ABSTRACT: The purpose of the investigation was to comparatively study the possible clinicodiagnostic and clinicoprognostic value of thyroglobulin (TG) autoantibodies (anti-TG autoAB) and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) (anti-TPO autoAB) with proteolytic activity (protease-AB) and to develop additional clinicoimmunological criteria for working out a protease-AB-based laboratory serodiagnosis protocol. Sera from 240 patients with autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT), 124 with diffuse toxic goiter (DTG), and 172 with other thyroid diseases were studied. Serum from 40 clinically healthy donors served as a control. Sera were screened for anti-TG and anti-TPO autoAB by enzyme immunoassay and/or radioimmunoassay. Nonspecific proteolytic activity was determined, by incubating a highly purified AB IgG-isotype solution with nonspecific substrate (such as BSA-FITS or thyoredoxine/Trx), followed by the measurement of relative fluorescence shifts at a wavelength of 470 nm. The blood samples taken from patients with AIT or DTG and the highly purified anti-TG or anti-TRO autoAB of IgG isotype were incubated with appropriate human substrates to determine AG-specific proteolytic activity. Proteolysis products were detected by PAAG electrophoresis. An association was found between the rise in the frequency of protease AB, their catalytic activity, a tendency toward autoAB between themselves, and the degree of thyroid tissue degradation in AIT and DTG; some specific features of a serological pattern were noted in diferent dorms of AIT and DTG. For example, the prevailing autoABs have been shown to be TG-specific in AIT and TPO-specific proteases in DTG; also, the detectable catalytic activity of both autoAB in AIT is an order of magnitude higher than that in DTG. No protease ABs have been recorded in other forms of thyroid diseases in which antithyroid autoABs are also frequently detected. The screening procedure for protease AB may be considered as a highly sensitive and specific indicator test in the diagnosis and prediction of AIT and DTG, which allows one to diagnose not only within the framework of major thyroid nosological entities, but much broader, by covering a great variety of syndromal forms of pathology.
Klinicheskaia laboratornaia diagnostika 04/2010;