Sun Hwa Lee

Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Bucheon, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea

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Publications (104)282.33 Total impact

  • Particle and Particle Systems Characterization 03/2014; · 0.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previously, we reported on the anticancer effect of the diastereoisomeric compound MHY-449, a novel dihydro-benzofuro[4,5-b][1,8] naphthyridin-6-one derivative, in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. In the current study, we investigated whether MHY-449 has anticancer effect in prostate cancer cells, and if so, what the molecular mechanisms are. We examined the growth inhibitory effect of MHY-449 on p53 wild‑type (p53-wt) LNCaP (androgen‑dependent) and p53-null PC3 (androgen-independent) prostate cancer cells. MHY-449 treatment in androgen-independent and p53-null PC3 cells resulted in inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. However, MHY-449 did not show any significant effects on the growth inhibition and apoptotic cell death in androgen-dependent and p53-wt LNCaP cells. Therefore, we used PC3 cells for further studies. The induction of apoptosis in PC3 cells was observed by decreased viability, DNA fragmentation, cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, activations of caspase-3, -8 and -9, and alteration in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression. In addition, MHY-449 induced increase of late apoptosis and sub-G1 DNA which were observed by flow cytometry analysis. Furthermore, MHY-449 reduced the phosphorylation of Akt and FoxO1 and induced the translocation of FoxO1 from cytoplasm to nucleus as shown by western blot analysis. MHY-449 treatment activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in a concentration-dependent manner. MHY-449-induced apoptosis was partially prevented by pretreatment with the ERK inhibitor PD98059 suggesting involvement of ERK in the MHY-449-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these findings suggest that MHY-449 induces apoptosis via downregulation of the Akt/FoxO1 and activation of ERK in androgen-independent, p53-null and PTEN-negative PC3 human prostate cancer cells.
    International Journal of Oncology 01/2014; · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we compared cytotoxicity, cell cycle distribution, and apoptosis on MHY336 treatment in three human colorectal carcinoma HCT116 cells: p53+/+ (p53‑wt), p53-/- (p53-null), and p21-/- (p21-null), as well as investigated the roles of p53 and p21 in cell death. Using these three isogenic variants, the roles of p53 and p21 in the cellular response to treatment with MHY336, a novel topoisomerase IIα inhibitor, were investigated. Our results showed that MHY336 treatment increased the expression of p53 over time in cells with wild-type p53 status. This elevated levels of p53 is associated with increased DNA fragmentation, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, consistent with increased sensitivity of these cells to apoptotic stimuli. However, p53-null and p21-null cells were more resistant to the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of MHY336 than p53-wt cells. The same result was achieved by knocking down p53 and p21 with siRNA in p53-wt cells, indicating that p53 and p21 play a crucial role in MHY336-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that MHY336 could be a potential candidate to be used in chemoprevention and/or treatment of colon cancer.
    International Journal of Oncology 12/2013; · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) catalyzes the first committed step in triacylglycerol (TAG) and phospholipid biosynthesis, and has been considered as one of the drug targets for treating hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, and other metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the GPAT inhibitors from natural products and to evaluate their effects. The methanol extract of Aralia cordata roots showed a strong inhibitory effect on the human GPAT1 activity. A further bioactivity-guided approach led to the isolation of ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid, (PA), one of the major compounds of A. cordata, which suppressed the GPAT1 activity with IC50 value of 60.5 μM. PA markedly reduced de novo lysophosphatidic acid synthesis through inhibition of GPAT activity and therefore significantly decreased synthesis of TAG in the HepG2 cells. These results suggest that PA as well as A. cordata root extract could be beneficial in controlling lipid metabolism.
    Journal of medicinal food 11/2013; · 1.39 Impact Factor
  • Sun Hwa Lee, Yong-Eok Lee
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    ABSTRACT: The gene encoding α-L-arabinofuranosidase (AFase) from Paenibacillus sp. DG-22 was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The AFase gene (abfA) comprises a 1,509 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 502 amino acids with a molecular weight of 56,520 daltons. The deduced amino acid sequence of the gene shows that AbfA is an enzyme consisting of only a catalytic domain, and that the enzyme has significant similarity to AFases classified into family 51 of the glycosyl hydrolases. abfA was subcloned into the pQE60 expression vector to fuse it with a six-histidine tag and the recombinant AFase (rAbfA) was purified to homogeneity. The specific activity of the recombinant enzyme is 96.7 U/mg protein. Determination of apparent molecular mass by gel-filtration chromatography indicated that AbfA has a tetrameric structure. The optimal pH and temperature of the enzyme are 6.0 and 60°C, respectively. The enzyme activity is completely inhibited by 1 mM HgCl2. rAbfA is active only towards p-nitrophephenyl α-L-arabinofuranoside (pNPA) and exhibits Km and Vmax values of 3.5 mM and 306.1 U/mg, respectively. rAbfA shows a synergistic effect in combination with endoxylanase on the degradation of oat spelt xylan and wheat arabinoxylan.
    Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 11/2013; · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignant diseases and frequent cause of cancer deaths in the world. In spite of the significant advances in conventional therapeutic approaches to CRC, most patients ultimately die of their disease. There is a need to develop novel preventive approaches for this malignancy. This study was carried out to investigate the anticancer effect of MHY218, a hydroxamic acid derivative, in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. Treatment of cells with MHY218 resulted in growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. MHY218 induced G2/M phase arrest in the cell cycle progression which was observed by flow cytometry analysis, and a decrease in the protein expression of cyclin B1 and its activating partners Cdc25C and Cdc2. MHY218 also caused an increase in the expression levels of p21WAF1/CIP1, a G2/M phase inhibitor, in a p53-independent pathway. The induction of apoptosis was observed by decreased viability, DNA fragmentation, cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, alteration in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression, and activation of caspase-3, -8 and -9. In addition, MHY218 treatment showed downregulation of the expression levels of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in the nucleus, which has been reported to be implicated in the apoptotic cell death of several types of cancer cells, suppression of TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation, inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 expression, repression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 activation and decrease of 5-lipoxygenase in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that MHY218 may be a useful candidate to be used in the chemoprevention and/or treatment of colon cancer.
    International Journal of Oncology 11/2013; · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stress-induced cardiomyopathy (SCM) is characterized by apical ballooning on echocardiography, but some of SCM patients show non-apical involvement and their characteristics are not well defined. We investigated 56 patients that were diagnosed as SCM and divided them into 2 groups: apical ballooning syndrome (ABS, n = 49, 87.5%) and non-apical ballooning syndrome (N-ABS, n = 7, 12.5%) groups. Patients with N-ABS were significantly younger than those of the ABS group (52 ± 11 vs. 73 ± 10 years, p < 0.001). Types of preceding stressors and clinical presentation including chest pain, pulmonary edema, cardiogenic shock and in-hospital mortality were comparable between the two groups. In the N-ABS group, wall motion score index was significantly lower than in the ABS group (1.61 ± 0.35 vs. 1.93 ± 0.31, p = 0.016). On electrocardiogram (ECG), T-wave inversion (57.1% vs. 95.8%, p < 0.001) were less frequent in the N-ABS than in the ABS group. Furthermore, maximum QT and corrected QT (QTc) intervals in the N-ABS patients were significantly shorter than the ABS patients (QT, 419.9 ± 66.1 vs. 487.3 ± 79.6 ms, p = 0.038; QTc, 479.0 ± 61.9 vs. 568.0 ± 50.5 ms, p < 0.001). Patients with the N-ABS showed not only atypical echocardiographic findings, but also atypical clinical and ECG manifestations. Integrated consideration is needed to reach a diagnosis of the non-apical subtype of SCM.
    Journal of cardiovascular ultrasound 09/2013; 21(3):116-22.
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    ABSTRACT: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that results from a progressive loss of motor neurons. Familial ALS (fALS) is caused by missense mutations in Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) that frequently result in the accumulation of mutant-protein aggregates that are associated with impairments in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). UPS impairment has been implicated in many neurological disorders. Bee venom (BV) extracted from honey bees has been used as a traditional medicine for treating inflammatory diseases and has been shown to attenuate the neuroinflammatory events that occur in a symptomatic ALS animal model. NSC34 cells were transiently transfected with a WT or G85R hSOD1-GFP construct for 24 hrs and then stimulated with 2.5 mug/ml BV for 24 hrs. To determine whether a SOD1 mutation affects UPS function in NSC34 cells, we examined proteasome activity and performed western blotting and immunofluorescence using specific antibodies, such as anti-misfolded SOD1, anti-ubiquitin, anti-GRP78, anti-LC3, and anti-ISG15 antibodies. We found that GFP-hSOD1G85R overexpression induced SOD1 inclusions and reduced proteasome activity compared with the overexpression of GFP alone in NSC34 motor neuronal cells. In addition, we also observed that BV treatment restored proteasome activity and reduced the accumulation of ubiquitinated and misfolded SOD1 in GFP-hSOD1G85R-overexpressing NSC34 motor neuronal cells. However, BV treatment did not activate the autophagic pathway in these cells. Our findings suggest that BV may rescue the impairment of the UPS in ALS models.
    BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 07/2013; 13(1):179. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antithrombotic activity and bleeding complication of a new potent, selective, and direct thrombin inhibitor, LB30870, were evaluated in comparison with other anticoagulants. In order to improve oral absorption of LB30870, pharmacokinetics of LB30889, which is a double prodrug with blocking groups in both amidine and carboxyl groups, was studied in rats and dogs. LB30870 was more potent than melagatran or argatroban with thrombin inhibition constants of 0.02, 1.3 and 4.5nM, respectively. All three direct thrombin inhibitors were selective towards other serine proteases with selectivity ratio greater than 1000, except for trypsin. Thrombin binding kinetics of LB30870 showed rapid association and slow dissociation rate constants, demonstrating its potential as anticoagulant. LB30870 was more effective than melagatran or argatroban in plasma clot-bound thrombin inhibition. In the rat venous stasis model of the caval vein, LB30870 reduced wet clot weights in a dose dependent manner after the intravenous bolus with infusion administration. The ED50 of LB30870, melagatran and enoxaparin were 50μg/kg+2μg/kg/min, 35μg/kg+1.4μg/kg/min and 200μg/kg+8.3μg/kg/min, respectively. No significant bleeding problem was observed with LB30870 at the dose up to two times ED80 in rats. LB30889, a double prodrug of LB30870, showed species difference in pharmacokinetics. Its oral bioavailability in rats or dogs was not better than that of LB30870. In conclusion, LB30870 has the potential to be useful as an effective oral anticoagulant for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic diseases.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 07/2013; · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the performance of the VITEK MS for identification of Gram-positive cocci routinely isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories. With a total of 424 well-characterized isolates, the results of the VITEK MS were compared to those of conventional methods and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The VITEK MS correctly identified 97.9% of the isolates tested to species level. The VITEK MS correctly identified the species of 97.2% of the staphylococci (95.9% of coagulase-negative staphylococci), 97.8% of the streptococci, and 100% of the enterococci. For the identification of Gram-positive cocci isolates, the overall concordance rate between conventional identification and the VITEK MS was 94.5%. The VITEK MS MALDI-TOF system can be a reliable and rapid method for the identification of most relevant Gram-positive cocci. In addition, expanding the database of the VITEK MS, especially for coagulase-negative staphylococci, is needed to enhance the performance of the VITEK MS.
    Journal of Medical Microbiology 06/2013; · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: We investigated the effects of fetal undernutrition during pregnancy/lactation on visceral fat, lipid profiles, leptin, and adiponectin and examined the gender differences between males and females. Study Design: From 10 days to term gestation and through lactation, control pregnant rats were fed ad libitum (AdLib) food, whereas study rats were 50% food restricted (FR). Cross-fostering techniques were used to examine the effects of food restriction during pregnancy and lactation periods. Lipid profiles, leptin, and adiponectin were determined in offspring at ages 3 weeks and 6 months. We also measured the amount of visceral fat in the offspring. Results: The amount of visceral fat in the 6 month old FR/AdLib offspring was higher than that in control (p<0.05). Among the 6 month old offspring, triglyceride and leptin levels were higher in FR/AdLib offspring than those in controls (p<0.05). The female offspring had higher levels of triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, and adiponectin and the male offspring had higher levels of LDL cholesterol and leptin. Conclusion: Fetal undernutrition only during pregnancy resulted in obese offspring, higher levels of plasma triglyceride and leptin with gender differences.
    The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine: the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians 01/2013; · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 12/2012; 27(4):480.
