[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) was sequenced from Mytella charruana (N = 243) at 10 Brazilian coastal localities to search for cryptic species, doubly uniparental inheritance and investigate genetic population structure and demography. Three haplogroups were found: two matrilinear (A and B) in males and females, and one patrilinear (C) found only in males. The p-distances were 0.0624 (A and B), 0.2097 (A and C) and 0.2081 (B and C). Coalescence of M. charruana occurred around 12.5 Mya, and the origins of the lineages were 3.4 and 4 Mya (matrilinear A and B) and 51.2 Mya (patrilinear), which split before the separation of the genera Perna and Mytella. All individuals from the northern coast of Brazil belonged to the haplogroup A, whereas haplogroup B predominated among individuals from the eastern and northeastern coasts, with one exception, Goiana. Haplogroup C was found in males from the northern to the eastern coast. GenBank sequences of M. charruana from Colombia, Ecuador and four populations introduced to the USA joined Brazilian haplogroup B. Nuclear gene 18S-ITS1 sequences confirmed that all specimens belong to the same species. Four populations from the northern coast of Brazil were homogenous with evidence of recent population expansion. All populations from the northeastern and eastern coasts of Brazil were significantly structured (pairwise FST and AMOVA). The heterogeneity among Brazilian populations requires that relocation for aquaculture be preceded by genetic identification of the haplogroups. Differences in salinity and temperature may have selected for distinct lineages of mussels and changing conditions in coasts and estuaries may allow only resistant lineages of mussel to persist with the loss of others. In the light of global climate change, more detailed data on temperature, pH, salinity and local currents could help explain the genetic structuring observed among populations of Brazilian M. charruana.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four Brazilian populations of Anomalocardia brasiliana were tested for mutual genetic homogeneity, using data from 123 sequences of the mtDNA cytochrome oxidase c subunit I gene. A total of 36 haplotypes were identified, those shared being H3 (Canela Island, Prainha and Acupe) and both H5 and H9 (Prainha and Acupe). Haplotype diversity values were high, except for the Camurupim population, whereas nucleotide values were low in all the populations, except for that of Acupe. Only the Prainha population showed a deviation from neutrality and the SSD test did not reject the demographic expansion hypothesis. Fst values showed that the Prainha and Acupe populations represent a single stock, whereas in both the Canela Island and Camurupim stocks, population structures are different and independent. The observed structure at Canela Island may be due to the geographic distance between this population and the remainder. The Camurupim population does not share any haplotype with the remaining populations in northeastern Brazil. The apparent isolation could be due to the rocky barrier located facing the mouth of the Mamanguape River. The results highlight the importance of wide-scale studies to identify and conserve local genetic diversity, especially where migration is restricted.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As a result of phenotypic plasticity, the cupped oysters (Crassostrea) are difficult to identify by means of their morphology. However, molecular DNA markers are a useful means of discriminating among these species. Cupped oysters are one of the most widely cultured marine invertebrates and correct species identification is important in aquaculture. Moreover, the molecular phylogeny of the genus Crassostrea and the subfamily Crassostreinae is still not clear. In order to identify the Brazilian cupped oysters and to clarify the phylogenetic relationships of these species, we sequenced a fragment of mitochondrial DNA (16S rRNA gene) from 120 specimens collected at nine different sites distributed along the Brazilian coast. The results identified two native species of oyster:Crassostrea gasar, from the Amazon to the Parnaiba delta; and Crassostrea rhizophorae, from the northeast (Fortim) to the south of Brazil. An exotic Crassostrea species, closely related to Indo-Pacific Crassostrea, was found in one location in the north of Brazil. Crassostreashowed monophyly and the Atlantic oysters are clearly separated from the Indo-Pacific cluster.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The epibenthic encrusting fauna of 2 creeks of the Caeté mangrove estuary, northern Brazil, was studied over a 13month period
using collectors fixed at 2.5 and 3.5m above the creek bottom and in which upper and lower sides of ceramic and wooden panels
were used as settlement substrates. The number of individuals of the most abundant organisms (barnacles, oysters and mussels)
settling per panel was determined each month, for each substrate type, panel orientation and height above creek bottom. The
barnacle, Fistulobalanus citerosum has a peak settlement period during the wet season whereas both peaks in the numbers of settlers of the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae were recorded during the dry season and such discrete temporal patterns in settlement have also been observed for barnacles
and oysters in other mangroves and estuaries. In contrast to other studies, settlement of the mussel Mytella falcata was generally low during the study period and may be related to over-exploitation of stocks in the region. Overall, settler
density was usually greater on the underside of ceramic panels close to the creek bottom, similar to results of other studies
of epibenthic settlement in diverse habitats.