Raymond A Sobel

VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California, United States

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Publications (221)1512.52 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Podoplanin (PDPN, also known as Gp38) is highly expressed on the surface of lymphatic endothelial cells, where it regulates development of lymphatic vessels. We have recently observed that PDPN is also expressed on effector T cells that infiltrate target tissues during autoimmune inflammation; however, the function of PDPN in T cells is largely unclear. Here, we demonstrated that global deletion of Pdpn results in exaggerated T cell responses and spontaneous experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice with a susceptible genetic background. In contrast, T cell-specific overexpression of PDPN resulted in profound defects in IL-7-mediated T cell expansion and survival. Consequently, these animals exhibited a more rapid resolution of CNS inflammation, characterized by a reduced effector CD4+ T cell population in the CNS. Mice harboring a T cell-specific deletion of Pdpn developed exacerbated EAE, with increased accumulation of effector CD4+ T cells in the CNS. Transcriptional profiling of naturally occurring PDPN+ effector T cells in the CNS revealed increased expression of other inhibitory receptors, such as Pd1 and Tim3, and decreased expression of prosurvival factors, including Il7ra. Together, our data suggest that PDPN functions as an inhibitory molecule on T cells, thereby promoting tissue tolerance by limiting long-term survival and maintenance of CD4+ effector T cells in target organs.
    The Journal of clinical investigation. 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Studies evaluating T-cell recognition of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), have focused mostly on its 117 amino acid (aa) extracellular domain, especially peptide (p) 35-55. We characterized T-cell responses to the entire 218 aa MOG sequence, including its transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. Methods: T-cell recognition in mice was examined using overlapping peptides and intact fulllength mouse MOG. EAE was evaluated by peptide immunization and by adoptive transfer of MOG epitope-specific T cells. Frequency of epitope-specific T cells was examined by ELISPOT. Results: Three T-cell determinants of MOG were discovered in its transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, p119–132, p181–195, and p186–200. Transmembrane MOG p119-132 induced clinical EAE, CNS inflammation, and demyelination as potently as p35-55 in C57BL/6 mice and other H-2b strains. p119-128 contained its minimal encephalitogenic epitope. p119-132 did not cause disease in EAE-susceptible non-H-2b strains, including Biozzi, NOD, and PL/J. MOG p119-132– specific T cells produced Th1 and Th17 cytokines and transferred EAE to wild-type recipient mice. After immunization with full-length MOG, a significantly higher frequency of MOG-reactive T cells responded to p119-132 than to p35-55, demonstrating that p119-132 is an immunodominant encephalitogenic epitope.MOG p181-195 did not cause EAE, andMOG p181-195–specific T cells could not transfer EAE into wild-type or highly susceptible T- and B-cell–deficient mice. Conclusions: Transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of MOG contain immunodominant T-cell epitopes in EAE. A CNS autoantigen can also contain nonpathogenic stimulatory T-cell epitopes. Recognition that a myelin antigen contains multiple encephalitogenic and nonencephalitogenic determinants may have implications for therapeutic development in MS.
    Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation. 08/2014; 1(2).
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    PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5:e98506). · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using an integrated antigen microarray approach, we observed epitope-spreading of autoantibody responses to a variety of antigenic structures in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and in the serum of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). These included previously described protein- and lipid-based antigenic targets and newly discovered autoimmunogenic sugar moieties, notably, autoantibodies specific for the oligomannoses in both MS patient CSF and the sera of mice with EAE. These glycans are often masked by other sugar moieties and belong to a class of cryptic autoantigens. We further determined that these targets are highly expressed on multiple cell types in MS and EAE lesions. Co-immunization of SJL/J mice with a Man9-KLH conjugate at the time of EAE induction elicited highly significant levels of anti-Man9-cluster autoantibodies. Nevertheless, this anti-glycan autoantibody response was associated with a significantly reduced clinical severity of EAE. The potential of these cryptic glycan markers and targeting antibodies for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions of neurological disorders has yet to be explored.
    Drug Development Research 04/2014; · 0.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We recently reported that Acanthamoeba castellanii (ACA), an opportunistic pathogen of the central nervous system (CNS) possesses mimicry epitopes for proteolipid protein (PLP) 139-151 and myelin basic protein 89-101, and that the epitopes induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in SJL mice reminiscent of the diseases induced with their corresponding cognate peptides. We now demonstrate that mice infected with ACA also show the generation of cross-reactive T cells, predominantly for PLP 139-151, as evaluated by T cell proliferation and IAs/dextramer staining. We verified that PLP 139-151-sensitized lymphocytes generated in infected mice contained a high proportion of T helper 1 cytokine-producing cells, and they can transfer disease to naïve animals. Likewise, the animals first primed with suboptimal dose of PLP 139-151 and later infected with ACA, developed EAE, suggesting that ACA infection can trigger CNS autoimmunity in the presence of preexisting repertoire of autoreactive T cells. Taken together, the data provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba infections, and the potential role of infectious agents with mimicry epitopes to self-antigens in the pathogenesis of CNS diseases such as multiple sclerosis.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(5):e98506. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Therapies that target leukocyte trafficking pathways can reduce disease activity and improve clinical outcomes in multiple sclerosis (MS). Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a widely studied animal model that shares many clinical and histological features with MS. Chemokine-like receptor-1 (CMKLR1) is a chemoattractant receptor that is expressed by key effector cells in EAE and MS, including macrophages, subsets of dendritic cells, natural killer cells and microglia. We previously showed that CMKLR1-deficient (CMKLR1 KO) mice develop less severe clinical and histological EAE than wild-type mice. In this study, we sought to identify CMKLR1 inhibitors that would pharmaceutically recapitulate the CMKLR1 KO phenotype in EAE. We identified 2-(α-naphthoyl) ethyltrimethylammonium iodide (α-NETA) as a CMKLR1 small molecule antagonist that inhibits chemerin-stimulated β-arrestin2 association with CMKLR1, as well as chemerin-triggered CMKLR1+ cell migration. α-NETA significantly delayed the onset of EAE induced in C57BL/6 mice by both active immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide 35-55 and by adoptive transfer of encephalitogenic T cells. In addition, α-NETA treatment significantly reduced mononuclear cell infiltrates within the CNS. This study provides additional proof-of-concept data that targeting CMKLR1:chemerin interactions may be beneficial in preventing or treating MS.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(12):e112925. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Whether B cells serve as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) for activation of pathogenic T cells in the multiple sclerosis model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is unclear. To evaluate their role as APCs, we engineered mice selectively deficient in MHC II on B cells (B-MHC II(-/-)), and to distinguish this function from antibody production, we created transgenic (Tg) mice that express the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-specific B cell receptor (BCR; IgH(MOG-mem)) but cannot secrete antibodies. B-MHC II(-/-) mice were resistant to EAE induced by recombinant human MOG (rhMOG), a T cell- and B cell-dependent autoantigen, and exhibited diminished Th1 and Th17 responses, suggesting a role for B cell APC function. In comparison, selective B cell IL-6 deficiency reduced EAE susceptibility and Th17 responses alone. Administration of MOG-specific antibodies only partially restored EAE susceptibility in B-MHC II(-/-) mice. In the absence of antibodies, IgH(MOG-mem) mice, but not mice expressing a BCR of irrelevant specificity, were fully susceptible to acute rhMOG-induced EAE, also demonstrating the importance of BCR specificity. Spontaneous opticospinal EAE and meningeal follicle-like structures were observed in IgH(MOG-mem) mice crossed with MOG-specific TCR Tg mice. Thus, B cells provide a critical cellular function in pathogenesis of central nervous system autoimmunity independent of their humoral involvement, findings which may be relevant to B cell-targeted therapies.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 12/2013; · 13.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling regulates lymphocyte egress from lymphoid organs into systemic circulation. The sphingosine phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) agonist FTY-720 (Gilenya) arrests immune trafficking and prevents multiple sclerosis (MS) relapses. However, alternative mechanisms of S1P-S1P1 signaling have been reported. Phosphoproteomic analysis of MS brain lesions revealed S1P1 phosphorylation on S351, a residue crucial for receptor internalization. Mutant mice harboring an S1pr1 gene encoding phosphorylation-deficient receptors (S1P1(S5A)) developed severe experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) due to autoimmunity mediated by interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing helper T cells (TH17 cells) in the peripheral immune and nervous system. S1P1 directly activated the Jak-STAT3 signal-transduction pathway via IL-6. Impaired S1P1 phosphorylation enhances TH17 polarization and exacerbates autoimmune neuroinflammation. These mechanisms may be pathogenic in MS.