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    ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most frequent cancer in men and the third most common cancer in women in Korea. In spite of the significant advances in conventional therapeutic approaches to CRC, most patients ultimately die of their disease. There is a need to develop novel preventive approaches for this malignancy. This study was carried out to investigate the anticancer effect of the diastereoisomeric compounds, MHY-449 and MHY-450, novel dihydrobenzofuro[4,5-b][1,8]naphthyridin-6-one derivatives, on HCT116 human colon cancer cells. MHY-449 exhibited more potent cytotoxicity than MHY-450, against HCT116 cells. Treatment of cells with MHY-449 resulted in growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner, and inhibition of proliferation in a time-dependent manner. The induction of apoptosis was observed by decreased cell viability, DNA fragmentation, activation of protein levels involved in death receptors. Moreover, activation of caspase-3, -8 and -9 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and alteration in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression was observed. MHY-449 induced G2/M phase arrest in the cell cycle progression which was observed by flow cytometry analysis, and a decrease in the protein expression of cyclin B1 and its activating partners Cdc25c and Cdc2. MHY-449 also caused increase in the expression levels of p53, a tumor suppressor gene, and p21WAF1/CIP and p27KIP, G2/M phase inhibitors. These results suggest that MHY-449 may be a useful candidate for chemo-prevention and/or treatment of colon cancer.
    International Journal of Oncology 10/2012; · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inhibition of acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) has been proposed as one of the drug targets for treating obesity and type 2 diabetes. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the MeOH-soluble extract of Rosmarinus officinalis yielded two new diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) inhibitory-abietane diterpenoids, 7β-hydroxy-20-deoxo-rosmaquinone (1) and 7β-methoxy-20-deoxo-rosmanol (2), along with six known components, carnosol (3), 7α-methoxyrosmanol (4), 7β-methoxyrosmanol (5), 12-methoxy-canosic acid (6), rosmanol (7), and rosmadial (8). Compounds 1–8 inhibited DGAT1 activity, with the IC50 values ranging from 39.5 ± 0.6 to 144.2 ± 3.1 μM. In particular, carnosol (3), which is one of the major compounds of MeOH-soluble extract of R. officinalis exhibits inhibition of de novo intracellular triacylglycerol synthesis in human hepatocyte HepG2 cells.
    Food Chemistry. 06/2012; 132(4):1775–1780.
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    ABSTRACT: Metal oxide charge transport layers are widely used to promote the interfacial charge transport of organic optoelectronics. Nevertheless, frequently used wide-bandgap metal oxides with low electrical conductivities reveal inherent limitations in the charge transport enhancement. We present the remarkable electro-conductivity enhancement of solution processable ZnO charge transport layers upon dispersing a tiny amount (less than 0.1 wt%) of chemically doped CNTs and the corresponding device performance improvement of light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Using various undoped or doped CNTs, whose work function was systematically tuned by substitutional doping of electron deficient B or electron rich N,N-doped CNT (N-CNT), the composite showed a lowered work function matching well with the conduction band of ZnO. Consequently, the ZnO/N-CNT nanocomposite transport layer with 0.08 wt% N-CNT showed a five-fold enhancement of electron mobility, while maintaining the intrinsic bandgap energy levels, optical transparency and solution processability of pure ZnO. The inverted OLEDs employing ZnO/N-CNT nanocomposite electron transport layers could facilitate well-balanced electron–hole injection and, thus, more than two-fold enhancement of maximum luminance (from 21000 cd m−2 at 14.6 V to 46100 cd m−2 at 14.0 V) and efficiency (from 6.9 cd A−1 at 13.4 V to 14.3 cd A−1 at 13.6 V). This highly effective charge mobility enhancement enabled by work function tunable, chemically doped CNTs would be beneficial for various organic and inorganic charge transport materials with different energy levels.
    Journal of Materials Chemistry 06/2012; 22(25):12695-12700. · 5.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined that the protective effects of ANX1 on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol- 13-acetate (TPA)-induced skin inflammation in animal models using a Tat-ANX1 protein. Topical application of the Tat-ANX1 protein markedly inhibited TPAinduced ear edema and expression levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin- 1 beta (IL-1 β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Also, application of Tat-ANX1 protein significantly inhibited nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κ B) and phosphorylation of p38 and extracellular signalregulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in TPA-treated mice ears. The results indicate that Tat-ANX1 protein inhibits the inflammatory response by blocking NF-κ B and MAPK activation in TPA-induced mice ears. Therefore, the Tat-ANX1 protein may be useful as a therapeutic agent against inflammatory skin diseases.
