[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT) causes leg pain. Elastic compression stockings (ECS) have potential to relieve DVT-related leg pain by diminishing the diameter of distended veins and increasing venous blood flow. It was our objective to determine whether ECS reduce leg pain in patients with acute DVT. We performed a secondary analysis of the SOX Trial, a multicentrerandomised placebo controlled trial of active ECS versus placebo ECS to prevent the post-thrombotic syndrome.The study was performed in24 hospital centres in Canada and the U.S. and included 803 patients with a first episode of acute proximal DVT. We performed active ECS (knee length, 30-40 mm Hg graduated pressure) or placebo ECS (manufactured to look identical to active ECS, but lacking therapeutic compression). Study outcome was leg pain severity assessed on an 11-point numerical pain rating scale (0, no pain; 10, worst possible pain) at baseline, 14, 30 and 60 days after randomisation. Mean age was 55 years and 60% were male. In active ECS patients (n=409), mean (SD) pain severity at baseline and at 60 days were 5.18 (3.29) and 1.39 (2.19), respectively, and in placebo ECS patients (n=394) were 5.38 (3.29) and 1.13 (1.86), respectively. There were no significant differences in pain scores between groups at any assessment point, and no evidence for subgroup interaction by age, sex or anatomical extent of DVT. Results were similar in an analysis restricted to patients who reported wearing stockings every day. In conclusion, ECS do not reduce leg pain in patients with acute proximal DVT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The REG2 Anticoagulation System consists of pegnivacogin, a subcutaneously administered aptamer factor IXa inhibitor, and its intravenous active control agent, anivamersen. Its effect on thrombin generation is unknown. A prospectively designed thrombin generation study was conducted within the phase 1 ascending dose study of REG2 to assess the effect of REG2 on thrombin generation kinetics. A total of 32 healthy volunteers were recruited into four cohorts of ascending dose pegnivacogin for the phase 1 study. In this pre-specified substudy, blood samples were drawn in the presence or absence of corn trypsin inhibitor at specified times within each dosing cohort. Thrombin generation was initiated with tissue factor and thrombin generation kinetics were measured using the Calibrated Automated Thrombogram (CAT). REG2 attenuated thrombin generation in a dose-dependent manner. All parameters of the CAT assay, except for lag time, showed a dose and concentration-dependent response to pegnivacogin [time to peak thrombin generation (PTm), endogenous thrombin potential, peak thrombin generation, and velocity index (VIx)]. Reversal of the effect of pegnivacogin with anivamersen demonstrated restoration of thrombin generation without rebound effect. This first-in-human study of the effect of the REG2 Anticoagulation System on thrombin generation demonstrates concentration-dependent suppression of thrombin generation that is reversible without rebound effect, as measured by the CAT assay.
Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis 06/2014; · 1.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current classification criteria for definite Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) require the use of three laboratory assays to detect antiphospholipid antibodies (aCL, anti-β2GPI and LA) in the presence of at least one of the two major clinical manifestations (i.e. thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity) of the syndrome. However, several other autoantibodies shown to be directed to other proteins or their complex with phospholipids have been proposed to be relevant to APS but their clinical utility and their diagnostic value remains elusive. This report summarises the findings, conclusions and recommendations of the "APS Task Force 3 - Laboratory Diagnostics and Trends" meeting that took place during the 14th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies (APLA 2013, September 18-21, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: According to classification criteria for antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), laboratory diagnosis is based on the detection of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) by immunological assays with cardiolipin (aCL) and/or β2 glycoprotein I (aβ2 GPI) as antigen and/or lupus anticoagulants (LA). There is a large variety of assays assessing aPL and despite consensus guidelines, some issues remain unanswered. Factors that contribute to result variability include pre-, post- and analytical conditions, calibration, and assay-specific issues. Recommendations published in 2009 by this Subcommittee for the detection of LA have proven useful in standardization of this assay. Likewise, recommendations for detection of aCL and aβ2 GPI antibodies by immunoassays are needed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 03/2014; · 6.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous research has suggested autoimmune diseases are risk factors for developing venous thromboembolism (VTE). We assessed whether having diagnoses of selected autoimmune diseases associated with antiphospholipid antibodies-autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-were associated with having a VTE diagnosis among US adult hospitalizations. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the 2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. VTE and autoimmune diseases were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification coded diagnoses information. The percentages of hospitalizations with a VTE diagnosis among all non-maternal adult hospitalizations without any of the four autoimmune diseases of interest and among those with AIHA, ITP, RA, and SLE diagnoses were 2.28, 4.46, 3.35, 2.65 and 2.77 %, respectively. The adjusted odds ratios (OR) for having a diagnosis of VTE among non-maternal adult hospitalizations with diagnoses of AIHA, ITP, RA, and SLE were 1.25 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.49], 1.20 (95 % CI 1.07-1.34), 1.17 (95 % CI 1.13-1.21), and 1.23 (95 % CI 1.15-1.32), respectively, when compared to those without the corresponding conditions. The adjusted OR for a diagnosis of VTE associated with a diagnosis of any of the four autoimmune diseases was 1.20 (95 % CI 1.16-1.24). The presence of a diagnosis of AIHA, ITP, RA, and SLE was associated with an increased likelihood of having a VTE diagnosis among the group of all non-maternal adult hospitalizations.
Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis 01/2014; · 1.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) is characterized by vascular thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity occurring in patients with persistent antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). The primary objective of the APS Treatment Trends Task Force, created as part of the 14th International Congress on aPL, was to systematically review the potential future treatment strategies for aPL-positive patients. The task force chose as future clinical research directions: a) determining the necessity for venous thrombosis controlled clinical trials with the new oral direct thrombin or anti-Factor Xa inhibitors pending the results of ongoing rivaroxaban in APS (RAPS) trial, and designing controlled clinical trials in other forms of thrombotic APS; b) systematically analyzing the literature as well as aPL/APS registries, and creating specific registries for non warfarin/heparin anticoagulants; c) increasing recruitment for an ongoing primary thrombosis prevention trial, and designing secondary thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity prevention trials with hydroxychloroquine; d) determining surrogate markers to select patients for statin trials; e) designing controlled studies with rituximab and other anti B-cell agents; f) designing mechanistic and clinical studies with eculizumab and other complement inhibitors; and g) chemically modifying peptide therapy to improve the half-life and minimize immunogenicity. The report also includes recommendations for clinicians who consider using these agents in difficult-to-manage aPL-positive patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) is a common and burdensome complication of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Previous trials suggesting benefit of elastic compression stockings (ECS) to prevent PTS were small, single-centre studies without placebo control. We aimed to assess the efficacy of ECS, compared with placebo stockings, for the prevention of PTS.
We did a multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial of active versus placebo ECS used for 2 years to prevent PTS after a first proximal DVT in centres in Canada and the USA. Patients were randomly assigned to study groups with a web-based randomisation system. Patients presenting with a first symptomatic, proximal DVT were potentially eligible to participate. They were excluded if the use of compression stockings was contraindicated, they had an expected lifespan of less than 6 months, geographical inaccessibility precluded return for follow-up visits, they were unable to apply stockings, or they received thrombolytic therapy for the initial treatment of acute DVT. The primary outcome was PTS diagnosed at 6 months or later using Ginsberg's criteria (leg pain and swelling of ≥1 month duration). We used a modified intention to treat Cox regression analysis, supplemented by a prespecified per-protocol analysis of patients who reported frequent use of their allocated treatment. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00143598, and Current Controlled Trials, number ISRCTN71334751.
From 2004 to 2010, 410 patients were randomly assigned to receive active ECS and 396 placebo ECS. The cumulative incidence of PTS was 14·2% in active ECS versus 12·7% in placebo ECS (hazard ratio adjusted for centre 1·13, 95% CI 0·73–1·76; p=0·58). Results were similar in a prespecified per-protocol analysis of patients who reported frequent use of stockings.
ECS did not prevent PTS after a first proximal DVT, hence our findings do not support routine wearing of ECS after DVT.
Canadian Institutes of Health Research.
