[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ceramides with ultralong chains (≥30 carbons), also known as acylceramides, play a critical role in the survival of mammals on dry land. An efficient and scalable synthesis of four major classes of ultralong human skin ceramides is reported. The key approach involves the use of a succinimidyl ester that acts as a protective group, helps overcome the extremely low solubility, and simultaneously activates the fatty acid for its clean and high-yielding attachment to a sphingoid base.
OPEN ACCESS at http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.orglett.5b02816
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The treatment of many diseases is highly dependent on natural products and natural products can also be used as design templates for future anticancer drugs. Thirteen Amaryllidaceae alkaloids possessing a-crinane, b-crinane, galantamine, lycorine and tazettine-type skeleton have been isolated in our laboratory, and their cytotoxicity against p53-mutated gastrointestinal cancer cells were evaluated. At the same time, healthy small intestine cells were used to determine overall toxicity against noncancerous cells. In this study, we demonstrated that haemanthamine, haemanthidine and lycorine showed strong cytotoxicity against p53-mutated Caco-2 and HT-29 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells as quantified in terms of IC 50 values. We for the first time observed approximately 20 times higher IC 50 values against normal intestine epithelial cells FHs-74 Int after haemanthamine and lycorine treatment when compared with Caco-2 and HT-29 cancer cells. In conclusion, our data indicate that a-C2 bridged haemanthamine may be perspective anticancer drug candidate for further semisynthetic modification and structure-activity relationship study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new synthetic route towards chiral 3,5-disubstituted pyrrol-2-ones by starting from amino acids has been developed. The sequence features the conversion of amino acids into their corresponding alkynoic acid derivative followed by a Pd-catalyzed hydrostannylation of the triple bond and Stille cross-coupling reaction. A series of lactam analogues of antifungal 3-(aryl)-5-hydroxymethyl-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-ones have thus been prepared. A new method has been developed for the synthesis of 3,5-disubstituted pyrrol-2-ones. This protocol allows for the preparation of a large number of compounds by choosing different precursors at a late stage in the synthesis. The antimicrobial activity for some of the synthesized compounds was also examined.
European Journal of Organic Chemistry 07/2015; 2015(24). DOI:10.1002/ejoc.201500620 · 3.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eleven isoquinoline alkaloids (1-11) were isolated from dried leaves of Peumus boldus Mol. by standard chromatographic methods. The chemical structures were elucidated by MS, and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis, and by comparison with literature data. Compounds isolated in sufficient amount were evaluated for their acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition activity using Ellman's method. In the prolyl oligopeptidase assay, Z-Gly-Pro-p-nitroanilide was used as substrate. Promising butyrylcholinesterase inhibition activities were demonstrated by two benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, reticuline (8) and N-methylcoclaurine (9), with IC50 values of 33.6 ± 3.0 µM and 15.0 ± 1.4 µM, respectively. Important prolyl oligopeptidase inhibition activities were shown by N-methyllaurotetanine (6) and sinoacutine (4) with IC50 values of 135.4 ± 23.2 µM and 143.1 ± 25.4 µM, respectively. Other tested compounds were considered inactive.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Migita-Stille coupling of (Z)-β-iodoacrylates with (E)-α-stannyl allylic alcohols to furnish 5-alkylidene-4-substituted-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-ones is efficiently catalyzed by 2% Pd black in DMF, while Pd(PPh3)4 is inactive. Heterogeneous Pd released in solution is most likely responsible for the catalysis. The reaction is applicable to other substrates, without having to resort to ligands, additives, and/or solid support for Pd. The resulting pyranones can be rearranged to fully functionalized pyranones in another single step.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New quaternary ammonium salt-type compounds with lipophilic cholesterol and terpene moieties were synthesized. The compounds showed promising antibacterial and antimycobacterial activities. Those compounds containing the cholesterol moiety showed significant activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Enterococcus faecium. On the contrary, the antimycobacterial activity increased with the presence of the terpene unit in the molecule. New quaternary ammonium salt-type compounds with lipophilic cholesterol and terpene moieties were synthesized, yielding new potential disinfectants with broad-spectrum activity. Compounds containing the cholesterol moiety showed significant activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Enterococcus faecium, whereas compounds with the terpene unit displayed increased antimycobacterial activity.
