ABSTRACT: There is a controversy regarding the definition of vitamin D insufficiency as it relates to bone health.
The objective of the study was to examine the evidence for a threshold value of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) that defines vitamin D insufficiency as it relates to bone health.
This was a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data in 488 elderly Caucasian women, mean age 71 yr, combined with a literature review of 70 studies on the relationship of serum PTH to serum 25OHD.
The study was conducted in independent-living women in the midwest United States.
The relationship between serum 25OHD, serum PTH, and serum osteocalcin and 24-h urine N-telopeptides was evaluated.
Serum PTH was inversely correlated with serum 25OHD (r = -0.256, P < 0.0005), but no threshold as defined by suppression of serum PTH was found within the serum 25OHD range 6-60 ng/ml (15-150 nmol/liter). However, in contrast, there was a threshold for bone markers, serum osteocalcin and urine N-telopeptides, that increased only below a serum 25OHD of approximately 18 ng/ml (45 nmol/liter). Calcium absorption was not correlated with serum PTH and serum 25OHD, and no threshold was found. A literature review of 70 studies generally showed a threshold for serum PTH with increasing serum 25OHD, but there was no consistency in the threshold level of serum 25OHD that varied from 10 to 50 ng/ml (25-125 nmol/liter).
Vitamin D insufficiency should be defined as serum 25OHD less than 20 ng/ml (50 nmol/liter) as it relates to bone.
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 03/2011; 96(3):E436-46. · 6.50 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To ascertain the risk factors for falls, stumbles and recurrent falls in a cohort of elderly people with mean age of 76.7-/+6.1 years.
137 community dwelling elderly living independently or in assisted living institutions participated in the study. Each subject was assessed by history, physical examination and physical performance tests at the beginning and end of study. Falls and stumbles were recorded in a falls dairy for 1 year.
Significant predictors of being a faller were a history of falls at baseline (Odds Ratio (OR) = 3.85, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.56 - 9.50), depression (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.02 - 1.38) and timed rise (Incident Rate Ratio (IRR) = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.03 - 1.50). For predicting recurrent fallers Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves were as follows: 0.71 (95%CI 0.61-0.81) for timed up and go, 0.67 (95%CI 0.56-0.78) for timed rise and 0.70 (95%CI 0.60-0.80) for timed walk fast pace.
Timed rise was the single most important test that was able to predict both a first time faller and recurrent faller. Timed up and go was the most significant test to predict recurrent fallers.
Journal of musculoskeletal & neuronal interactions 06/2010; 10(2):142-50. · 2.00 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis is a major public health problem for adults over age 55 years costing billions of euros/dollars. Over the last 20 years anti-resorptive drugs were the treatment of choice for osteoporosis and most were derived from the bisphosphonate molecule. In the last 7 years remarkable advances in molecular biology and genetics have led to a detailed understanding of the bone remodeling cycle and as a result new therapeutic targets for treatment emerged. These new compounds have different modes of action depending on their role in the bone remodeling cycle. A major discovery was the important role of RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand) secreted by osteoblasts and responsible for stimulating osteoclastic bone resorption. This led to development of a potent monoclonal antibody that blocks its action. This drug should be available soon as a new treatment for osteoporosis. Other molecular targets in resorption have been identified and several specific antagonists are potential treatments. However, a significant limiting factor for a new anti-resorptive drug is the cost of bringing it to the market because of the huge costs of a fracture trial. Although anti-resorptive agents have been the backbone of osteoporosis treatment they do not rebuild bone architecture and development of anabolic agents is needed. These are likely to evolve from an understanding of the LRP/Wnt signaling pathway. Already an antibody against sclerostin has shown promise in animal studies, and not to forget parathyroid hormone which was the first clinically useful anabolic treatment for osteoporosis.
Maturitas 04/2010; 65(4):301-7. · 2.77 Impact Factor