The Lancet 01/2014; 383(9920):880–888. · 39.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While aspirin is generally effective for prevention of cardiovascular disease, considerable variation in drug response exists, resulting in some individuals displaying high on-treatment platelet reactivity. We used pharmacometabolomics to define pathways implicated in variation of response to treatment. We profiled serum samples from healthy subjects pre- and postaspirin (14 days, 81 mg/day) using mass spectrometry. We established a strong signature of aspirin exposure independent of response (15/34 metabolites changed). In our discovery (N = 80) and replication (N = 125) cohorts, higher serotonin levels pre- and postaspirin correlated with high, postaspirin, collagen-induced platelet aggregation. In a third cohort, platelets from subjects with the highest levels of serotonin preaspirin retained higher reactivity after incubation with aspirin than platelets from subjects with the lowest serotonin levels preaspirin (72 ± 8 vs. 61 ± 11%, P = 0.02, N = 20). Finally, ex vivo, serotonin strongly increased platelet reactivity after platelet incubation with aspirin (+20%, P = 4.9 × 10(-4), N = 12). These results suggest that serotonin is implicated in aspirin response variability.
CPT: pharmacometrics & systems pharmacology. 01/2014; 3:e125.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background The clinical utility of genotype-guided (pharmacogenetically based) dosing of warfarin has been tested only in small clinical trials or observational studies, with equivocal results. Methods We randomly assigned 1015 patients to receive doses of warfarin during the first 5 days of therapy that were determined according to a dosing algorithm that included both clinical variables and genotype data or to one that included clinical variables only. All patients and clinicians were unaware of the dose of warfarin during the first 4 weeks of therapy. The primary outcome was the percentage of time that the international normalized ratio (INR) was in the therapeutic range from day 4 or 5 through day 28 of therapy. Results At 4 weeks, the mean percentage of time in the therapeutic range was 45.2% in the genotype-guided group and 45.4% in the clinically guided group (adjusted mean difference, [genotype-guided group minus clinically guided group], -0.2; 95% confidence interval, -3.4 to 3.1; P=0.91). There also was no significant between-group difference among patients with a predicted dose difference between the two algorithms of 1 mg per day or more. There was, however, a significant interaction between dosing strategy and race (P=0.003). Among black patients, the mean percentage of time in the therapeutic range was less in the genotype-guided group than in the clinically guided group. The rates of the combined outcome of any INR of 4 or more, major bleeding, or thromboembolism did not differ significantly according to dosing strategy. Conclusions Genotype-guided dosing of warfarin did not improve anticoagulation control during the first 4 weeks of therapy. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and others; COAG ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00839657 .).
New England Journal of Medicine 11/2013; · 51.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Black women have an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and the characteristics of thrombotic risk factors in this population are unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the racial differences in thrombotic risk factors among women with adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Uniform data were collected in women with adverse pregnancy outcomes (pregnancy losses, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), prematurity, placental abruption and preeclampsia) referred to Thrombosis Network Centers funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Among 343 white and 66 black women seen for adverse pregnancy outcomes, protein S and antithrombin deficiencies were more common in black women. The prevalence of diagnosed thrombophilia was higher among whites compared to blacks largely due to Factor V Leiden mutation. The prevalence of a personal history of venous thromboembolism (VTE) did not differ significantly by race. A family history of VTE, thrombophilia, and stroke or myocardial infarction (MI) was higher among whites. Black women had a higher body mass index, and a higher prevalence of hypertension, while the prevalence of sickle cell disease was approximately 27 fold higher compared to the general US black population.
Thrombotic risk factors differ significantly in white and black women with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Such differences highlight the importance of considering race separately when assessing thrombotic risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
The aim of this study was to examine the associations between depressive symptoms and mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia (MSIMI) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD).Methods
Adult patients with documented CHD were recruited for baseline mental stress and exercise stress screening testing as a part of the enrollment process of the Responses of Myocardial Ischemia to Escitalopram Treatment trial. Patients were administered the Beck Depression Inventory II and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. After a 24-48-hour β-blocker withdrawal, participants completed three mental stress tests followed by a treadmill exercise test. Ischemia was defined as a) any development or worsening of any wall motion abnormality and b) reduction of left ventricular ejection fraction at least 8% by transthoracic echocardiography and/or ischemic ST-segment change by electrocardiography during stress testing. MSIMI was considered present when ischemia occurred in at least one mental test. Data were analyzed using logistic regression adjusting for age, sex, and resting left ventricular ejection fraction.ResultsOne hundred twenty-five (44.2%) of 283 patients were found to have MSIMI, and 93 (32.9%) had ESIMI. Unadjusted analysis showed that Beck Depression Inventory II scores were positively associated with the probability of MSIMI (odds ratio = 0.1.30: 95% confidence interval = 1.06-1.60, p = .013) and number of MSIMI-positive tasks (all p < .005). These associations were still significant after adjustment for covariates (p values <.05).Conclusions
In patients with CHD, depressive symptoms were associated with a higher probability of MSIMI. These observations may enhance our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the association of depressive symptoms to future cardiovascular events.Trial RegistrationClinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00574847.
