ABSTRACT: Metagenomic analysis of milk samples collected from Kankrej, Gir (Bos indicus) and crossbred (Bos taurus × B. indicus) cattle harbouring subclinical mastitis was carried out by next-generation sequencing 454 GS-FLX technology to elucidate the microbial community structure of cattle milk.
Milk samples from Kankrej, Gir and crossbred cattle were subjected to metagenomic profiling by pyrosequencing. The Metagenomic analysis produced 63·07, 11·09 and 7·87 million base pairs (Mb) of sequence data, assembled in 264 798, 56 114 and 36 762 sequences with an average read length of 238, 197 and 214 nucleotides in Kankrej, Gir and crossbred cattle, respectively. Phylogenetic and metabolic profiles by the web-based tool MG-RAST revealed that the members of Enterobacteriales were predominant in mastitic milk followed by Pseudomonadales, Bacillales and Lactobacillales. Around 56 different species with varying abundance were detected in the subclinically infected milk. Escherichia coli was found to be the most predominant species in Kankrej and Gir cattle followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas mendocina, Shigella flexneri and Bacillus cereus. In crossbred cattle, Staphylococcus aureus followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus epidermidis and E. coli were detected in descending order. Metabolic profiling indicated fluoroquinolones, methicillin, copper, cobalt-zinc-cadmium as the groups of antibiotics and toxic compounds to which the organisms showed resistance. Sequences indicating potential of organisms exhibiting multidrug resistance against antibiotics and resistance to toxic compounds were also present. Interestingly, presence of bacteriophages against Staph. aureus, E. coli, Enterobacter and Yersinia species was also observed.
The analysis identified potential infectious organisms in mastitis, resistance of organisms to antibiotics and chemical compounds and the natural resistance potential of dairy cows.
The findings of this study may help in formulating strategies for the prevention and treatment of mastitis in dairy animals and consequently in reducing economic losses incurred because of it.
Journal of Applied Microbiology 01/2012; 112(4):639-50. · 2.34 Impact Factor