determined by agglutination methods. Characterization of ESBLs was performed by PCR with specific primers for ESBLs and by sequencing of bla (ESBL) genes. Genotyping of the E. coli isolates was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). RESULTS: Twenty-seven (35.1 %) and 50 (64.9 %) ESBL-producing UPEC strains were isolated in neonates and infants, respectively. Of 70 strains investigated for the presence of virulence factors, adhesins were detected in 48.6 % strains (8.6 % in the neonate and 40 % in the infants group) giving a statistically significant difference in adhesin expression between the two groups (p < 0.01). Hemolysin was produced by 84.3 %, whereas 70 % of strains were serum-resistant. The bla (TEM) gene was detected in 22 (28 %) and bla (SHV) gene in 57 strains (74 %), whereas bla (CTX-M) gene was detected in only two isolates (2.5%). In ten isolates, bla (TEM) and bla (SHV) were simultaneously detected. Sequencing of bla (SHV) genes revealed that SHV-5 β-lactamase was by far the most prevalent and was found in 51 strains (66 %). The strains were clonally related as demonstrated by PFGE and assigned into ten clusters. CONCLUSIONS: Infection control measures should be employed and the consumption of expanded-spectrum cephalosporins in the hospital should be restricted.
    Wiener klinische Wochenschrift 08/2012; 124(15-16):504-515. · 0.81 Impact Factor
  • Journal of chemotherapy (Florence, Italy) 06/2012; 24(3):182-4. · 0.83 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of hospital infection 02/2011; 77(4):368-9. · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance rates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Proteus mirabilis strains isolated from inpatients at the Split University Hospital (southern Croatia) during a survey performed between 2005 and 2008. A total of 2152 consecutive isolates of P. mirabilis were isolated. The prevalence was 0.5 % in 2005 and increased significantly to 20.9 % by 2008. Strains were most frequently isolated from urine (36.5 %) and bronchial aspirates and wound swabs (11.3 %). ESBL-producing P. mirabilis isolates showed very high resistance rates to the majority of non-β-lactam antibiotics and were susceptible to a β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor and carbapenems. The isolates were genotyped and their ESBLs were molecularly characterized. Strains originating from the intensive care unit and the surgery and neurosurgery wards were clonally related. All P. mirabilis isolates produced the TEM-52 type of ESBL. To the best of our knowledge, our work detailed here and summarized in an earlier communication is the first report of such isolates from southern Croatia. Increased monitoring and screening for ESBL production in this species at our hospital is mandatory.
    Journal of Medical Microbiology 10/2010; 59(Pt 10):1185-90. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The meropenem yearly Susceptibility Test Information Collection (MYSTIC) programme is a global, longitudinal resistance surveillance network that monitors the activity of meropenem and compares its activity with other broadspectrum antimicrobial agents. We now report the antimicrobial efficacy of meropenem compared to other broad-spectrum agents within the selective Gram-negative pathogen groups from two Croatian Hospitals investigated between 2002-2007. A total of 1510 Gram-negative pathogens were tested and the minimum-inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by broth microdilution method according to CLSI.There was no resistance to either imipenem or meropenem observed for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis in both medical centers. High resistance rates of K. pneumoniae to ceftazidime (18%), cefepime (17%) and gentamicin (39%) are raising concern. Acinetobacter baumannii turned out to be the most resistant Gram-negative bacteria with 81% resistant to ceftazidime, 73% to cefepime, 69% to gentamicin and 71% to ciprofloxacin. Almost 20% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were resistant to imipenem, 13% to meropenem, 69% to gentamicin and 38% to ciprofloxacin.The prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in E. coli was 10% and in K. pneumoniae 49%. PCR and sequencing of the amplicons revealed the presence of SHV-5 in nine E. coli strains and additional tem-1 beta-lactamase five strains. Five K. pneumoniae strains were positive for bla(SHV-5 )gene. Eight ESBL positive Enterobacter spp. strains were found to produce tem and CtX-m beta-lactamases. Plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases were not found among K. pneumoniae, E. coli and Enterobacter spp. Three A. baumannii strains from Zagreb University Center were identified by multiplex PCR as OXA-58 like producers. Six A. baumannii strains from Split University Center were found to possess an ISAba1 insertion sequence upstream of bla(OXA-51 )gene. According to our results meropenem remains an appropriate antibiotic for the treatment of severe infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria. These data indicate that despite continued use of meropenem, carbapenem resistance is not increasing among species tested, except for A. Baumannii, in the two study hospitals and suggest that clinicians can still administer carbapenems as a reliable and effective choice in managing serious nosocomial infections.
    Journal of chemotherapy (Florence, Italy) 06/2010; 22(3):147-52. · 0.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Carbapenem-resistant isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii from intensive care units at Split University Hospital, Split, Croatia, were studied. Most (100 of 106) had ISAba1 inserted upstream of a bla(OXA-107) gene, encoding an unusual OXA-51-type oxacillinase. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that the isolates formed three clusters belonging to the sequence group 2 (European clone 1) lineage.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 09/2009; 47(10):3348-9. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The bacillus Listeria monocytogenes is widely distributed in the environment. Listeria monocytogenes most often causes infection in the neonates, pregnant women, elderly and immunosuppressed persons. We report on a case of fatal sepsis and meningitis in a 59-year-old woman receiving cyclophosphamide and glucocorticoid therapy for Wegener's granulomatosis over a 10-year period. Listeriosis should be suspected in case of sepsis and/or meningitis in patients who receive immunosuppressive agents. Since meningitis due to Listeria monocytogenes is not distinguishable clinically from other types of bacterial meningitis, antibiotics against Listeria monocytogenes should be included in the initial empirical therapy of bacterial meningitis in immunosuppressed patients, antibiotics against Listeria monocytogenes should be included.
    Acta medica Croatica: c̆asopis Hravatske akademije medicinskih znanosti 01/2007; 60(5):501-3.
  • International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - INT J ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS. 01/2007; 29.