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ABSTRACT: We evaluated 78 patients with chronic viral hepatitis for liver transplantation. 51 patients met our original criteria for liver transplantation,and 35 patients of them suffered from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients with HCC were significantly older and showed higher prothrombin activity than those without HCC. Eighteen of 35 patients with HCC did not meet the Milan criteria, and they showed lower levels of total bilirubin, Child-Pugh score, and MELD score than those who met the criteria. Theses results indicate that acceptability for transplantation should be evaluated soon after the patients have become candidates for liver transplantation. In Japan, decompensated liver cirrhosis is a necessary condition for the application of public health insurance against liver transplantation and,in cases with HCC,it is necessary to meet the Milan criteria.Application to liver transplantation should also be considered based on HCC stage such as the UNOS scoring system.