    Nature Immunology 09/2013; · 26.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reliable biomarkers corresponding to disease progression or therapeutic responsiveness in multiple sclerosis (MS) have not been yet identified. We previously reported that low expression of the antiproliferative gene TOB1 in CD4(+) T cells of individuals presenting with an initial central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating event (a clinically isolated syndrome), correlated with high risk for progression to MS. We report that experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Tob1(-/-) mice was associated with augmented CNS inflammation, increased infiltrating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell counts, and increased myelin-reactive Th1 and Th17 cells, with reduced numbers of regulatory T cells. Reconstitution of Rag1(-/-) mice with Tob1(-/-) CD4(+) T cells recapitulated the aggressive EAE phenotype observed in Tob1(-/-) mice. Furthermore, severe spontaneous EAE was observed when Tob1(-/-) mice were crossed to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-specific T cell receptor transgenic (2D2) mice. Collectively, our results reveal a critical role for Tob1 in adaptive T cell immune responses that drive development of EAE, thus providing support for the development of Tob1 as a biomarker for demyelinating disease activity.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 06/2013; · 13.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The amyloid-forming proteins tau, αB crystallin, and amyloid P protein are all found in lesions of multiple sclerosis (MS). Our previous work established that amyloidogenic peptides from the small heat shock protein αB crystallin (HspB5) and from amyloid β fibrils, characteristic of Alzheimer's disease, were therapeutic in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), reflecting aspects of the pathology of MS. To understand the molecular basis for the therapeutic effect, we showed a set of amyloidogenic peptides composed of six amino acids, including those from tau, amyloid β A4, major prion protein (PrP), HspB5, amylin, serum amyloid P, and insulin B chain, to be anti-inflammatory and capable of reducing serological levels of interleukin-6 and attenuating paralysis in EAE. The chaperone function of the fibrils correlates with the therapeutic outcome. Fibrils composed of tau 623-628 precipitated 49 plasma proteins, including apolipoprotein B-100, clusterin, transthyretin, and complement C3, supporting the hypothesis that the fibrils are active biological agents. Amyloid fibrils thus may provide benefit in MS and other neuroinflammatory disorders.
    Science translational medicine 04/2013; 5(179):179ra42. · 10.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the prevalence of Aspergillus-related disease in immune suppressed lung transplant patients, little is known of the host-pathogen interaction. Because of the mould's angiotropic nature and because of its capacity to thrive in hypoxic conditions, we hypothesized that the degree of Aspergillus invasion would increase with progressive rejection-mediated ischemia of the allograft. To study this relationship, we utilized a novel orthotopic tracheal transplant model of Aspergillus infection, in which it was possible to assess the effects of tissue hypoxia and ischemia on airway infectivity. Laser Doppler flowmetry and FITC-lectin were used to determine blood perfusion, and a fiber optic microsensor was used to measure airway tissue oxygen tension. Fungal burden and depth of invasion were graded using histopathology. We demonstrated a high efficacy (80%) for producing a localized fungal tracheal infection with the majority of infection occurring at the donor-recipient anastomosis; Aspergillus was more invasive in allogeneic compared to syngeneic groups. During the study period, the overall kinetics of both non-infected and infected allografts was similar, demonstrating a progressive loss of perfusion and oxygenation, which reached a nadir by days 10-12 post-transplantation. The extent of Aspergillus invasion directly correlated with the degree of graft hypoxia and ischemia. Compared to the midtrachea, the donor-recipient anastomotic site exhibited lower perfusion and more invasive disease; a finding consistent with clinical experience. For the first time, we identify ischemia as a putative risk factor for Aspergillus invasion. Therapeutic approaches focused on preserving vascular health may play an important role in limiting Aspergillus infections.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e77136. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing helper T cells (T(H)17 cells) are often present at the sites of tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases, which has led to the conclusion that T(H)17 cells are main drivers of autoimmune tissue injury. However, not all T(H)17 cells are pathogenic; in fact, T(H)17 cells generated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and IL-6 produce IL-17 but do not readily induce autoimmune disease without further exposure to IL-23. Here we found that the production of TGF-β3 by developing T(H)17 cells was dependent on IL-23, which together with IL-6 induced very pathogenic T(H)17 cells. Moreover, TGF-β3-induced T(H)17 cells were functionally and molecularly distinct from TGF-β1-induced T(H)17 cells and had a molecular signature that defined pathogenic effector T(H)17 cells in autoimmune disease.
    Nature Immunology 09/2012; 13(10):991-9. · 26.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing helper T cells (T(H)17 cells) are often present at the sites of tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases, which has led to the conclusion that T(H)17 cells are main drivers of autoimmune tissue injury. However, not all T(H)17 cells are pathogenic; in fact, T(H)17 cells generated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and IL-6 produce IL-17 but do not readily induce autoimmune disease without further exposure to IL-23. Here we found that the production of TGF-β3 by developing T(H)17 cells was dependent on IL-23, which together with IL-6 induced very pathogenic T(H)17 cells. Moreover, TGF-β3-induced T(H)17 cells were functionally and molecularly distinct from TGF-β1-induced T(H)17 cells and had a molecular signature that defined pathogenic effector T(H)17 cells in autoimmune disease.
    Nature Immunology 09/2012; · 26.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether the therapeutic activity of αB crystallin, small heat shock protein B5 (HspB5), was shared with other human sHsps, a set of seven human family members, a mutant of HspB5 G120 known to exhibit reduced chaperone activity, and a mycobacterial sHsp were expressed and purified from bacteria. Each of the recombinant proteins was shown to be a functional chaperone, capable of inhibiting aggregation of denatured insulin with varying efficiency. When injected into mice at the peak of disease, they were all effective in reducing the paralysis in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Additional structure activity correlations between chaperone activity and therapeutic function were established when linear regions within HspB5 were examined. A single region, corresponding to residues 73-92 of HspB5, forms amyloid fibrils, exhibited chaperone activity, and was an effective therapeutic for encephalomyelitis. The linkage of the three activities was further established by demonstrating individual substitutions of critical hydrophobic amino acids in the peptide resulted in the loss of all of the functions.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2012; 287(43):36423-34. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing 3 (Tim-3) is an inhibitory receptor that is expressed on exhausted T cells during infection with HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus. By contrast, Tim-3 expression and function are defective in multiple human autoimmune diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms modulating Tim-3 function are not well understood. Here we show that human leukocyte antigen B (HLA-B)-associated transcript 3 (Bat3) binds to, and represses the function of, Tim-3. Bat3 protects T helper type 1 (T(H)1) cells from galectin-9-mediated cell death and promotes both proliferation and proinflammatory cytokine production. Bat3-deficient T cells have elevated expression of exhaustion-associated molecules such as Tim-3, Lag3, Prdm1 and Pbx3, and Bat3 knockdown in myelin-antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells markedly inhibits the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis while promoting the expansion of a dysfunctional Tim-3(hi), interferon-γ (IFN-γ)(lo)CD4(+) cell population. Furthermore, expression of Bat3 is reduced in exhausted Tim-3(+) T cells from mouse tumors and HIV-1-infected individuals. These data indicate that Bat3 acts as an inhibitor of Tim-3-dependent exhaustion and cell death. Bat3 may thus represent a viable therapeutic target in autoimmune disorders, chronic infections and cancers.
    Nature medicine 08/2012; · 27.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tim-1, a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, consists of an IgV domain and a mucin domain. The IgV domain is essential for binding Tim-1 to its ligands, but little is known about the role of the mucin domain, even though genetic association of TIM-1 with atopy/asthma has been linked to the length of mucin domain. We generated a Tim-1-mutant mouse (Tim-1(Δmucin)) in which the mucin domain was deleted genetically. The mutant mice showed a profound defect in IL-10 production from regulatory B cells (Bregs). Associated with the loss of IL-10 production in B cells, older Tim-1(Δmucin) mice developed spontaneous autoimmunity associated with hyperactive T cells, with increased production of IFN-γ and elevated serum levels of Ig and autoantibodies. However, Tim-1(Δmucin) mice did not develop frank systemic autoimmune disease unless they were crossed onto the Fas-mutant lpr mice on a C57BL/6 background. Tim-1(Δmucin)lpr mice developed accelerated and fulminant systemic autoimmunity with accumulation of abnormal double-negative T cells and autoantibodies to a number of lupus-associated autoantigens. Thus, Tim-1 plays a critical role in maintaining suppressive Breg function, and our data also demonstrate an unexpected role of the Tim-1 mucin domain in regulating Breg function and maintaining self-tolerance.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2012; 109(30):12105-10. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Comparison of transcriptomic and proteomic data from pathologically similar multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions reveals down-regulation of CD47 at the messenger RNA level and low abundance at the protein level. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrate that CD47 is expressed in normal myelin and in foamy macrophages and reactive astrocytes within active MS lesions. We demonstrate that CD47(-/-) mice are refractory to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), primarily as the result of failure of immune cell activation after immunization with myelin antigen. In contrast, blocking with a monoclonal antibody against CD47 in mice at the peak of paralysis worsens EAE severity and enhances immune activation in the peripheral immune system. In vitro assays demonstrate that blocking CD47 also promotes phagocytosis of myelin and that this effect is dependent on signal regulatory protein α (SIRP-α). Immune regulation and phagocytosis are mechanisms for CD47 signaling in autoimmune neuroinflammation. Depending on the cell type, location, and disease stage, CD47 has Janus-like roles, with opposing effects on EAE pathogenesis.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 06/2012; 209(7):1325-34. · 13.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a widely used model of multiple sclerosis. In NOD mice, EAE develops as a relapsing-remitting disease that transitions to a chronic progressive disease, making the NOD model the only mouse model that recapitulates the full clinical disease course observed in most multiple sclerosis patients. We have generated a TCR transgenic mouse that expresses the α- and β-chains of a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) 35-55-reactive TCR (1C6) on the NOD background. 1C6 TCR transgenic mice spontaneously generate both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells that recognize MOG and produce proinflammatory cytokines, allowing for the first time to our knowledge the simultaneous examination of myelin-reactive CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the same host. 1C6 CD8(+) T cells alone can induce optic neuritis and mild EAE with delayed onset; however, 1C6 CD4(+) T cells alone induce severe EAE and predominate in driving disease when both cell types are present. When 1C6 mice are crossed with mice bearing an IgH specific for MOG, the mice develop spontaneous EAE with high incidence, but surprisingly the disease pattern does not resemble the neuromyelitis optica-like disease observed in mice bearing CD4(+) T cells and B cells reactive to MOG on the C57BL/6 background. Collectively, our data show that although myelin-reactive CD8(+) T cells contribute to disease, disease is primarily driven by myelin-reactive CD4(+) T cells and that the coexistence of myelin-reactive T and B cells does not necessarily result in a distinct pathological phenotype.