Archiv der Pharmazie 06/2014; 347(6). DOI:10.1002/ardp.201300407 · 1.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of heterocyclic derivatives analogous to (-)vasicinone, in which the vasicinone C-ring was replaced with alkyl chain terminated by tertiary amine was prepared. N3, C4-O, C4-S or C4-N were used as the sites of attachment. The 4-[3-(1-piperidyl)propylsulfanyl]derivatives displayed bronchodilatory effect at low micromolar concentrations on isolated rat trachea, and low toxicity both on Balb/c 3T3 mouse fibroblast cells and in mice.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 01/2014; 74C:65-72. DOI:10.1016/j.ejmech.2013.12.024 · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 5-Chloropyrazinamide (5-Cl-PZA) is an inhibitor of mycobacterial fatty acid synthase I with a broad spectrum of antimycobacterial activity in vitro. Some N-phenylpyrazine-2-carboxamides with different substituents on both the pyrazine and phenyl core possess significant in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To test the activity of structures combining both the 5-Cl-PZA and anilide motifs a series of thirty 5-chloro-N-phenylpyrazine-2-carboxamides with various substituents R on the phenyl ring were synthesized and screened against M. tuberculosis H37Rv, M. kansasii and two strains of M. avium. Most of the compounds exerted activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv in the range of MIC = 1.56-6.25 µg/mL and only three derivatives were inactive. The phenyl part of the molecule tolerated many different substituents while maintaining the activity. In vitro cytotoxicity was decreased in compounds with hydroxyl substituents, preferably combined with other hydrophilic substituents. 5-Chloro-N-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)pyrazine-2-carboxamide (21) inhibited all of the tested strains (MIC = 1.56 µg/mL for M. tuberculosis; 12.5 µg/mL for other strains). 4-(5-Chloropyrazine-2-carboxamido)-2-hydroxybenzoic acid (30) preserved good activity (MIC = 3.13 µg/mL M. tuberculosis) and was rated as non-toxic in two in vitro models (Chinese hamster ovary and renal cell adenocarcinoma cell lines; SI = 47 and 35, respectively).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bulbs of Zephyranthes robusta (Amaryllidaceae) have been extensively analyzed for their chemical constituents, resulting in the isolation of 13 alkaloids. The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by mass-spectrometric, and 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic experiments. The complete NMR assignments were achieved for hippeastidine. All isolated alkaloids were evaluated for their erythrocytic acetylcholinesterase and serum butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activities using the Ellman's method. Significant acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity was exhibited by 8-O-demethylmaritidine (IC50 (HuAChE) 28.0±0.9 μM).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To develop new potential antimycobacterial drugs, a series of pyrazinamide derivatives was designed, synthesized and tested for their ability to inhibit the growth of selected mycobacterial strains (Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, Mycobacterium kansasii and two strains of Mycobacterium avium). This Letter is focused on binuclear pyrazinamide analogues containing the -CONH-CH2- bridge, namely on N-benzyl-5-chloropyrazine-2-carboxamides with various substituents on the phenyl ring and their comparison with some analogously substituted 5-chloro-N-phenylpyrazine-2-carboxamides. Compounds from the N-benzyl series exerted lower antimycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv then corresponding anilides, however comparable with pyrazinamide (12.5-25μg/mL). Remarkably, 5-chloro-N-(4-methylbenzyl)pyrazine-2-carboxamide (8, MIC=3.13μg/mL) and 5-chloro-N-(2-chlorobenzyl)pyrazine-2-carboxamide (1, MIC=6.25μg/mL) were active against M. kansasii, which is naturally unsusceptible to PZA. Basic structure-activity relationships are presented.