[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liver cirrhosis has been shown to affect cardiac performance. However cardiac dysfunction may only be revealed under stress conditions. The value of non-invasive stress tests in diagnosing cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is unclear. We sought to investigate the response to pharmacological stimulation with dobutamine in patients with cirrhosis using cardiovascular magnetic resonance.
Thirty-six patients and eight controls were scanned using a 1.5 T scanner (Siemens Symphony TIM; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Conventional volumetric and feature tracking analysis using dedicated software (CMR42; Circle Cardiovascular Imaging Inc, Calgary, Canada and Diogenes MRI; Tomtec; Germany, respectively) were performed at rest and during low to intermediate dose dobutamine stress.
Whilst volumetry based parameters were similar between patients and controls at rest, patients had a smaller increase in cardiac output during stress (p = 0.015). Ejection fraction increase was impaired in patients during 10 μg/kg/min dobutamine as compared to controls (6.9 % vs. 16.5 %, p = 0.007), but not with 20 μg/kg/min (12.1 % vs. 17.6 %, p = 0.12). This was paralleled by an impaired improvement in circumferential strain with low dose (median increase of 14.4 % vs. 30.9 %, p = 0.03), but not with intermediate dose dobutamine (median increase of 29.4 % vs. 33.9 %, p = 0.54). There was an impaired longitudinal strain increase in patients as compared to controls during low (median increase of 6.6 % vs 28.6 %, p < 0.001) and intermediate dose dobutamine (median increase of 2.6%vs, 12.6 % p = 0.016). Radial strain response to dobutamine was similar in patients and controls (p > 0.05).
Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is characterized by an impaired cardiac pharmacological response that can be detected with magnetic resonance myocardial stress testing. Deformation analysis parameters may be more sensitive in identifying abnormalities in inotropic response to stress than conventional methods.
Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 07/2015; 17(1):61. DOI:10.1186/s12968-015-0157-6 · 5.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interest in strain (ε) and strain rate (SR) for the assessment of pediatric left ventricular (LV) myocardial function has increased. However, the strengths and limitations of published pediatric nomograms have not been critically evaluated. A literature search was conducted accessing the National Library of Medicine using the keywords myocardial velocity, strain, strain rate, pediatric, reference values, and nomograms. Adding the following keywords, the results were further refined: neonates, infants, adolescents, range/intervals, and speckle tracking. Ten published studies evaluating myocardial velocities, ε, or SR nomograms were analyzed. Sample sizes were limited in most of these studies, particularly in terms of neonates. Heterogeneous methods-tissue Doppler imaging, two- and three-dimensional speckle tracking-were used to perform and normalize measurements. Although most studies adjusted measurements for age, classification by specific age subgroups varied. Few studies addressed the relationships of ε and SR measurements to body size and heart rate. Data have been generally expressed by mean values and standard deviations; Z scores and percentiles that are commonly employed for pediatric echocardiographic quantification have been never used. Reference values for ε and SR were found to be reproducible in older children; however, they varied significantly in neonates and infants. Pediatric nomograms for LV ε and SR are limited by (a) small sample sizes, (b) inconsistent methodology used for derivation and normalization, and (c) scarcity of neonatal data. Some of the studies demonstrate reproducible patterns for systolic deformation in older children. There is need for comprehensive nomograms of myocardial ε and SR involving a large population of normal children obtained using standardized methodology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) offers quantification of phasic atrial functions based on volumetric assessment and more recently, on CMR feature tracking (CMR-FT) quantitative strain and strain rate (SR) deformation imaging. Inter-study reproducibility is a key requirement for longitudinal studies but has not been defined for CMR-based quantification of left atrial (LA) and right atrial (RA) dynamics.
Long-axis 2- and 4-chamber cine images were acquired at 9:00 (Exam A), 9:30 (Exam B) and 14:00 (Exam C) in 16 healthy volunteers. LA and RA reservoir, conduit and contractile booster pump functions were quantified by volumetric indexes as derived from fractional volume changes and by strain and SR as derived from CMR-FT. Exam A and B were compared to assess the inter-study reproducibility. Morning and afternoon scans were compared to address possible diurnal variation of atrial function.
Inter-study reproducibility was within acceptable limits for all LA and RA volumetric, strain and SR parameters. Inter-study reproducibility was better for volumetric indexes and strain than for SR parameters and better for LA than for RA dynamics. For the LA, reservoir function showed the best reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.94–0.97, coefficient of variation (CoV) 4.5–8.2 %), followed by conduit (ICC 0.78–0.97, CoV 8.2–18.5 %) and booster pump function (ICC 0.71–0.95, CoV 18.3–22.7). Similarly, for the RA, reproducibility was best for reservoir function (ICC 0.76–0.96, CoV 7.5–24.0 %) followed by conduit (ICC 0.67–0.91, CoV 13.9–35.9) and booster pump function (ICC 0.73–0.90, CoV 19.4–32.3). Atrial dynamics were not measurably affected by diurnal variation between morning and afternoon scans.
Inter-study reproducibility for CMR-based derivation of LA and RA functions is acceptable using either volumetric, strain or SR parameters with LA function showing higher reproducibility than RA function assessment. Amongst the different functional components, reservoir function is most reproducibly assessed by either technique followed by conduit and booster pump function, which needs to be considered in future longitudinal research studies.
Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 05/2015; 17(1):36. DOI:10.1186/s12968-015-0140-2 · 5.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our purpose was to evaluate yield of tools commonly advocated for surveillance of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF).
All patients (pts) with TOF, seen at any time from 1/2008 to 9/2013 in an academic cardiology practice were studied. At the first and each subsequent outpatient visit, the use of tools including history and physical (H&P), ECG, Holter (HOL), echocardiogram (Echo), MR or CT (MR-CT) and stress testing (STR) were noted. Recommendations for intervention (INT) and for time to next follow-up were recorded; rationale for each INT with attribution to one or more tools was identified.
There were 213 pts (mean 11.5 years, 130 male) who had 916 visits, 123 of which (13.4%) were associated with 138 INTs (47 surgical, 54 catheter-mediated, 37 other medical). Recommended follow-up interval was 9.44±6.5 months, actual mean follow-up interval was 11.7 months. All 916 (100%) patient visits had a H&P which contributed to 47.2% of INT decisions. Echo was performed in 652 (71.2%) of visits, and contributed to 53.7% of INTs. MR-CT was obtained in 129 (14.1%) of visits, and contributed to 30.1% of INTs. ECG was applied in 137 (15%) visits, and contributed to 1.6% of INTs. HOL was obtained in 188 (20.5%) visits, and contributed to 11.3% of INTs. STR was performed at 101 (11%) of visits, and contributed to 8.9% of INTs.
INTs are common in repaired TOF, but when visits average every 11-12 months, most visits do not result in INT. H&P, Echo and HOL were the most frequently applied screens, and all frequently yielded relevant information to guide INT decisions. STR and MR/CT were applied as targeted testing and in this limited, non-screening role had high relevance for INT. There was low utilisation of ECG and major impact on INT was not demonstrated. Risk stratification in TOF may be possible, and could result in more efficient surveillance and targeted testing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The routine use of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in pediatric cardiac surgery remains controversial. Our aim was to test whether BNP adds information to predict risk in pediatric cardiac surgery.
In all, 587 children undergoing cardiac surgery (median age 6.3 months; 1.2-35.9 months) were prospectively enrolled at a single institution. BNP was measured pre-operatively, on every post-operative day in the intensive care unit, and before discharge. The primary outcome was major complications and length ventilator stay >15 days. A first risk prediction model was fitted using Cox proportional hazards model with age, body surface area and Aristotle score as continuous predictors. A second model was built adding cardiopulmonary bypass time and arterial lactate at the end of operation to the first model. Then, peak post-operative log-BNP was added to both models. Analysis to test discrimination, calibration, and reclassification were performed.
BNP increased after surgery (p<0.001), peaking at a mean of 63.7 h (median 36 h, interquartile range 12-84 h) post-operatively and decreased thereafter. The hazard ratios (HR) for peak-BNP were highly significant (first model HR=1.40, p=0.006, second model HR=1.44, p=0.008), and the log-likelihood improved with the addition of BNP at 12 h (p=0.006; p=0.009). The adjunction of peak-BNP significantly improved the area under the ROC curve (first model p<0.001; second model p<0.001). The adjunction of peak-BNP also resulted in a net gain in reclassification proportion (first model NRI=0.089, p<0.001; second model NRI=0.139, p=0.003).
Our data indicates that BNP may improve the risk prediction in pediatric cardiac surgery, supporting its routine use in this setting.
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 04/2015; DOI:10.1515/cclm-2014-1084 · 2.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: To determine whether quantitative wall motion assessment by CMR myocardial feature tracking (CMR-FT) would reduce the impact of observer experience as compared to visual analysis in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM).
Methods: 15 consecutive patients with ICM referred for assessment of hibernating myocardium were studied at 3 Tesla using SSFP cine images at rest and during low dose dobutamine stress (5 and 10 μg/kg/min of dobutamine). Conventional visual, qualitative analysis was per- formed independently and blinded by an experienced and an inexperienced reader, fol- lowed by post-processing of the same images by CMR-FT to quantify subendocardial and subepicardial circumferential (Eccendo and Eccepi) and radial (Err) strain. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) were assessed for each strain parameter and operator to detect the presence of inotropic reserve as visually defined by the experienced observer.
Results: 141 segments with wall motion abnormalities at rest were eligible for the analysis. Visual scoring of wall motion at rest and during dobutamine was significantly different between the experienced and the inexperienced observer (p<0.001). All strain values (Eccendo, Eccepi and Err) derived during dobutamine stress (5 and 10 μg/kg/min) showed similar diagnostic accuracy for the detection of contractile reserve for both operators with no differences in ROC (p>0.05). Eccendo was the most accurate (AUC of 0.76, 10 μg/kg/min of dobutamine) parameter. Diagnostic accuracy was worse for resting strain with differences between oper- ators for Eccendo and Eccepi (p<0.05) but not Err (p>0.05).
Conclusion: Whilst visual analysis remains highly dependent on operator experience, quantitative CMR- FT analysis of myocardial wall mechanics during DS-CMR provides diagnostic accuracy for the detection of inotropic reserve regardless of operator experience and hence may improve diagnostic robustness of low-dose DS-CMR in clinical practice.
PLoS ONE 04/2015; 10(4):e0122858. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0122858 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims Ebstein's anomaly (EA) involves a displaced and dysplastic tricuspid valve resulting in an atrialized portion of the right ventricle and an enlargement of the functional right ventricle and right atrium. Biomarkers targeting heart failure such as brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) or haematological parameters [haemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrit (Hct)] are upregulated in states of pulmonary hypoperfusion. We hypothesized that decreased pulmonary perfusion dependent on the stage of right heart failure is a possible mechanism in EA, and that it can be correlated with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between BNP and haematological parameters with functional parameters from CMR and exercise testing in patients with EA.