[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The opportunistic yeast pathogen Candida glabrata is recognized for its ability to acquire resistance during prolonged treatment with azole antifungals (5). Resistance to azoles is largely mediated by the transcription factor PDR1, resulting in the upregulation of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins and drug efflux. Studies in the related yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have shown Pdr1p forms a heterodimer with another transcription factor, Stb5p. In C. glabrata the ORF designated CAGL0I02552g has 38.8% amino acid identity with STB5 (YHR178w), and shares an N-terminal Zn(2)Cys(6) binuclear cluster domain and a fungal specific transcriptional factor domain, prompting us to test for homologous function and a possible role in azole resistance. Complementation of Δyhr178w (Δstb5) with CAGL0I02552g resolved the increased sensitivity to cold, hydrogen peroxide and caffeine of the mutant, for which reason we designated CAGl0I02552g as CgSTB5. Overexpression of CgSTB5 in C. glabrata repressed azole resistance, whereas deletion of CgSTB5 caused a modest increase in resistance.. Expression analysis found that CgSTB5 shares many of the same transcriptional targets as CgPDR1 but, unlike the latter, is a negative regulator of pleiotropic drug resistance, including the ABC transporter genes CDR1, PDH1, and YOR1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The perceptual differentiation of odors can be measured behaviorally using generalization gradients. The steepness of these gradients defines a form of olfactory acuity for odor quality that depends on neural circuitry within the olfactory bulb and is regulated by cholinergic activity therein as well as by associative learning. Using this system as a reduced model for age-related cognitive decline, we show that aged mice, while maintaining almost the same baseline behavioral performance as younger mice, are insensitive to the effects of acutely elevated acetylcholine, which sharpens generalization gradients in young adult mice. Moreover, older mice exhibit evidence of chronically elevated acetylcholine levels in the olfactory bulb, suggesting that their insensitivity to further elevated levels of acetylcholine may arise because the maximum capacity of the system to respond to acetylcholine has already been reached. We propose a model in which an underlying, age-related, progressive deficit is mitigated by a compensatory cholinergic feedback loop that acts to retard the behavioral effects of what would otherwise be a substantial age-related decline in olfactory plasticity. We also treated mice with 10-day regimens of olfactory environmental enrichment and/or repeated systemic injections of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine. Each treatment alone sharpened odor quality acuity, but administering both treatments together had no greater effect than either alone. Age was not a significant main effect in this study, suggesting that some capacity for acetylcholine-dependent plasticity is still present in aged mice despite their sharply reduced ability to respond to acute increases in acetylcholine levels. These results suggest a dynamical framework for understanding age-related decline in neural circuit processing in which the direct effects of aging can be mitigated, at least temporarily, by systemic compensatory responses. In particular, a decline in cholinergic efficacy can precede any breakdown in cholinergic production, which may help explain the limited effectiveness of cholinergic replacement therapies in combating cognitive decline.
Neurobiology of aging 12/2011; 32(12):2254-65. DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2009.12.024 · 5.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA microarrays were used to analyze Candida glabrata oropharyngeal isolates from seven hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients whose isolates developed azole resistance while the recipients received fluconazole prophylaxis. Transcriptional profiling of the paired isolates revealed 19 genes upregulated in the majority of resistant isolates compared to their paired susceptible isolates. All seven resistant isolates had greater than 2-fold upregulation of C. glabrata PDR1 (CgPDR1), a master transcriptional regulator of the pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) network, and all seven resistant isolates showed upregulation of known CgPDR1 target genes. The altered transcriptome can be explained in part by the observation that all seven resistant isolates had acquired a single nonsynonymous mutation in their CgPDR1 open reading frame. Four mutations occurred in the regulatory domain (L280P, L344S, G348A, and S391L) and one in the activation domain (G943S), while two mutations (N764I and R772I) occurred in an undefined region. Association of azole resistance and the CgPDR1 mutations was investigated in the same genetic background by introducing the CgPDR1 sequences from one sensitive isolate and five resistant isolates into a laboratory azole-hypersusceptible strain (Cgpdr1 strain) via integrative transformation. The Cgpdr1 strain was restored to wild-type fluconazole susceptibility when transformed with CgPDR1 from the susceptible isolate but became resistant when transformed with CgPDR1 from the resistant isolates. However, despite the identical genetic backgrounds, upregulation of CgPDR1 and CgPDR1 target genes varied between the five transformants, independent of the domain locations in which the mutations occurred. In summary, gain-of-function mutations in CgPDR1 contributed to the clinical azole resistance, but different mutations had various degrees of impact on the CgPDR1 target genes.