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nabumetone is a non-acidic, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory prodrug. Following oral administration, the prodrug is converted in the liver to 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6-MNA), which was found to be the principal metabolite responsible for the NSAID effect. The pathway of nabumetone transformation to 6-MNA has not been clarified, with no intermediates between nabumetone and 6-MNA having been identified to date. In this study, a new, as yet unreported phase I metabolite was discovered within the evaluation of nabumetone metabolism by human and rat liver microsomal fractions. Extracts from the biomatrices were subjected to chiral LLE-HPLC-PDA and achiral LLE-UHPLC-MS/MS analyses to elucidate the chemical structure of this metabolite. UHPLC-MS/MS experiments detected the presence of a structure corresponding to elemental composition C15H16O3, which was tentatively assigned as a hydroxylated nabumetone. Identical nabumetone and HO-nabumetone UV spectra obtained from the PDA detector ruled out the presence of the hydroxy group in the aromatic moiety of nabumetone. Hence, the most likely structure of the new metabolite was 4-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl)-3-hydroxybutan-2-one (3-hydroxy nabumetone). To confirm this structure, the standard of this nabumetone metabolite was synthesized, its spectral (UV, CD, NMR, MS/MS) and retention properties on chiral and achiral chromatographic columns were evaluated and compared with those of the authentic nabumetone metabolite. To elucidate the subsequent biotransformation of 3-hydroxy nabumetone, the compound was used as a substrate in incubation with human and rat liver microsomal fraction. A number of 3-hydroxy nabumetone metabolites (products of conjugation with glucuronic acid, O-desmethylation, carbonyl reduction and their combination) were discovered in the extracts from the incubated microsomes using LLE-HPLC-PDA-MS/MS experiments. On the other hand, when 3-hydroxy nabumetone was incubated with isolated rat hepatocytes, 6-MNA was detected as the principal metabolite of 3-hydroxy nabumetone. Hence, 3-hydroxy nabumetone could be the missing link in nabumetone biotransformation to 6-MNA (i.e. nabumetone→3-hydroxy nabumetone→6-MNA).
Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 03/2013; 80C:164-172. DOI:10.1016/j.jpba.2013.03.006 · 2.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Contrary to a number of reports, alkylations of the privileged 3,4-dihydroquinazoline scaffold provide N3-alkylated products, and not 4-alkoxyquinazolines. To correctly assign the structure, 13C NMR shifts of the –Z–CHn– (Z=O, N) fragment are necessary; resonances in the 45–55 ppm range are indicative of N3-alkylation. Treatment of 3,4-dihydroquinazoline-4-one with p-TsCl afforded the N3-tosylated compound, whose reaction with an amine yielded the corresponding N3-alkyl derivative. A mechanism corroborated by 15N-labeling involving pyrimidine ring opening and recyclisation is proposed. Finally, the unambiguous preparation of 4-alkoxyquinazolines is described via treatment of 3,4-dihydroquinazoline-4-ones with PCl5 followed by an alkoxide.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of pyrazinamide derivatives with alkylamino substitution was designed, synthesized and tested for their ability to inhibit the growth of selected mycobacterial, bacterial and fungal strains. The target structures were prepared from the corresponding 5-chloro (1) or 6-chloropyrazine-2-carboxamide (2) by nucleophilic substitution of chlorine by various non-aromatic amines (alkylamines). To determine the influence of alkyl substitution, corresponding amino derivatives (1a, 2a) and compounds with phenylalkylamino substitution were prepared. Some of the compounds exerted antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv significantly better than standard pyrazinamide and corresponding starting compounds (1 and 2). Basic structure-activity relationships are presented. Only weak antibacterial and no antifungal activity was detected.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of 19 new compounds related to pyrazinamide were synthesized, characterized with analytical data and screened for in vitro whole cell antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, Mycobacterium kansasii and two types of Mycobacterium avium. The series consisted of 3-(benzylamino)-5-cyanopyrazine-2-carboxamides and 3-(benzylamino)pyrazine-2,5-dicarbonitriles with various substituents on the phenyl ring. RP-HPLC method was used to determine the lipophilicity of the prepared compounds. Nine compounds exerted similar or better activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis compared to pyrazinamide (MIC=6.25-12.5μg/mL). 3-(Benzylamino)pyrazine-2,5-dicarbonitrile inhibited all of the tested mycobacterial strains with MIC within the range 12.5-25μg/mL. Although not the most active, 4-NH(2) substituted compounds possessed the lowest in vitro cytotoxicity (hepatotoxicity), leading to selectivity index SI=5.5 and SI >21.