    BMB reports 06/2012; 45(6):354-9. · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial cells play an important role in leukocyte trafficking during the inflammatory process. Proinflammatory cytokines activate the expression of cell adhesion molecules in endothelial cells. Janus kinase (JAK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) are important intracellular cytokine signaling molecules that are involved in immune responses. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of JAK3 inhibition on the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced cell adhesion molecules in vascular endothelial cells and to evaluate the therapeutic potential of JAK3 for myocardial vascular permeability in endotoxemic mice. A JAK3 inhibitor, JANEX-1, decreased the TNF-α-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, VCAM (vascular cell adhesion molecule)-1 and fractalkine in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The downregulation of the expression of these cell adhesion molecules by JANEX-1 was mediated via suppression of STAT3 phosphorylation and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. In endotoxemic mice, pretreatment with JANEX-1 prevented not only an increase in the cardiac ICAM-1 expression by LPS in the arteriolar and capillary endothelial cells, but also myocardial vascular leakage. These results suggest that inhibition of the JAK/STAT pathway by JANEX-1 ameliorates the expression of TNF-α-induced cell adhesion molecules in HUVECs and improves myocardial vascular permeability.
    International Journal of Molecular Medicine 05/2012; 29(5):864-70. · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Scutellaria baicalensis has been extensively employed for the clinical treatment of hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, hypertension, dysentery, inflammatory diseases, and the common cold. The present study was performed to investigate the anti-obesity and anti-dyslipidemia effect of Scutellaria baicalensis extracts (SBE) in type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Male db/db mice were divided into three groups (n = 5) and orally administrated vehicle (control), SBE 10, and 100 mg/kg body weight/day for 4 weeks everyday. Administration of SBE improves weight gain, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperinsulinemia in db/db mice. In obese db/db mice, SBE treatment also reduced plasma alanine aminotransferase levels. In the livers of db/db mice, SBE promoted 5' AMP-activated protein kinase activity and restored metabolic process and insulin signaling pathways. Our data demonstrate that SBE exerts potent anti-obesity and anti-hypertriglyceride effects suggesting its useful potential function as adjuvant therapeutic agent for the treatment of weight gain and hypertriglyceridemia. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 04/2012; · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Angiotensin-(1-7) [ANG-(1-7)] plays a counterregulatory role to angiotensin II in the renin-angiotensin system. In trained spontaneous hypertensive rats, Mas expression and protein are upregulated in ventricular tissue. Therefore, we examined the role of ANG-(1-7) on cardiac hemodynamics, cardiac functions, and cardiac remodeling in trained two-kidney one-clip hypertensive (2K1C) rats. For this purpose, rats were divided into sedentary and trained groups. Each group consists of sham and 2K1C rats with and without ANG-(1-7) infusion. Swimming training was performed for 1 h/day, 5 days/wk for 4 wk following 1 wk of swimming training for acclimatization. 2K1C rats showed moderate hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy without changing left ventricular function. Chronic infusion of ANG-(1-7) attenuated hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy only in trained 2K1C rats but not in sedentary 2K1C rats. Chronic ANG-(1-7) treatment significantly attenuated increases in myocyte diameter and cardiac fibrosis induced by hypertension in only trained 2K1C rats. The Mas receptor, ANG II type 2 receptor protein, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation in ventricles were upregulated in trained 2K1C rats. In conclusion, chronic infusion of ANG-(1-7) attenuates hypertension in trained 2K1C rats.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 03/2012; 302(11):H2372-80. · 3.63 Impact Factor
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    Angewandte Chemie International Edition 01/2012; 51(4):912-5. · 13.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

444 Citations
282.33 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine
      Bucheon, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
    • Dongguk University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2008–2013
    • Chonbuk National University Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2012
    • Korea Research Institute of Bioscience & Biotechnology KRIBB
      • Molecular Cancer Research Center
      Anzan, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 2005–2012
    • Hallym University
      • • Department of Biomedical Science
      • • College of Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2011
    • Chonbuk National University
      • School of Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2007–2011
    • Seoul National University of Technology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
      • Department of Materials Science and Engineering
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2006
    • Hanyang University
      • Division of Materials Science and Engineering (MSE)
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Neodin Medical Institute
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2003–2004
    • Konkuk University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • LG Life Sciences R&D Park
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1993
    • Seoul National University
      • College of Pharmacy
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea