[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties of 3,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzyl alcohol (DHMBA), a natural phenolic antioxidant isolated from the Pacific oyster, were defined using cultured human hepatocyte-derived cells (C3A). DHMBA showed no cytotoxicity at 62.5–500 μM, as well as chlorogenic acid (CGA), vitamin C, and vitamin E. However, butylated hydroxytoluene, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and catechin reduced cell viability. In the presence of the prooxidant 2,2′-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH), DHMBA at 125–500 μM improved cell viability, whereas CGA had no effect. DNA ladder formation and flow-cytometric studies indicated that DHMBA inhibited AAPH-induced apoptosis and necrosis. CGA was ineffective. Thus, DHMBA is a novel, potent antioxidant, effectively protecting cultured hepatocytes from apoptosis and necrosis caused by oxidative stress. Additionally, the concentration of DHMBA was determined by mass spectrometry to be 24.4 μmol/kg wet oyster meat, and three polyphenols (gentisic acid, daidzein, and matairesinol) were newly identified in the oyster extracts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary aldosteronism (PA), characterized by the autonomous hypersecretion of aldosterone, is the most common cause of secondary hypertension. Patients with PA have a higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity than essential hypertension. The two common subtypes of PA, aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA), should be differentiated, because the former is an indication for adrenalectomy, and the latter is treated by medication. 18-Hydroxycortisol and 18-oxocortisol, known as hybrid steroids, have been recognized as markers for the differentiation of aldosterone-producing adenoma and rare glucocorticoid remediable hyperaldosteronism from other subtypes of PA. Hybrid steroids have been measured using immunoassays such as enzyme-linked immunoassays; however, immunoassays for hybrid steroids are not widely used. Recently, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for hybrid steroids was developed. The ability to measure hybrid steroids using LC-MS/MS will be useful for the differential diagnosis of subtypes of PA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, a novel method for evaluating antioxidant activity against low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation (anti-LDLox) using a carbon nanotube (CNT) based electrode was investigated. Although ORAC and DPPH are known methods to evaluate antioxidant activity, they do not directly reflect the capacities of anti-LDLox. A method has been reported for measuring oxidized LDL using a CNT electrode. We evaluated anti-LDLox by measuring the amount of oxidized LDL using the electrode after incubation of LDL with antioxidants during copper-mediated oxidation. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were also determined for comparison with the CNT electrode. There was a correlation of the CNT electrode with the TBARS and the ORAC, whereas no correlation was found between the CNT electrode and the DPPH. We demonstrate here that a CNT electrode method has a potential for the determination of the antioxidant activity of various natural and synthetic compounds by detecting oxidized LDL.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidation of lipoproteins is thought to play a crucial role in atherogenesis. Role for triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in atherogenesis is unclear. Thus, we aimed to investigate whether cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides (CEOOH) are present in very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL) by using highly sensitive liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.
Total lipids were extracted from the plasma of healthy donors (n = 6) and their fractions of VLDL and IDL. Additional three plasma samples were analysed freshly for CEOOH. Detection and identification of CEOOH was conducted by liquid chromatography/LTQ ion trap mass spectrometry/Orbitrap high mass accuracy mass spectrometry. Authentic standards of CEOOH were used for unequivocal identification on the basis of their mass spectra.
We identified six molecular CEOOH species overall, namely, Ch18:1-OOH, Ch18:2-OOH, Ch18:3-OOH, Ch20:4-OOH, Ch20:5-OOH and Ch22:6-OOH. Of them, Ch18:2-OOH, Ch20:5-OOH, Ch20:4-OOH and Ch22:6-OOH were detected in all IDL samples, while only Ch20:4-OOH was detected in all VLDL samples. All of CEOOH species except for Ch18:3-OOH were detected in plasma, with constant detection of Ch20:5-OOH, and Ch22:6-OOH in all plasma samples.
The presence of CEOOH species in VLDL and IDL was confirmed with the analytical sensitivity of 0.1 pmol, showing the constant appearance of more CEOOH species in IDL than VLDL. This finding might add biochemical evidences of atherogenicity of these lipoproteins. Clinical utility of measuring CEOOH level in these lipoproteins need to be investigated for the risk assessment of the cardiovascular disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidized-low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), which is generated by LDL oxidation, is a risk factor of cardiovascular disease development. LDL has positive charges on the surface attributable to amino groups of lysine moieties on Apo B-100. Its positive charge is decreased by oxidation. For this paper, the topography and surface potential of LDL and ox-LDL are measured using atomic force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). Although it is difficult to ascertain a difference between topographic images of LDL and ox-LDL, the KPFM images of ox-LDL differ from those obtained using LDL. The averaged potential of the surface decreases concomitantly with increasing oxidation time of the LDL. We demonstrate a method to evaluate the oxidation level of LDL using KPFM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The size of lipoprotein particles is relevant to the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD).
We investigated the feasibility of atomic force microscopy (AFM) for evaluating the size of large low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and small dense LDL (sd-LDL) separated by ultracentrifugation. The measurements by AFM in tapping mode were compared to those by electron microscopy (EM).
There was a significant difference in particle sizes determined by AFM between large LDL (20.6 ± 1.9 nm, mean ± SD) and sd-LDL (16.2 ± 1.4 nm) obtained from six healthy volunteers (P < 0.05). The particle sizes determined by EM for the same samples were 23.2 ± 1.4 nm for large LDL and 20.4 ± 1.4 nm for sd-LDL. The difference between large LDL and sd-LDL detected by EM was also statistically significant (P < 0.05). In addition, the particle sizes of each lipoprotein fraction were significantly different between AFM and EM: P < 0.05 for large LDL and P < 0.05 for sd-LDL.
AFM can differentiate between sd-LDL and large LDL particles by their size, and might be useful for evaluating risk for CAD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Triglyceride-rich, low-density lipoproteins (TG-rich LDL) have been reported as an oxidized lipoprotein species in patients with severe liver disease. Using TG-rich LDL as an immunogen, we obtained a monoclonal antibody (G11-6) that reacted with TG-rich LDL from patients with liver disease and with metal-oxidized LDL only in the early process of the oxidation reaction. This study determined the G11-6-reactive lipoproteins in hypertriglyceridemic serum.
Serum samples from healthy volunteers (n = 12) and hypertriglyceridemic patients (n = 9) were fractionated by gel filtration and subjected to a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using G11-6 and polyclonal anti-apolipoprotein B antibodies.
Small LDL and larger lipoproteins reacted with G11-6. G11-6-reactive small LDL was identified in both the healthy subjects and hypertriglyceridemic patients, whereas G11-6-reactive larger lipoproteins were found only in the hypertriglyceridemic patients.
G11-6 is a useful tool for detecting increased large oxidized lipoproteins in hypertriglyceridemic patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urinary 18-hydroxycortisol has been investigated as a marker of aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA). The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method for the measurement of 18-hydroxycortisol using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).
Urine was collected over a 24-hour period in patients with APA (n = 11), idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA, n = 9), and essential hypertension (EH, n = 6). 18-Hydroxycortisol was extracted in solid-phase, and measured by LC-MS/MS based on selected reaction monitoring.
The method allowed quantification of 18-hydroxycortisol with a lower quantification limit of 0.26 nmol/L, intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation of <3.4% and a range of analytical recovery of 98.0-103.7%. Urinary 18-hydroxycortisol excretion for APA, IHA and EH were determined as 725 (SD 451), 102 (SD 68) and 88 (SD 76) nmol/day, respectively.
The proposed method met the basic analytical requirements and was considered to be useful in the screening and differential diagnosis of APA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herein, we represent a simple method for the detection and characterization of molecular species of triacylglycerol monohydroperoxides (TGOOH) in biological samples by use of reversed-phase liquid chromatography with a LTQ Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer (LC/LTQ Orbitrap) via an electrospray ionization source. Data were acquired using high-resolution, high-mass accuracy in Fourier-transform mode. Platform performance, related to the identification of TGOOH in human lipoproteins and plasma, was estimated using extracted ion chromatograms with mass tolerance windows of 5 ppm. Native low-density lipoproteins (nLDL) and native high-density lipoproteins (nHDL) from a healthy donor were oxidized by CuSO4 to generate oxidized LDL (oxLDL) and oxidized HDL (oxHDL). No TGOOH molecular species were detected in the nLDL and nHDL, whereas 11 species of TGOOH molecules were detected in the oxLDL and oxHDL. In positive-ion mode, TGOOH was found as [M + NH4](+). In negative-ion mode, TGOOH was observed as [M + CH3COO](-). TGOOH was more easily ionized in positive-ion mode than in negative-ion mode. The LC/LTQ Orbitrap method was applied to human plasma and three molecular species of TGOOH were detected. The limit of detection is 0.1 pmol (S/N = 10:1) for each synthesized TGOOH.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Measurement of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) generated by oxidative stress of various kinds might be useful for evaluating the risk of cardiovascular disease. We evaluated some electrode materials to detect oxidized LDL electrochemically. Some carbon nanotube dispersions were studied as electrode materials. Native LDL was isolated from normal human serum using ultracentrifugation. Oxidized LDL was prepared by treating the native LDL with CuSO4. Electrodes were fabricated by depositing the nanotube dispersion on a gold electrode, with subsequent drying. The potential change of the electrode against a reference electrode was monitored before and after adding native LDL or oxidized LDL. Only acid-treated carbon nanotubes were able to discriminate both LDL preparations, perhaps because of the carboxylic acid groups introduced on the nanotube by acid treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 3,5-Dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzyl alcohol (DHMBA), an antioxidant isolated from the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas), was studied in a cell-based fluorometric antioxidant assay using human hepatocyte-derived cells (C3A) and diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine (DPPP) as a fluorescent probe. In comparison with two hydrophilic antioxidants, DHMBA showed the stronger inhibition of DPPP-mediated fluorescence than chlorogenic acid and l-ascorbic acid: at a concentration of 320μM of DPPP, the inhibition was 26.4±2.6%, 11.1±1.2%, and 0±2.0% for DHMBA, chlorogenic acid, and l-ascorbic acid, respectively (mean±SD, n=4). Their relative oxygen radical absorbance capacities (ORAC) were dissociated with their cell-based antioxidant activities: 1.47±0.40, 4.57±0.30, and 0.53±0.13μmol TE/μmol for DHMBA, chlorogenic acid, and l-ascorbic acid, respectively (mean±SD, n=4). The amphiphilicity of DHMBA was better than chlorogenic acid and l-ascorbic acid might underlie this dissociation. Since the C3A cells are human hepatoma-derived cells, DHMBA might be useful in the prevention and treatment of liver diseases by involving an oxidation process.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Triglyceride-rich low-density lipoproteins (TG-rich LDLs) in the plasma of patients with severe liver disease are reported to change macrophages into foam cells in vitro.
Male BALB/c mice were immunized with TG-rich LDLs isolated from the plasma of a patient with severe liver disease. The resulting monoclonal antibody (G11-6) was used in a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in combination with polyclonal anti-apolipoprotein B antibodies. The time course of copper-mediated LDL oxidation was monitored using this ELISA. The results were compared with those of the two commercial ELISAs for oxidized LDLs using DLH or ML25, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the optical absorbance for the conjugated dienes generated in lipid peroxides. Furthermore, the lipoprotein fractions separated by gel filtration were tested with this ELISA in healthy volunteers (n = 11) and patients (n = 3) with liver disease.
G11-6 reacted with oxidized LDLs during only the early phase of copper oxidation, being distinct from the other monoclonal antibodies and methods. G11-6 was confirmed to react with TG-rich LDLs in patients, while it reacted with small LDL particles in normal controls.
The monoclonal antibody G11-6 is useful for detecting oxidized small LDLs in normal controls and oxidized TG-rich LDLs in patients with severe liver disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidation of cholesteryl esters in lipoproteins by reactive oxygen species yields cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides (CEOOH). In this study, we developed a novel method for identification and characterization of CEOOH molecules in human lipoproteins by use of reversed-phase liquid chromatography with an hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer (LC-LTQ Orbitrap). Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric analysis was performed in both positive-ion and negative-ion modes. Identification of CEOOH molecules was completed by use of high-mass-accuracy (MA) mass spectrometric data obtained by using the spectrometer in Fourier-transform (FT) mode. Native low-density lipoproteins (nLDL) and native high-density lipoproteins (nHDL) from a healthy donor were oxidized by CuSO(4), furnishing oxidized LDL (oxLDL) and oxidized HDL (oxHDL). No CEOOH molecules were detected in the nLDL and the nHDL, whereas six CEOOH molecules were detected in the oxLDL and the oxHDL. In positive-ion mode, CEOOH was detected as [M + NH(4)](+) and [M + Na](+) ions. In negative-ion mode, CEOOH was detected as [M + CH(3)COO](-) ions. CEOOH were more easily ionized in positive-ion mode than in negative-ion mode. The LC-LTQ Orbitrap method was applied to human plasma and six species of CEOOH were detected. The limit of detection was 0.1 pmol (S/N = 5:1) for synthesized CEOOH.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) play a key role in cardiovascular disease development, but no convenient measurement method is available for them. Using a carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode, we measured oxidized LDL using amperometric detection. Treating SWCNT with a mixture of acids produced a CNT dispersion that yielded nanotube-based electrodes after deposition on a gold electrode and drying. Current was monitored in the nanotube electrode before and after adding LDL or oxidization of LDL. Oxidized LDL changed the current more than 10 nA, although LDL addition induced no significant change. Our CNT electrode enables simple detection of oxidized LDL.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1-Palmitoyl-2-linoleoylphosphatidylcholine monohydroperoxide (PC 16:0/18:2-OOH) and 1-stearoyl-2-linoleoylphosphatidylcholine monohydroperoxide (PC 18:0/18:2-OOH) were measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) using nonendogenous 1-palmitoyl-2-heptadecenoylphosphatidylcholine monohydroperoxide as an internal standard. The calibration curves for synthetic PC 16:0/18:2-OOH and PC 18:0/18:2-OOH, which were obtained by direct injection of the internal standard into the LC/MS system, were linear throughout the calibration range (0.8-12.8 pmol). Within-day and between-day coefficients of variation were less than 10%, and the recoveries were between 86% and 105%. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were determined using synthetic standards. The LOD (signal-to-noise ratio 3:1) was 0.01 pmol, and the LOQ (signal-to-noise ratio 6:1) was 0.08 pmol for both PC 16:0/18:2-OOH and PC 18:0/18:2-OOH. With use of this method, the concentrations of PC 16:0/18:2-OOH and PC 18:0/18:2-OOH in the lipoprotein fractions during copper-mediated oxidation were determined. We prepared oxLDL and oxHDL by incubating native LDL and native HDL from human plasma (n = 10) with CuSO(4) for up to 4 h. The time course of the PC 16:0/18:2-OOH and PC 18:0/18:2-OOH levels during oxidation consisted of three phases. For oxidized LDL, both compounds exhibited a slow lag phase and a subsequent rapidly increasing propagation phase, followed by a gradually decreasing degradation phase. In contrast, for oxidized HDL, both compounds initially exhibited a prompt propagation phase with a subsequent plateau phase, followed by a rapid degradation phase. The analytical LC/MS method for phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxides might be useful for the analysis of biological samples.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using an oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, antioxidant activity was detected in the ethanol extract of the Pacific oyster, which was purified by sequential extraction with organic solvents. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the strongest antioxidant activity and was further purified, yielding a single compound [as assessed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)]. This compound was identified as 3,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzyl alcohol on the basis of (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation (HMBC), and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) spectral analyses, a conclusion that was confirmed by chemical synthesis. The concentration of the compound was 6.7 mg/100 g of whole oyster meat wet weight. This amphiphilic antioxidant retarded the copper-mediated oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and the generation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Furthermore, the compound showed substantial antioxidant activity using the ORAC and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays compared to natural antioxidants. Although the same compound was previously found in brown algae, its presence in other organisms and antioxidant activity are reported here for the first time.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A simple method for the measurement of LDL particle sizes is needed in clinical laboratories because a predominance of small, dense LDL (sd LDL) has been associated with coronary heart disease. We applied dynamic light scattering (DLS) to measure lipoprotein particle sizes, with special reference to sd LDL.
Human serum lipoproteins isolated by a combination of ultracentrifugation and gel chromatography, or by sequential ultracentrifugation, were measured for particle size using DLS.
The sizes of polystyrene beads, with diameters of 21 and 28 nm according to the manufacturer, were determined by DLS as 19.3 +/- 1.0 nm (mean +/- SD, n = 11) and 25.5 +/- 1.0 nm, respectively. The coefficients of variation for the 21 and 28 nm beads were 5.1% and 3.8% (within-run, n = 11), and 2.9% and 6.2% (between-run, n = 3), respectively. The lipoprotein sizes determined by DLS for lipoprotein fractions isolated by chromatography were consistent with the elution profile. Whole serum, four isolated lipoprotein fractions (CM + VLDL + IDL, large LDL, sd LDL and HDL) and a non-lipoprotein fraction isolated by sequential ultracentrifugation were determined by DLS to be 13.1 +/- 7.5, 37.0 +/- 5.2, 21.5 +/- 0.8, 20.3 +/- 1.1, 8.6 +/- 1.5 and 8.8 +/- 2.0 nm, respectively.
The proposed DLS method can differentiate the sizes of isolated lipoprotein particles, including large LDL and sd LDL, and might be used in clinical laboratories in combination with convenient lipoprotein separation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method has been developed for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxides (PC-OOH) in human plasma using a synthetic hydroperoxide (1-stearoyl-2-erucoyl-PC monohydroperoxide, PC 18:0/22:1-OOH) as an internal standard. 1-Stearoyl-2-linoleoyl-PC monohydroperoxide (PC 18:0/18:2-OOH) was identified in plasma by LC/MS by comparison with an authentic standard. The calibration curves obtained for 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-PC monohydroperoxide, PC 16:0/18:2-OOH and PC 18:0/18:2-OOH were linear throughout the calibration range (0.1-1.0 pmol). The limit of detection (LOD) (S/N=3:1) was 0.01 pmol, and the limit of quantification (LOQ) (S/N=6:1) was 0.1 pmol for both PC 16:0/18:2-OOH and PC 18:0/18:2-OOH. Plasma concentrations of PC 16:0/18:2-OOH and PC 18:0/18:2-OOH were 89 and 32 nM, respectively, in a healthy volunteer.