Psychosomatic Medicine 10/2013; · 4.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To the Editor: Baron et al. (May 30 issue)(1) make important suggestions in their review article; however, we propose that quantitative assessment of iatrogenic bleeding hazards must be considered as well as thrombosis prevention.(1) Although CHA2DS2-VASc scoring for atrial fibrillation is mentioned, the Hypertension, Abnormal Renal/Liver Function, Stroke, Bleeding History or Predisposition, Labile INR, Elderly, Drugs/Alcohol Concomitantly (HAS-BLED) score for bleeding has also been validated.(2) Both scores calculate estimated annual risks and benefits and hence can guide future therapy. Among the diverse causes of major bleeding outcomes associated with antithrombotic agents are periprocedural, intracranial, and gastrointestinal . . .
New England Journal of Medicine 09/2013; 369(11):1078. · 51.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To develop RNA profiles that could serve as novel biomarkers for the response to aspirin. Background: Aspirin reduces death and myocardial infarction (MI) suggesting that aspirin interacts with biological pathways that may underlie these events.
We administered aspirin, followed by whole blood RNA microarray profiling, in a discovery cohort of healthy volunteers (HV1,n=50), and two validation cohorts of volunteers (HV2,n=53) or outpatient cardiology patients (OPC, n=25). Platelet function was assessed by platelet function score (PFS; HV1/HV2) or VerifyNow Aspirin (OPC). Bayesian sparse factor analysis identified sets of coexpressed transcripts, which were examined for association with PFS in HV1 and validated in HV2 and OPC. Proteomic analysis confirmed the association of validated transcripts in platelet proteins. Validated gene sets were tested for association with death/MI in two patient cohorts (n=587, total) from RNA samples collected at cardiac catheterization.
A set of 60 co-expressed genes named the "aspirin response signature" (ARS) was associated with PFS in HV1 (r = -0.31, p = 0.03), HV2 (r = -0.34, Bonferroni p = 0.03), and OPC (p = 0.046). Corresponding proteins for 17 ARS genes were identified in the platelet proteome, of which, six were associated with PFS. The ARS was associated with death/MI in both patient cohorts (odds ratio = 1.2, p = 0.01 and hazard ratio = 1.5, p = 0.001), independent of cardiovascular risk factors. Compared with traditional risk factors, reclassification (net reclassification index = 31 - 37%, p ≤ 0.0002) was improved by including the ARS or one of its genes, ITGA2B.
RNA profiles of platelet-specific genes are novel biomarkers for identifying those do not response adequately to aspirin and who are at risk for death/MI.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 07/2013; · 14.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mental stress can induce myocardial ischemia and also has been implicated in triggering cardiac events. However, pharmacological interventions aimed at reducing mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia (MSIMI) have not been well studied.
To examine the effects of 6 weeks of escitalopram treatment vs placebo on MSIMI and other psychological stress-related biophysiological and emotional parameters.
The REMIT (Responses of Mental Stress Induced Myocardial Ischemia to Escitalopram Treatment) study, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of patients with clinically stable coronary heart disease and laboratory-diagnosed MSIMI. Enrollment occurred from July 24, 2007, through August 24, 2011, at a tertiary medical center.
Eligible participants were randomized 1:1 to receive escitalopram (dose began at 5 mg/d, with titration to 20 mg/d in 3 weeks) or placebo over 6 weeks. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Occurrence of MSIMI, defined as development or worsening of regional wall motion abnormality; left ventricular ejection fraction reduction of 8% or more; and/or horizontal or down-sloping ST-segment depression of 1 mm or more in 2 or more leads, lasting for 3 or more consecutive beats, during 1 or more of 3 mental stressor tasks.
