[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigate the effects of blood flow and extravascular tissue shearing on diffusing-wave spectroscopy (DWS) signals from deep tissue, using an ex vivo porcine kidney model perfused artificially at controlled arterial pressure and flow. Temporal autocorrelation functions g((1))(τ) of the multiply scattered light field show a decay which is described by diffusion for constant flow, with a diffusion coefficient scaling linearly with volume flow rate. Replacing blood by a non-scattering fluid reveals a flow-independent background dynamics of the extravascular tissue. For a sinusoidally driven perfusion, field autocorrelation functions g((1))(τ, t') depend on the phase t' within the pulsation cycle and are approximately described by diffusion. The effective diffusion coefficient D(eff)(t') is modulated at the driving frequency in the presence of blood, showing coupling with flow rate; in the absence of blood, D(eff)(t') is modulated at twice the driving frequency, indicating shearing of extravascular tissue as the origin of the DWS signal. For both constant and pulsatile flow the contribution of extravascular tissue shearing to the DWS signal is small.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We introduce a method for noninvasively measuring muscle contraction in vivo, based on near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy (DWS). The method exploits the information about time-dependent shear motions within the contracting muscle that are contained in the temporal autocorrelation function g(1)(τ,t) of the multiply scattered light field measured as a function of lag time, τ, and time after stimulus, t. The analysis of g(1)(τ,t) measured on the human M. biceps brachii during repetitive electrical stimulation, using optical properties measured with time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy, shows that the tissue dynamics giving rise to the speckle fluctuations can be described by a combination of diffusion and shearing. The evolution of the tissue Cauchy strain e(t) shows a strong correlation with the force, indicating that a significant part of the shear observed with DWS is due to muscle contraction. The evolution of the DWS decay time shows quantitative differences between the M. biceps brachii and the M. gastrocnemius, suggesting that DWS allows to discriminate contraction of fast- and slow-twitch muscle fibers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Emotional stimuli are preferentially processed compared to neutral ones. Measuring the magnetic resonance blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response or EEG event-related potentials, this has also been demonstrated for emotional versus neutral words. However, it is currently unclear whether emotion effects in word processing can also be detected with other measures such as EEG steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) or optical brain imaging techniques. In the present study, we simultaneously performed SSVEP measurements and near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy (DWS), a new optical technique for the non-invasive measurement of brain function, to measure brain responses to neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant nouns flickering at a frequency of 7.5 Hz.
The power of the SSVEP signal was significantly modulated by the words' emotional content at occipital electrodes, showing reduced SSVEP power during stimulation with pleasant compared to neutral nouns. By contrast, the DWS signal measured over the visual cortex showed significant differences between stimulation with flickering words and baseline periods, but no modulation in response to the words' emotional significance.
This study is the first investigation of brain responses to emotional words using simultaneous measurements of SSVEPs and DWS. Emotional modulation of word processing was detected with EEG SSVEPs, but not by DWS. SSVEP power for emotional, specifically pleasant, compared to neutral words was reduced, which contrasts with previous results obtained when presenting emotional pictures. This appears to reflect processing differences between symbolic and pictorial emotional stimuli. While pictures prompt sustained perceptual processing, decoding the significance of emotional words requires more internal associative processing. Reasons for an absence of emotion effects in the DWS signal are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We use near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy to non-invasively measure the contraction of skeletal muscle in humans with a temporal resolution of 6 ms. Muscle strain is determined by using the analytical solution of the correlation-diffusion equation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Changes in scalp and cortical blood flow induced by voluntary hyperventilation are investigated by near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy. The temporal intensity autocorrelation function g(2) (tau) of multiply scattered light is recorded from the forehead of subjects during hyperventilation. Blood flow within the sampled tissue volume is estimated by the mean decay rate of g(2) (tau) . Data measured from six subjects show that the pattern of the hemodynamic response during 50 s hyperventilation is rather complicated: within the first 10 s, in three subjects an initial increase in blood flow is observed; from 10 s to 20 s, the mean blood flow is smaller than its baseline value for all six subjects; for the duration from 20 s to 30 s, the blood flow increases again. However, after 30 s the change is not consistent across subjects. Further study on one of these subjects by using two receivers probing the blood flow in the cortex and in the superficial layers simultaneously, reveals that during hyperventilation, the direction of change in blood flow within the scalp is opposite to the one in the brain. This helps to understand the complicated hemodynamic response observed in our measurements.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 06/2009; DOI:10.1117/12.831575 · 0.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multispeckle diffusing-wave spectroscopy (DWS) is used to measure blood flow transients in the human visual cortex following stimulation by 7.5 Hz full-field and checkerboard flickering. The average decay time tau(d) characterizing the decay of the DWS autocorrelation function shows a biphasic behavior; within about 2 s after stimulation onset, tau(d) increases rapidly to about 6% above the baseline value. At later times, tau(d) slowly decreases and reaches a steady-state value about 5% below the baseline value after about 15 s. The initial increase of the DWS signal suggests a transient reduction of the cortical blood flow velocity shortly after stimulation onset. Measurements of this transient response at different positions over the primary visual cortex show a spatial pattern different from the one measured by electroencephalography.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a technique for the measurement of temporal field autocorrelation functions of multiply scattered light with subsecond acquisition time. The setup is based on the parallel detection and autocorrelation of intensity fluctuations from statistically equivalent but independent speckles using a fiber bundle, an array of avalanche photodiodes, and a multichannel autocorrelator with variable integration times between 6.5 and 104 ms. Averaging the autocorrelation functions from the different speckles reduces the integration time in diffusing-wave spectroscopy experiments drastically, thus allowing us to resolve nonstationary scatterer dynamics with single-trial measurements. We present applications of the technique to the measurement of arterial and venous blood flow in deep tissue. We find strong deviations both of the shape and characteristic decay time of autocorrelation functions recorded at different phases of the pulsation cycle from time-averaged autocorrelation functions.