    The Journal of Immunology 03/2012; 188(5):2084-92. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Laquinimod is a novel oral drug that is currently being evaluated for the treatment of relapsing-remitting (RR) multiple sclerosis (MS). Using the animal model for multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), we examined how laquinimod promotes immune modulation. Oral laquinimod treatment reversed established RR-EAE and was associated with reduced central nervous system (CNS) inflammation, decreased Th1 and Th17 responses, and an increase in regulatory T cells (Treg). In vivo laquinimod treatment inhibited donor myelin-specific T cells from transferring EAE to naive recipient mice. In vivo laquinimod treatment altered subpopulations of myeloid antigen presenting cells (APC) that included a decrease in CD11c(+)CD11b(+)CD4(+) dendritic cells (DC) and an elevation of CD11b(hi)Gr1(hi) monocytes. CD11b(+) cells from these mice exhibited an anti-inflammatory type II phenotype characterized by reduced STAT1 phosphorylation, decreased production of IL-6, IL-12/23 and TNF, and increased IL-10. In adoptive transfer, donor type II monocytes from laquinimod-treated mice suppressed clinical and histologic disease in recipients with established EAE. As effects were observed in both APC and T cell compartments, we examined whether T cell immune modulation occurred as a direct effect of laquinimod on T cells, or as a consequence of altered APC function. Inhibition of Th1 and Th17 differentiation was observed only when type II monocytes or DC from laquinimod-treated mice were used as APC, regardless of whether myelin-specific T cells were obtained from laquinimod-treated or untreated mice. Thus, laquinimod modulates adaptive T cell immune responses via its effects on cells of the innate immune system, and may not influence T cells directly.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(3):e33797. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Analyses of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) protein expression during latency have been discordant, with rare to many positive neurons detected. We show that ascites-derived murine and rabbit antibodies specific for VZV proteins in vitro contain endogenous antibodies that react with human blood type A antigens in neurons. Apparent VZV neuronal staining and blood type A were strongly associated (by a χ² test, α = 0.0003). Adsorption of ascites-derived monoclonal antibodies or antiserum with type A erythrocytes or the use of in vitro-derived VZV monoclonal antibodies eliminated apparent VZV staining. Animal-derived antibodies must be screened for anti-blood type A reactivity to avoid misidentification of viral proteins in the neurons of the 30 to 40% of individuals who are blood type A.
    Journal of Virology 01/2012; 86(1):578-83. · 5.08 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

12k Citations
1,512.52 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2014
    • VA Palo Alto Health Care System
      Palo Alto, California, United States
    • Maimonides Medical Center
      Brooklyn, New York, United States
  • 1996–2012
    • Stanford Medicine
      • Department of Pathology
      Stanford, CA, United States
  • 1989–2012
    • Harvard Medical School
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Department of Pathology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1988–2012
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Center for Neurologic Diseases
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2010
    • State University of New York
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1994–2009
    • Stanford University
      • • Beckman Center for Molecular Medicine
      • • Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences
      • • Department of Pathology
      Stanford, CA, United States
  • 2006–2007
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Department of Neurology
      San Francisco, CA, United States
    • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2000–2007
    • Santa Clara Valley Medical Center
      San Jose, California, United States
  • 2004
    • University of São Paulo
      • Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto (FMRP)
      São Paulo, Estado de Sao Paulo, Brazil
  • 1998–2003
    • Kaweah Delta Health Care District
      Visalia, California, United States
  • 1997
    • University of Queensland 
      • School of Medicine
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  • 1988–1994
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • Department of Pathology
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 1990
    • Boston University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States