Of 127 participants randomized to receive escitalopram (n = 64) or placebo (n = 63), 112 (88.2%) completed end point assessments (n = 56 in each group). At the end of 6 weeks, more patients taking escitalopram (34.2% [95% CI, 25.4%-43.0%]) had absence of MSIMI during the 3 mental stressor tasks compared with patients taking placebo (17.5% [95% CI, 10.4%-24.5%]), based on the unadjusted multiple imputation model for intention-to-treat analysis. A significant difference favoring escitalopram was observed (odds ratio, 2.62 [95% CI, 1.06-6.44]). Rates of exercise-induced ischemia were slightly lower at 6 weeks in the escitalopram group (45.8% [95% CI, 36.6%-55.0%]) than in patients receiving placebo (52.5% [95% CI, 43.3%-61.8%]), but this difference was not statistically significant (adjusted odds ratio; 1.24 [95% CI, 0.60-2.58]; P = .56).
Among patients with stable coronary heart disease and baseline MSIMI, 6 weeks of escitalopram, compared with placebo, resulted in a lower rate of MSIMI. There was no statistically significant difference in exercise-induced ischemia. Replication of these results in multicenter settings and investigations of other medications for reducing MSIMI are needed.
clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00574847.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 05/2013; 309(20):2139-49. · 29.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinicians are aware of the importance of thromboprophylaxis, and that the application of measures to prevent venous thromboembolism (VTE) occurrence in hospitalized patients must be improved. To enhance clinician execution of appropriate steps to reduce the risk of inpatient VTE, a performance improvement (PI) continuing medical education (CME) initiative consisting of 3 independent tracks for hospitalized patients-patients who are medically ill, patients receiving oncology treatment, and patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery-was designed and implemented. After a baseline chart review of select evidenced-based performance measures for VTE risk stratification and prevention, participants identified ≥ 1 area of personal improvement. Participants then engaged in a period of self-improvement and reassessed their performance with a second chart review. After participating in the PI CME activity, clinician participants in the medically ill track increased their documentation of VTE risk assessments upon patient admission from baseline (56% vs 93%, n = 250; P < 0.001) and their prescription of low-molecular-weight heparin, low-dose unfractionated heparin, or fondaparinux (72% vs 88%, n = 250; P < 0.001). Orthopedic-track participants were significantly more likely to prescribe 15 to 35 days of VTE prophylaxis after total hip arthroplasty or hip fracture surgery upon patient discharge compared with baseline (51%, n = 123 vs 61%, n = 107; P < 0.001). Oncology-track participants demonstrated a nonsignificant trend for assessing and documenting bleeding risk after participation in the PI CME activity (56% vs 68%, n = 80; P = 0.143). Improvements in evidence-based strategies to reduce the risk of inpatient VTE were associated with PI CME participation. Although areas for improvement remain, increased participant identification and use of prophylactic measures can reduce the risk of VTE in hospitalized patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Many hospitalized Medical Service patients are at risk for venous thromboembolism in the months after discharge. We conducted a multicenter randomized controlled trial to test whether a hospital staff member's thromboprophylaxis alert to an Attending Physician before discharge will increase the rate of extended out-of-hospital prophylaxis and, in turn, reduce the incidence of symptomatic venous thromboembolism at 90 days. METHODS: From April 2009 to January 2010, we enrolled hospitalized Medical Service patients using the point score system developed by Kucher et al to identify those at high risk for venous thromboembolism who were not ordered to receive thromboprophylaxis after discharge. There were 2513 eligible patients from 18 study sites randomized by computer in a 1:1 ratio to the alert group or the control group. RESULTS: Patients in the alert group were more than twice as likely to receive thromboprophylaxis at discharge as controls (22.0% vs 9.7%, P <.0001). Based on an intention-to-treat analysis, symptomatic venous thromboembolism at 90 days (99.9% follow-up) occurred in 4.5% of patients in the alert group, compared with 4.0% of controls (hazard ratio 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-1.69). The rate of major bleeding at 30 days in the alert group was similar to that of the control group (1.2% vs 1.2%, hazard ratio 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.44-2.01). CONCLUSIONS: Alerting providers to extend thromboprophylaxis after hospital discharge in Medical Service patients increased the rate of prophylaxis but did not decrease the rate of symptomatic venous thromboembolism.
The American journal of medicine 03/2013; · 5.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia.
Mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia is prevalent and a risk factor for poor prognosis in patients with coronary heart disease, but past studies mainly studied patients with exercise-induced myocardial ischemia.
Eligible patients with clinically stable coronary heart disease, regardless of exercise stress testing status, underwent a battery of 3 mental stress tests followed by a treadmill test. Stress-induced ischemia, assessed by echocardiography and electrocardiography, was defined as: 1) development or worsening of regional wall motion abnormality; 2) left ventricular ejection fraction reduction ≥8%; and/or 3) horizontal or downsloping ST-segment depression ≥1 mm in 2 or more leads lasting for ≥3 consecutive beats during at least 1 mental test or during the exercise test.
Mental stress-induced ischemia occurred in 43.45%, whereas exercise-induced ischemia occurred in 33.79% (p = 0.002) of the study population (N = 310). Women (odds ratio [OR]: 1.88), patients who were not married (OR: 1.99), and patients who lived alone (OR: 2.24) were more likely to have mental stress-induced ischemia (all p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that compared with married men or men living with someone, unmarried men (OR: 2.57) and married women (OR: 3.18), or living alone (male OR: 2.25 and female OR: 2.72, respectively) had higher risk for mental stress-induced ischemia (all p < 0.05).
Mental stress-induced ischemia is more common than exercise-induced ischemia in patients with clinically stable coronary heart disease. Women, unmarried men, and individuals living alone are at higher risk for mental stress-induced ischemia. (Responses of Myocardial Ischemia to Escitalopram Treatment [REMIT]; NCT00574847).
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 02/2013; 61(7):714-22. · 14.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protamine is routinely used to reverse heparin anticoagulation during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Heparin (H) interacts with protamine (PRT) to form ultra-large complexes that are immunogenic in mice. We hypothesized that patients exposed to PRT and H during CPB will develop antibodies to PRT/H complexes that are capable of platelet activation. Specimens from a recently completed prospective clinical trial (HIT 5801 study; n=500) of CPB patients were examined for PRT/H antibodies at baseline, 3-7 days, and 30 days after CPB. PRT/H antibody features were characterized and correlated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. We found a high incidence of PRT/H antibody formation (29%) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. PRT/H antibodies were of high titer (mean titer 1:14,744), showed heparin-dependent binding and activated platelets in the presence of protamine. PRT/H antibodies showed no cross-reactivity to platelet factor 4/heparin complexes, but were cross-reactive with protamine-containing insulin preparations. Complications of thrombocytopenia, thrombotic events or long-term cardiovascular events were not seen in the absence of circulating antigen. These studies show that antibodies to PRT/H occur commonly after cardiac bypass surgery, share a number of serologic features with HIT antibodies, including platelet activation, and may pose health risks to patients requiring drug re-exposure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The demographic and clinical characteristics of adults and children with lower extremity deep-vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism (LE DVT/PE) may differ from those with abdominal vein thrombosis (abdominal VT). Abdominal VT can be a presenting sign of an underlying prothrombotic state, and its presence in the setting of known disease might have prognostic implications different from LE DVT/PE. This study describes clinical presentations of abdominal VT compared to LE DVT/PE in adults and children. We analysed prospectively-collected data from consecutive consenting patients enrolled in one of seven Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded Thrombosis and Hemostasis Network Centers from August 2003 to April 2011 to compare the demographic and clinical characteristics of adults and children with abdominal VT. Both adults and children with abdominal VT tended to be younger and have a lower body mass index (BMI) than those with LE DVT/PE. Of patients with abdominal VT, children were more likely to have inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis than adults. For adults with venous thromboembolism (VTE), relatively more women had abdominal VT than LE DVT/PE, while the proportions with LE DVT/PE and abdominal VT by sex were similar in children. Children with abdominal VT were more likely to have diagnosed inherited thrombophilia, while trauma was more common in children with LE DVT/PE. In conclusion, both children and adults with abdominal VT were younger with a lower BMI than those with LE DVT/PE. Significant differences exist between children and adults in respect to abdominal VT compared to LE DVT/PE.
Thrombosis and Haemostasis 02/2013; 109(4). · 5.76 Impact Factor